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1.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2201392, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35712780

RESUMO

Human in vitro models of neural tissue with tunable microenvironment and defined spatial arrangement are needed to facilitate studies of brain development and disease. Towards this end, embedded printing inside granular gels holds great promise as it allows precise patterning of extremely soft tissue constructs. However, granular printing support formulations are restricted to only a handful of materials. Therefore, there has been a need for novel materials that take advantage of versatile biomimicry of bulk hydrogels while providing high-fidelity support for embedded printing akin to granular gels. To address this need, Authors present a modular platform for bioengineering of neuronal networks via direct embedded 3D printing of human stem cells inside Self-Healing Annealable Particle-Extracellular matrix (SHAPE) composites. SHAPE composites consist of soft microgels immersed in viscous extracellular-matrix solution to enable precise and programmable patterning of human stem cells and consequent generation mature subtype-specific neurons that extend projections into the volume of the annealed support. The developed approach further allows multi-ink deposition, live spatial and temporal monitoring of oxygen levels, as well as creation of vascular-like channels. Due to its modularity and versatility, SHAPE biomanufacturing toolbox has potential to be used in applications beyond functional modeling of mechanically sensitive neural constructs.

2.
Soft Matter ; 17(14): 3886-3894, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683242

RESUMO

Capillary forces acting at the interfaces of soft materials lead to deformations over the scale of the elastocapillary length. When surface stresses exceed a material's yield stress, a plastocapillary effect is expected to arise, resulting in yielding and plastic deformation. Here, we explore the interfacial instabilities of 3D-printed fluid and elastic beams embedded within viscoelastic fluids and elastic solid support materials. Interfacial instabilities are driven by the immiscibility between the paired phases or their solvents. We find that the stability of an embedded structure is predicted from the balance between the yield stress of the elastic solid, τy, the apparent interfacial tension between the materials, γ', and the radius of the beam, r, such that τy > γ'/r. When the capillary forces are sufficiently large, we observe yielding and failure of the 3D printed beams. Furthermore, we observe new coiling and buckling instabilities emerging when elastic beams are embedded within viscous fluid support materials. The coiling behavior appear analogous to elastic rope coiling whereas the buckling instability follows the scaling behavior predicted from Euler-Bernoulli beam theory.

3.
Biomater Sci ; 9(7): 2480-2493, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432940

RESUMO

We report the development of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel scaffold that provides the advantages of conventional bulk PEG hydrogels for engineering cellular microenvironments and allows for rapid cell migration. PEG microgels were used to assemble a densely packed granular system with an intrinsic interstitium-like negative space. In this material, guest-host molecular interactions provide reversible non-covalent linkages between discrete PEG microgel particles to form a cohesive bulk material. In guest-host chemistry, different guest molecules reversibly and non-covalently interact with their cyclic host molecules. Two species of PEG microgels were made, each with one functional group at the end of the four arm PEG-MAL functionalized using thiol click chemistry. The first was functionalized with the host molecule ß-cyclodextrin, a cyclic oligosaccharide of repeating d-glucose units, and the other functionalized with the guest molecule adamantane. These two species provide a reversible guest-host interaction between microgel particles when mixed, generating an interlinked network with a percolated interstitium. We showed that this granular configuration, unlike conventional bulk PEG hydrogels, enabled the rapid migration of THP-1 monocyte cells. The guest-host microgels also exhibited shear-thinning behavior, providing a unique advantage over current bulk PEG hydrogels.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis , Polietilenoglicóis , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Microambiente Celular , Química Click
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5224, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067467

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are important effector cells in the immune response to cancer. Clinical trials on adoptively transferred NK cells in patients with solid tumors, however, have thus far been unsuccessful. As NK cells need to pass stringent safety evaluation tests before clinical use, the cells are cryopreserved to bridge the necessary evaluation time. Standard degranulation and chromium release cytotoxicity assays confirm the ability of cryopreserved NK cells to kill target cells. Here, we report that tumor cells embedded in a 3-dimensional collagen gel, however, are killed by cryopreserved NK cells at a 5.6-fold lower rate compared to fresh NK cells. This difference is mainly caused by a 6-fold decrease in the fraction of motile NK cells after cryopreservation. These findings may explain the persistent failure of NK cell therapy in patients with solid tumors and highlight the crucial role of a 3-D environment for testing NK cell function.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Células Matadoras Naturais/citologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Criopreservação , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/química
5.
Soft Matter ; 16(28): 6684, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639490

RESUMO

Correction for '3D aggregation of cells in packed microgel media' by Cameron D. Morley et al., Soft Matter, 2020, DOI: 10.1039/d0sm00517g.

6.
Soft Matter ; 16(28): 6572-6581, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589183

RESUMO

In both natural and applied contexts, investigating cell self-assembly and aggregation within controlled 3D environments leads to improved understanding of how structured cell assemblies emerge, what determines their shapes and sizes, and whether their structural features are stable. However, the inherent limits of using solid scaffolding or liquid spheroid culture for this purpose restrict experimental freedom in studies of cell self-assembly. Here we investigate multi-cellular self-assembly using a 3D culture medium made from packed microgels as a bridge between the extremes of solid scaffolds and liquid culture. We find that cells dispersed at different volume fractions in this microgel-based 3D culture media aggregate into clusters of different sizes and shapes, forming large system-spanning networks at the highest cell densities. We find that the transitions between different states of assembly can be controlled by the level of cell-cell cohesion and by the yield stress of the packed microgel environment. Measurements of aggregate fractal dimension show that those with increased cell-cell cohesion are less sphere-like and more irregularly shaped, indicating that cell stickiness inhibits rearrangements in aggregates, in analogy to the assembly of colloids with strong cohesive bonds. Thus, the effective surface tension often expected to emerge from increased cell cohesion is suppressed in this type of cell self-assembly.


Assuntos
Microgéis , Coloides , Tecidos Suporte
7.
Bio Protoc ; 10(23): e3847, 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33889659

RESUMO

The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex is responsible for tethering the nucleus to the cytoskeleton, providing a pathway for the cell's nucleus to sense mechanical signals from the environment. Recently, we explored the role of the LINC complex in the development of glandular epithelial acini, such as those found in kidneys, breasts, and other organs. Acini developed with disrupted LINC complexes exhibited a loss of structural integrity, including filling of the lumen structures. As part of our investigation, we performed a mechanical indentation assay of LINC disrupted and undisrupted MDCK II cells using a micro-indentation instrument mounted above a laser-scanning confocal microscope. Through a combination of force measurements acquired from the micro-indentation instrument and contact area measurements taken from fluorescence images, we determined the average contact pressure at which the acini structure ruptured. Here, we provide a detailed description of the design of the micro-indentation instrument, as well as the experimental steps developed to perform these bio-indentation measurements. Furthermore, we discuss the data analysis steps necessary to determine the rupture pressure of the acini structures. While this protocol is focused on the indentation of individual glandular acini, the methods presented here can be adapted to perform a variety of mechanical indentation experiments for both 2D and 3D biological systems.

8.
BMC Biol ; 17(1): 80, 2019 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ability to regenerate is a widely distributed but highly variable trait among metazoans. A variety of modes of regeneration has been described for different organisms; however, many questions regarding the origin and evolution of these strategies remain unanswered. Most species of ctenophore (or "comb jellies"), a clade of marine animals that branch off at the base of the animal tree of life, possess an outstanding capacity to regenerate. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this ability are unknown. We have used the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi as a system to study wound healing and adult regeneration and provide some first-time insights of the cellular mechanisms involved in the regeneration of one of the most ancient extant group of multicellular animals. RESULTS: We show that cell proliferation is activated at the wound site and is indispensable for whole-body regeneration. Wound healing occurs normally in the absence of cell proliferation forming a scar-less wound epithelium. No blastema-like structure is generated at the cut site, and pulse-chase experiments and surgical intervention show that cells originating in the main regions of cell proliferation (the tentacle bulbs) do not seem to contribute to the formation of new structures after surgical challenge, suggesting a local source of cells during regeneration. While exposure to cell-proliferation blocking treatment inhibits regeneration, the ability to regenerate is recovered when the treatment ends (days after the original cut), suggesting that ctenophore regenerative capabilities are constantly ready to be triggered and they are somehow separable of the wound healing process. CONCLUSIONS: Ctenophore regeneration takes place through a process of cell proliferation-dependent non-blastemal-like regeneration and is temporally separable of the wound healing process. We propose that undifferentiated cells assume the correct location of missing structures and differentiate in place. The remarkable ability to replace missing tissue, the many favorable experimental features (e.g., optical clarity, high fecundity, rapid regenerative performance, stereotyped cell lineage, sequenced genome), and the early branching phylogenetic position in the animal tree, all point to the emergence of ctenophores as a new model system to study the evolution of animal regeneration.


Assuntos
Ctenóforos/fisiologia , Regeneração , Cicatrização , Animais , Padronização Corporal , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Biológicos
9.
Chem Sci ; 10(33): 7702-7708, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588318

RESUMO

The recent attention given to functionalities that respond to mechanical force has led to a deeper understanding of force transduction and mechanical wear in polymeric materials. Furthermore, polymers have been carefully designed such that activation of "mechanophores" leads to productive outputs, such as material reinforcement or changes in optical properties. In this work, a crosslinker containing an anthracene-maleimide linkage was designed and used to prepare networks that display a fluorescence response when damaged. The pressure-dependent damage of poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) networks was monitored using solid-state fluorescence spectroscopy, with increasing compressive forces leading to higher degrees of mechanophore activation. When a stamp was used to compress the networks, only the areas in contact with the raised portion of the stamp underwent mechanophore activation, resulting in the generation of patterns that were only visible under UV light. Finally, an isomeric "flex" mechanophore was designed and used to prepare networks that were compressed and compared to the previously described networks.

10.
Curr Biol ; 29(17): 2826-2839.e4, 2019 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402305

RESUMO

The nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton are important protein networks that govern cellular behavior and are connected together by the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex. Mutations in LINC complex components may be relevant to cancer, but how cell-level changes might translate into tissue-level malignancy is unclear. We used glandular epithelial cells in a three-dimensional culture model to investigate the effect of perturbations of the LINC complex on higher order cellular architecture. We show that inducible LINC complex disruption in human mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells and canine kidney epithelial MDCK II cells mechanically destabilizes the acinus. Lumenal collapse occurs because the acinus is unstable to increased mechanical tension that is caused by upregulation of Rho-kinase-dependent non-muscle myosin II motor activity. These findings provide a potential mechanistic explanation for how disruption of LINC complex may contribute to a loss of tissue structure in glandular epithelia.


Assuntos
Células Acinares/fisiologia , Citoesqueleto/fisiologia , Matriz Nuclear/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cães , Humanos , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3029, 2019 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292444

RESUMO

With improving biofabrication technology, 3D bioprinted constructs increasingly resemble real tissues. However, the fundamental principles describing how cell-generated forces within these constructs drive deformations, mechanical instabilities, and structural failures have not been established, even for basic biofabricated building blocks. Here we investigate mechanical behaviours of 3D printed microbeams made from living cells and extracellular matrix, bioprinting these simple structural elements into a 3D culture medium made from packed microgels, creating a mechanically controlled environment that allows the beams to evolve under cell-generated forces. By varying the properties of the beams and the surrounding microgel medium, we explore the mechanical behaviours exhibited by these structures. We observe buckling, axial contraction, failure, and total static stability, and we develop mechanical models of cell-ECM microbeam mechanics. We envision these models and their generalizations to other fundamental 3D shapes to facilitate the predictable design of biofabricated structures using simple building blocks in the future.


Assuntos
Bioimpressão/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Impressão Tridimensional , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Matriz Extracelular , Géis/química , Teste de Materiais , Metacrilatos/química , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3
12.
J Cell Biol ; 218(7): 2136-2149, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147383

RESUMO

Cell nuclei rupture following exposure to mechanical force and/or upon weakening of nuclear integrity, but nuclear ruptures are repairable. Barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF), a small DNA-binding protein, rapidly localizes to nuclear ruptures; however, its role at these rupture sites is unknown. Here, we show that it is predominantly a nonphosphorylated cytoplasmic population of BAF that binds nuclear DNA to rapidly and transiently localize to the sites of nuclear rupture, resulting in BAF accumulation in the nucleus. BAF subsequently recruits transmembrane LEM-domain proteins, causing their accumulation at rupture sites. Loss of BAF impairs recruitment of LEM-domain proteins and nuclear envelope membranes to nuclear rupture sites and prevents nuclear envelope barrier function restoration. Simultaneous depletion of multiple LEM-domain proteins similarly inhibits rupture repair. LEMD2 is required for recruitment of the ESCRT-III membrane repair machinery to ruptures; however, neither LEMD2 nor ESCRT-III is required to repair ruptures. These results reveal a new role for BAF in the response to and repair of nuclear ruptures.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/genética , Animais , Citoplasma , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Complexos Endossomais de Distribuição Requeridos para Transporte , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Proteínas Nucleares
13.
ISME J ; 13(6): 1560-1574, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783212

RESUMO

Our understanding of how oral microbiota adapt in response to changes in their surroundings remains limited. This is particularly true of the slow-growing anaerobes that persist below the gum line. Here, we report that the oral anaerobe Porphyromonas gingivalis strain 381 can surface translocate when sandwiched between two surfaces. We show that during movement, this bacterium alters its metabolism, specifically side products of arginine utilization including citrulline and ornithine accumulated in the translocating cells; while arginine, N-acetyl-arginine, and the polyamine putrescine, which is produced from arginine were consumed. In addition, our results indicate that movement requires modification of the surrounding environment via proteolysis, cell dispersion, cell-on-cell rolling, and sub-diffusive cell-driven motility. We also show that production of fimbriae and fimbriae-associated proteins; as well as the regulation of contact-dependent growth inhibition genes, which are known to be involved in self-nonself discrimination, and the type IX secretion system are central to surface translocation. These studies provide a first glimpse into P. gingivalis motility and its relationship to ecological variables.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Porphyromonas gingivalis/fisiologia , Agentes Molhantes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fímbrias/genética , Proteínas de Fímbrias/metabolismo , Fímbrias Bacterianas/genética , Fímbrias Bacterianas/metabolismo , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética
14.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 2(4): 1509-1517, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026924

RESUMO

The yielding and jamming behaviors of packed granular-scale microgels enable their use as a support medium for 3D printing stable shapes made from liquid phases; under low levels of applied stress, jammed microgel packs behave like elastic solids and provide support to spatially patterned fluid structures. When swollen in cell growth media, these microgels constitute a biomaterial for bioprinting and 3D cell culture applications. However, interactions between polyelectrolytes commonly used in microgels and multivalent ions present in cell growth media may lead to drastic and adverse changes in rheological behavior or cell performance. To elucidate these interactions, we design polyelectrolyte microgels with anionic, cationic, and zwitterionic charged species and investigate their rheological behaviors in CaCl2 solutions. We find the rheological behavior of anionic and cationic microgels follow polyelectrolyte scaling laws near jamming concentrations; the rheological properties of zwitterionic microgels become independent of CaCl2 at high concentrations. We explore the potential application of these microgels as biomaterials for 3D cell culture through studies of short-term cell viability, population growth, and metabolic activity. We find that the short-term viability of cells cultured in polyelectrolytes is highly dependent on the chemical composition of the system. In addition, we find that anionic and zwitterionic microgels have minimal effects on the short-term viability and metabolic activity of cells cultured in microgel environments across a wide range of rheological properties.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(19): 16793-16801, 2018 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29726251

RESUMO

Reversible covalent chemistry provides access to robust materials with the ability to be degraded and reformed upon exposure to an appropriate stimulus. Photoresponsive units are attractive for this purpose, as the spatial and temporal application of light is easily controlled. Coumarin derivatives undergo a [2 + 2] cycloaddition upon exposure to long-wave UV irradiation (365 nm), and this process can be reversed using short-wave UV light (254 nm). Therefore, polymers cross-linked by coumarin groups are excellent candidates as reversible covalent gels. In this work, copolymerization of coumarin-containing monomers with the hydrophilic comonomer N, N-dimethylacrylamide yielded water-soluble, linear polymers that could be cured with long-wave UV light into free-standing hydrogels, even in the absence of a photoinitiator. Importantly, the gels were reverted back to soluble copolymers upon short-wave UV irradiation. This process could be cycled, allowing for recycling and remolding of the hydrogel into additional shapes. Further, this hydrogel can be imprinted with patterns through a mask-based, post-gelation photoetching method. Traditional limitations of this technique, such as the requirement for uniform etching in one direction, have been overcome by combining these materials with a soft-matter additive manufacturing methodology. In a representative application of this approach, we printed solid structures in which the interior coumarin-cross-linked gel is surrounded by a nondegradable gel. Upon exposure to short-wave UV irradiation, the coumarin-cross-linked gel was reverted to soluble prepolymers that were washed away to yield hollow hydrogel objects.

16.
Soft Matter ; 14(9): 1559-1570, 2018 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29450413

RESUMO

Micro-scale hydrogel particles, known as microgels, are used in industry to control the rheology of numerous different products, and are also used in experimental research to study the origins of jamming and glassy behavior in soft-sphere model systems. At the macro-scale, the rheological behaviour of densely packed microgels has been thoroughly characterized; at the particle-scale, careful investigations of jamming, yielding, and glassy-dynamics have been performed through experiment, theory, and simulation. However, at low packing fractions near jamming, the connection between microgel yielding phenomena and the physics of their constituent polymer chains has not been made. Here we investigate whether basic polymer physics scaling laws predict macroscopic yielding behaviours in packed microgels. We measure the yield stress and cross-over shear-rate in several different anionic microgel systems prepared at packing fractions just above the jamming transition, and show that our data can be predicted from classic polyelectrolyte physics scaling laws. We find that diffusive relaxations of microgel deformation during particle re-arrangements can predict the shear-rate at which microgels yield, and the elastic stress associated with these particle deformations predict the yield stress.

17.
Sci Adv ; 3(5): e1602800, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28508071

RESUMO

The widespread prevalence of commercial products made from microgels illustrates the immense practical value of harnessing the jamming transition; there are countless ways to use soft, solid materials that fluidize and become solid again with small variations in applied stress. The traditional routes of microgel synthesis produce materials that predominantly swell in aqueous solvents or, less often, in aggressive organic solvents, constraining ways that these exceptionally useful materials can be used. For example, aqueous microgels have been used as the foundation of three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting applications, yet the incompatibility of available microgels with nonpolar liquids, such as oils, limits their use in 3D printing with oil-based materials, such as silicone. We present a method to make micro-organogels swollen in mineral oil, using block copolymer self-assembly. The rheological properties of this micro-organogel material can be tuned, leveraging the jamming transition to facilitate its use in 3D printing of silicone structures. We find that the minimum printed feature size can be controlled by the yield stress of the micro-organogel medium, enabling the fabrication of numerous complex silicone structures, including branched perfusable networks and functional fluid pumps.

18.
Phys Rev E ; 94(2-2): 029901, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27627429

RESUMO

This corrects the article DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.032729.

19.
J Biomech ; 49(8): 1286-1289, 2016 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26787009

RESUMO

Cells interact mechanically with their physical surroundings by attaching to the extracellular matrix or other cells and contracting the cytoskeleton. Cells do so dynamically, exhibiting fluctuating contractile motion in time. In monolayers, these dynamic contractions manifest as volume fluctuations, which involve the transport of fluid in and out of the cell. An integrated understanding of cell elasticity, actively generated stresses, and fluid transport has not yet been developed. Here we apply a minimal model of these forces to cell volume fluctuation data, elucidating the dynamic behavior of cells within monolayers.


Assuntos
Tamanho Celular , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Citoesqueleto/fisiologia , Cães , Elasticidade , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino
20.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 2(10): 1787-1795, 2016 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440476

RESUMO

The demands of tissue engineering have driven a tremendous amount of research effort in 3D tissue culture technology and, more recently, in 3D printing. The need to use 3D tissue culture techniques more broadly in all of cell biology is well-recognized, but the transition to 3D has been impeded by the convenience, effectiveness, and ubiquity of 2D culture materials, assays, and protocols, as well as the lack of 3D counterparts of these tools. Interestingly, progress and discoveries in 3D bioprinting research may provide the technical support needed to grow the practice of 3D culture. Here we investigate an integrated approach for 3D printing multicellular structures while using the same platform for 3D cell culture, experimentation, and assay development. We employ a liquid-like solid (LLS) material made from packed granular-scale microgels, which locally and temporarily fluidizes under the focused application of stress and spontaneously solidifies after the applied stress is removed. These rheological properties enable 3D printing of multicellular structures as well as the growth and expansion of cellular structures or dispersed cells. The transport properties of LLS allow molecular diffusion for the delivery of nutrients or small molecules for fluorescence-based assays. Here, we measure viability of 11 different cell types in the LLS medium, we 3D print numerous structures using several of these cell types, and we explore the transport properties in molecular time-release assays.

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