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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464491


We report a simple and rapid saliva-based SARS-CoV-2 antigen test that utilizes a newly developed dimeric DNA aptamer, denoted as DSA1N5, that specifically recognizes the spike proteins of the wildtype virus and its Alpha and Delta variants with dissociation constants of 120, 290 and 480 pM, respectively, and binds pseudotyped lentiviruses expressing the wildtype and alpha trimeric spike proteins with affinity constants of 2.1 pM and 2.3 pM, respectively. To develop a highly sensitive test, DSA1N5 was immobilized onto gold electrodes to produce an electrochemical impedance sensor, which was capable of detecting 1000 viral particles per mL in 1:1 diluted saliva in under 10 min without any further sample processing. Evaluation of 36 positive and 37 negative patient saliva samples produced a clinical sensitivity of 80.5 % and specificity of 100 % and the sensor could detect the wildtype virus as well as the Alpha and Delta variants in the patient samples, which is the first reported rapid test that can detect any emerging variant of SARS-CoV-2.

Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(13): 7267-7279, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232998


We performed in vitro selection experiments to identify DNA aptamers for the S1 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S1 protein). Using a pool of pre-structured random DNA sequences, we obtained over 100 candidate aptamers after 13 cycles of enrichment under progressively more stringent selection pressure. The top 10 sequences all exhibited strong binding to the S1 protein. Two aptamers, named MSA1 (Kd = 1.8 nM) and MSA5 (Kd = 2.7 nM), were assessed for binding to the heat-treated S1 protein, untreated S1 protein spiked into 50% human saliva and the trimeric spike protein of both the wildtype and the B.1.1.7 variant, demonstrating comparable affinities in all cases. MSA1 and MSA5 also recognized the pseudotyped lentivirus of SARS-CoV-2 with respective Kd values of 22.7 pM and 11.8 pM. Secondary structure prediction and sequence truncation experiments revealed that both MSA1 and MSA5 adopted a hairpin structure, which was the motif pre-designed into the original library. A colorimetric sandwich assay was developed using MSA1 as both the recognition element and detection element, which was capable of detecting the pseudotyped lentivirus in 50% saliva with a limit of detection of 400 fM, confirming the potential of these aptamers as diagnostic tools for COVID-19 detection.

Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , COVID-19/virologia , Biblioteca Gênica , Mutação , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/genética , Pareamento de Bases , Sequência de Bases , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Colorimetria/métodos , Humanos , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Técnica de Seleção de Aptâmeros
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(27)2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183391


IgA is the second most abundant antibody present in circulation and is enriched at mucosal surfaces. As such, IgA plays a key role in protection against a variety of mucosal pathogens including viruses. In addition to neutralizing viruses directly, IgA can also stimulate Fc-dependent effector functions via engagement of Fc alpha receptors (Fc-αRI) expressed on the surface of certain immune effector cells. Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocyte, express Fc-αRI, and are often the first to respond to sites of injury and infection. Here, we describe a function for IgA-virus immune complexes (ICs) during viral infections. We show that IgA-virus ICs potentiate NETosis-the programmed cell-death pathway through which neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Mechanistically, IgA-virus ICs potentiated a suicidal NETosis pathway via engagement of Fc-αRI on neutrophils through a toll-like receptor-independent, NADPH oxidase complex-dependent pathway. NETs also were capable of trapping and inactivating viruses, consistent with an antiviral function.

Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Viroses/imunologia , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/imunologia , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Armadilhas Extracelulares/virologia , Humanos , Influenzavirus A/imunologia , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/patologia , Neutrófilos/virologia , Receptores Fc/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Vírion
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(22)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050027


Recombinant influenza virus vaccines based on hemagglutinin (HA) hold the potential to accelerate production timelines and improve efficacy relative to traditional egg-based platforms. Here, we assess a vaccine adjuvant system comprised of immunogenic liposomes that spontaneously convert soluble antigens into a particle format, displayed on the bilayer surface. When trimeric H3 HA was presented on liposomes, antigen delivery to macrophages was improved in vitro, and strong functional antibody responses were induced following intramuscular immunization of mice. Protection was conferred against challenge with a heterologous strain of H3N2 virus, and naive mice were also protected following passive serum transfer. When admixed with the particle-forming liposomes, immunization reduced viral infection severity at vaccine doses as low as 2 ng HA, highlighting dose-sparing potential. In ferrets, immunization induced neutralizing antibodies that reduced the upper respiratory viral load upon challenge with a more modern, heterologous H3N2 viral strain. To demonstrate the flexibility and modular nature of the liposome system, 10 recombinant surface antigens representing distinct influenza virus strains were bound simultaneously to generate a highly multivalent protein particle that with 5 ng individual antigen dosing induced antibodies in mice that specifically recognized the constituent immunogens and conferred protection against heterologous H5N1 influenza virus challenge. Taken together, these results show that stable presentation of recombinant HA on immunogenic liposome surfaces in an arrayed fashion enhances functional immune responses and warrants further attention for the development of broadly protective influenza virus vaccines.

Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923828


Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While detection of SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription (RT-PCR) is currently used to diagnose acute COVID-19 infection, serological assays are needed to study the humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin (Ig)G/A/M antibodies against spike (S) protein and its receptor-binding domain (RBD) were characterized in recovered subjects who were RT-PCR-positive (n = 153) and RT-PCR-negative (n = 55) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These antibodies were also further assessed for their ability to neutralize live SARS-CoV-2 virus. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected in 90.9% of resolved subjects up to 180 days post-symptom onset. Anti-S protein and anti-RBD IgG titers correlated (r = 0.5157 and r = 0.6010, respectively) with viral neutralization. Of the RT-PCR-positive subjects, 22 (14.3%) did not have anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies; and of those, 17 had RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values > 27. These high Ct values raise the possibility that these indeterminate results are from individuals who were not infected or had mild infection that failed to elicit an antibody response. This study highlights the importance of serological surveys to determine population-level immunity based on infection numbers as determined by RT-PCR.

Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto Jovem