Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 486
Filtrar
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e226920, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412625

RESUMO

Importance: Monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment decreases hospitalization and death in high-risk outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19; however, only intravenous administration has been evaluated in randomized clinical trials of treatment. Subcutaneous administration may expand outpatient treatment capacity and qualified staff available to administer treatment, but the association with patient outcomes is understudied. Objectives: To evaluate whether subcutaneous casirivimab and imdevimab treatment is associated with reduced 28-day hospitalization and death compared with nontreatment among mAb-eligible patients and whether subcutaneous casirivimab and imdevimab treatment is clinically and statistically similar to intravenous casirivimab and imdevimab treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study evaluated high-risk outpatients in a learning health system in the US with mild to moderate COVID-19 symptoms from July 14 to October 26, 2021, who were eligible for mAb treatment under emergency use authorization. A nontreated control group of eligible patients was also studied. Exposures: Subcutaneous injection or intravenous administration of the combined single dose of 600 mg of casirivimab and 600 mg of imdevimab. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the 28-day adjusted risk ratio or adjusted risk difference for hospitalization or death. Secondary outcomes included 28-day adjusted risk ratios and differences in hospitalization, death, a composite end point of emergency department admission and hospitalization, and rates of adverse events. Among 1959 matched adults with mild to moderate COVID-19, 969 patients (mean [SD] age, 53.8 [16.7] years; 547 women [56.4%]) who received casirivimab and imdevimab subcutaneously had a 28-day rate of hospitalization or death of 3.4% (22 of 653 patients) compared with 7.0% (92 of 1306 patients) in nontreated controls (risk ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.30-0.80; P = .002). Among 2185 patients treated with subcutaneous (n = 969) or intravenous (n = 1216; mean [SD] age, 54.3 [16.6] years; 672 women [54.4%]) casirivimab and imdevimab, the 28-day rate of hospitalization or death was 2.8% vs 1.7%, which resulted in an adjusted risk difference of 1.5% (95% CI, -0.6% to 3.5%; P = .16). Among all infusion patients, there was no difference in intensive care unit admission (adjusted risk difference, 0.7%; 95% CI, -3.5% to 5.0%) or need for mechanical ventilation (adjusted risk difference, 0.2%; 95% CI, -5.8% to 5.5%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of high-risk outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19 symptoms, subcutaneously administered casirivimab and imdevimab was associated with reduced hospitalization and death when compared with no treatment. These results provide preliminary evidence of potential expanded use of subcutaneous mAb treatment, particularly in areas that are facing treatment capacity and/or staffing shortages.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , COVID-19 , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
3.
NPJ Digit Med ; 5(1): 44, 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35379946

RESUMO

The development of a shared data infrastructure across health systems could improve research, clinical care, and health policy across a spectrum of diseases, including sepsis. Awareness of the potential value of such infrastructure has been heightened by COVID-19, as the lack of a real-time, interoperable data network impaired disease identification, mitigation, and eradication. The Sepsis on FHIR collaboration establishes a dynamic, federated, and interoperable system of sepsis data from 55 hospitals using 2 distinct inpatient electronic health record systems. Here we report on phase 1, a systematic review to identify clinical variables required to define sepsis and its subtypes to produce a concept mapping of elements onto Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR). Relevant papers described consensus sepsis definitions, provided criteria for sepsis, severe sepsis, septic shock, or detailed sepsis subtypes. Studies not written in English, published prior to 1970, or "grey" literature were prospectively excluded. We analyzed 55 manuscripts yielding 151 unique clinical variables. We then mapped variables to their corresponding US Core FHIR resources and specific code values. This work establishes the framework to develop a flexible infrastructure for sharing sepsis data, highlighting how FHIR could enable the extension of this approach to other important conditions relevant to public health.

4.
Cancer J ; 28(2): 151-156, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35333502

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Because of significant adaptations forced by the COVID-19 pandemic, resultant changes within health care delivery and clinical research introduced the potential for evaluation of novel evidence generation approaches in oncology. On July 26 and 27, 2021, the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, National Cancer Policy Forum hosted a virtual workshop entitled "Cancer Care and Cancer Research in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Workshop on Lessons Learned." This workshop examined changes in cancer care and cancer research that occurred in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and considered lessons learned from that experience. The goal was to identify what changes could improve the delivery of high-quality cancer care and the conduct of cancer clinical trials in the postpandemic era, with an emphasis on health equity. How can we sustain the valuable lessons learned that might accelerate progress and enhance clinical evidence generation for patients and clinicians? In this overview, we discuss ways in which the COVID-19 experience has catalyzed research efficiencies as well as fostered a broader array of trial design and research methods that may facilitate improved cancer drug development during the pandemic and beyond.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Oncologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias
5.
JAMA ; 327(9): 836-845, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35230393

RESUMO

Importance: Approximately 23 700 US children undergo invasive mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure annually, with unknown long-term effects on neurocognitive function. Objective: To evaluate neurocognitive outcomes of children who survive pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) hospitalization for acute respiratory failure compared with their biological siblings. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective sibling-matched cohort study conducted at 31 US PICUs and associated neuropsychology testing centers. Patients were 8 years or younger with a Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category score of 1 (normal) before PICU admission and less than or equal to 3 (no worse than moderate neurocognitive dysfunction) at PICU discharge, excluding patients with a history of neurocognitive deficits or who were readmitted and underwent mechanical ventilation. Biological siblings were aged 4 to 16 years at testing, with Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category score of 1 and no history of mechanical ventilation or general anesthesia. A total of 121 sibling pairs were enrolled from September 2, 2014, to December 13, 2017, and underwent neurocognitive testing starting March 14, 2015. The date of the final follow-up was November 6, 2018. Exposures: Critical illness and PICU treatment for acute respiratory failure. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was IQ, estimated by the age-appropriate Vocabulary and Block Design subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale. Secondary outcomes included measures of attention, processing speed, learning and memory, visuospatial skills, motor skills, language, and executive function. Evaluations occurred 3 to 8 years after hospital discharge. Results: Patients (n = 121; 55 [45%] female patients) underwent PICU care at a median (IQR) age of 1.0 (0.2-3.2) years, received a median (IQR) of 5.5 (3.1-7.7) days of invasive mechanical ventilation, and were tested at a median (IQR) age of 6.6 (5.4-9.1) years. Matched siblings (n = 121; 72 [60%] female siblings) were tested at a median (IQR) age of 8.4 (7.0-10.2) years. Patients had a lower mean estimated IQ than matched siblings (101.5 vs 104.3; mean difference, -2.8 [95% CI, -5.4 to -0.2]). Among secondary outcomes, patients had significantly lower scores than matched siblings on nonverbal memory (mean difference, -0.9 [95% CI, -1.6 to -0.3]), visuospatial skills (mean difference, -0.9 [95% CI, -1.8 to -0.1]), and fine motor control (mean difference, -3.1 [95% CI, -4.9 to -1.4]) and significantly higher scores on processing speed (mean difference, 4.4 [95% CI, 0.2-8.5]). There were no significant differences in the remaining secondary outcomes, including attention, verbal memory, expressive language, and executive function. Conclusions and Relevance: Among children, survival of PICU hospitalization for respiratory failure and discharge without severe cognitive dysfunction was associated with significantly lower subsequent IQ scores compared with matched siblings. However, the magnitude of the difference was small and of uncertain clinical importance.


Assuntos
Transtornos Neurocognitivos/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/complicações , Doença Aguda , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 10(1): 6, 2022 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35190900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interleukin-1 receptor antagonists can reduce mortality in septic shock patients with hepatobiliary dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulation (HBD + DIC), an organ failure pattern with inflammatory features consistent with macrophage activation. Identification of clinical phenotypes in sepsis may allow for improved care. We aim to describe the occurrence of HBD + DIC in a contemporary cohort of patients with sepsis and determine the association of this phenotype with known macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) biomarkers and mortality. We performed a retrospective nested case-control study in adult septic shock patients with concurrent HBD + DIC and an equal number of age-matched controls, with comparative analyses of all-cause mortality and circulating biomarkers between the groups. Multiple logistic regression explored the effect of HBD + DIC on mortality and the discriminatory power of the measured biomarkers for HBD + DIC and mortality. RESULTS: Six percent of septic shock patients (n = 82/1341) had HBD + DIC, which was an independent risk factor for 90-day mortality (OR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.4-7.5, p = 0.008). Relative to sepsis controls, the HBD + DIC cohort had increased levels of 21 of the 26 biomarkers related to macrophage activation (p < 0.05). This panel was predictive of both HBD + DIC (sensitivity = 82%, specificity = 84%) and mortality (sensitivity = 92%, specificity = 90%). CONCLUSION: The HBD + DIC phenotype identified patients with high mortality and a molecular signature resembling that of MAS. These observations suggest trials of MAS-directed therapies are warranted.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35179197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We studied humoral responses after COVID-19 vaccination across varying causes of immunodeficiency. METHODS: Prospective study of fully-vaccinated immunocompromised adults (solid organ transplant (SOT), hematologic malignancy, solid cancers, autoimmune conditions, HIV infection) versus non-immunocompromised healthcare-workers (HCW). The primary outcome was the proportion with a reactive test (seropositive) for IgG to SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain. Secondary outcomes were comparisons of antibody levels and their correlation with pseudovirus neutralization titers. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with seropositivity. RESULTS: 1271 participants enrolled: 1,099 immunocompromised and 172 HCW. Compared to HCW (92.4% seropositive), seropositivity was lower among participants with SOT (30.7%), hematological malignancies (50.0%), autoimmune conditions (79.1%), solid tumors (78.7%), and HIV (79.8%) (p<0.01). Factors associated with poor seropositivity included age, greater immunosuppression, time since vaccination, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, and vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer) or adenovirus vector vaccines versus mRNA-1273 (Moderna). mRNA-1273 was associated with higher antibody levels than BNT162b2 or adenovirus vector vaccines, after adjusting for time since vaccination, age, and underlying condition. Antibody levels were strongly correlated with pseudovirus neutralization titers (Spearman r=0.89, p<0.0001), but in seropositive participants with intermediate antibody levels, neutralization titers were significantly lower in immunocompromised individuals versus HCW. CONCLUSION: Antibody responses to COVID-19 vaccines were lowest among SOT and anti-CD20 monoclonal recipients, and recipients of vaccines other than mRNA-1273. Among those with intermediate antibody levels, pseudovirus neutralization titers were lower in immunocompromised patients than HCW. Additional SARS-CoV-2 preventive approaches are needed for immunocompromised persons, which may need to be tailored to the cause of immunodeficiency.

8.
Crit Care Med ; 2022 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35120041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Whether metformin exposure is associated with improved outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and sepsis. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Patients admitted to ICUs in 16 hospitals in Pennsylvania from October 2008 to December 2014. PATIENTS: Adult critical ill patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and sepsis. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare 90-day mortality in diabetic patients with sepsis with and without exposure to metformin during hospitalization. Data were obtained from the electronic health record of a large healthcare system in Pennsylvania from October 2008 to December 2014, on patients admitted to the ICU at any of the 16 hospitals within the system. The primary outcome was mortality at 90 days. The absolute and adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI were calculated in a propensity score-matched cohort. Among 14,847 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and sepsis, 682 patients (4.6%) were exposed to metformin during hospitalization and 14,165 (95.4%) were not. Within a total of 2,691 patients subjected to propensity score-matching at a 1:4 ratio, exposure to metformin (n = 599) was associated with decreased 90-day mortality (71/599, 11.9% vs 475/2,092, 22.7%; OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.35-0.60), reduced severe acute kidney injury (50% vs 57%; OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62-0.90), less Major Adverse Kidney Events at 1 year (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.22-0.68), and increased renal recovery (95% vs 86%; OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 3.42-12.1). CONCLUSIONS: Metformin exposure during hospitalization is associated with a decrease in 90-day mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and sepsis.

9.
Nat Med ; 28(1): 39-50, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35064248

RESUMO

Immune dysregulation is an important component of the pathophysiology of COVID-19. A large body of literature has reported the effect of immune-based therapies in patients with COVID-19, with some remarkable successes such as the use of steroids or anti-cytokine therapies. However, challenges in clinical decision-making arise from the complexity of the disease phenotypes and patient heterogeneity, as well as the variable quality of evidence from immunotherapy studies. This Review aims to support clinical decision-making by providing an overview of the evidence generated by major clinical trials of host-directed therapy. We discuss patient stratification and propose an algorithm to guide the use of immunotherapy strategies in the clinic. This will not only help guide treatment decisions, but may also help to design future trials that investigate immunotherapy in other severe infections.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/terapia , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunomodulação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Bradicinina/análogos & derivados , Bradicinina/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptor B2 da Bradicinina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/imunologia , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Imunização Passiva , Interferon beta-1a/uso terapêutico , Interferon beta-1b/uso terapêutico , Interferon gama/uso terapêutico , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Sistema Calicreína-Cinina , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico
10.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(2): 164-178, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34853905

RESUMO

Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for providing unbiased evidence of intervention effects. Here, we provide an overview of the history of RCTs and discuss the major challenges and limitations of current critical care RCTs, including overly optimistic effect sizes; unnuanced conclusions based on dichotomization of results; limited focus on patient-centred outcomes other than mortality; lack of flexibility and ability to adapt, increasing the risk of inconclusive results and limiting knowledge gains before trial completion; and inefficiency due to lack of re-use of trial infrastructure. We discuss recent developments in critical care RCTs and novel methods that may provide solutions to some of these challenges, including a research programme approach (consecutive, complementary studies of multiple types rather than individual, independent studies), and novel design and analysis methods. These include standardization of trial protocols; alternative outcome choices and use of core outcome sets; increased acceptance of uncertainty, probabilistic interpretations and use of Bayesian statistics; novel approaches to assessing heterogeneity of treatment effects; adaptation and platform trials; and increased integration between clinical trials and clinical practice. We outline the advantages and discuss the potential methodological and practical disadvantages with these approaches. With this review, we aim to inform clinicians and researchers about conventional and novel RCTs, including the rationale for choosing one or the other methodological approach based on a thorough discussion of pros and cons. Importantly, the most central feature remains the randomisation, which provides unparalleled restriction of confounding compared to non-randomised designs by reducing confounding to chance.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 19(4): 625-632, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644242

RESUMO

Rationale: Extremity threat and amputation after sepsis is a well-publicized and devastating event. However, there is a paucity of data about the epidemiology of extremity threat after sepsis onset. Objectives: To estimate the incidence of extremity threat with or without surgical amputation in community sepsis. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of adults with Sepsis-3 hospitalized at 14 academic and community sites from 2013 to 2017. Vasopressor-dependent sepsis was identified by administration of epinephrine, norepinephrine, phenylephrine, vasopressin, or dopamine for more than 1 hour during the 48 hours before to 24 hours after sepsis onset. Outcomes included the incidence of extremity threat, defined as acute onset ischemia, with or without amputation, in the 90 days after sepsis onset. The association between extremity threat, demographics, comorbid conditions, and time-varying sepsis treatments was evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Among 24,365 adults with sepsis, 12,060 (54%) were vasopressor dependent (mean ± standard deviation age, 64 ± 16 years; male, 6,548 [54%]; sequential organ failure assessment [SOFA], 10 ± 4). Of these, 231 (2%) patients had a threatened extremity with 26 undergoing 37 amputations, a risk of 2.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.2) per 1,000, and 205 not undergoing amputation, a risk of 17.0 (95% CI, 14.8-19.5) per 1,000. Most amputations occurred in lower extremities (95%), a median (interquartile range) of 16 (6-40) days after sepsis onset. Compared with patients with no extremity threat, patients with threat had a higher SOFA score (11 ± 4 vs. 10 ± 4; P < 0.001), serum lactate (4.6 mmol/L [2.4-8.7] vs. 3.1 [1.7-6.0]; P < 0.001), and more bacteremia (n = 37 [37%] vs. n = 2,087 [26%]; P < 0.001) at sepsis onset. Peripheral vascular disease, congestive heart failure, SOFA score, and norepinephrine equivalents were significantly associated with extremity threat. Conclusions: The evaluation of a threatened extremity resulting in surgical amputation occurred in 2 per 1,000 patients with vasopressor-dependent sepsis.


Assuntos
Amputação , Sepse , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Am J Crit Care ; 31(2): 146-157, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding COVID-19 epidemiology is crucial to clinical care and to clinical trial design and interpretation. OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics, treatment, and outcomes among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 early in the pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of consecutive adult patients with laboratory-confirmed, symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to 57 US hospitals from March 1 to April 1, 2020. RESULTS: Of 1480 inpatients with COVID-19, median (IQR) age was 62.0 (49.4-72.9) years, 649 (43.9%) were female, and 822 of 1338 (61.4%) were non-White or Hispanic/Latino. Intensive care unit admission occurred in 575 patients (38.9%), mostly within 4 days of hospital presentation. Respiratory failure affected 583 patients (39.4%), including 284 (19.2%) within 24 hours of hospital presentation and 413 (27.9%) who received invasive mechanical ventilation. Median (IQR) hospital stay was 8 (5-15) days overall and 15 (9-24) days among intensive care unit patients. Hospital mortality was 17.7% (n = 262). Risk factors for hospital death identified by penalized multivariable regression included older age; male sex; comorbidity burden; symptoms-to-admission interval; hypotension; hypoxemia; and higher white blood cell count, creatinine level, respiratory rate, and heart rate. Of 1218 survivors, 221 (18.1%) required new respiratory support at discharge and 259 of 1153 (22.5%) admitted from home required new health care services. CONCLUSIONS: In a geographically diverse early-pandemic COVID-19 cohort with complete hospital folllow-up, hospital mortality was associated with older age, comorbidity burden, and male sex. Intensive care unit admissions occurred early and were associated with protracted hospital stays. Survivors often required new health care services or respiratory support at discharge.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 113: 106652, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896293

RESUMO

Outpatient treatments that limit progression to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are of vital importance to optimise patient outcomes and public health. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) demonstrated ability to decrease hospitalizations in randomized, clinical trials. However, there are many barriers to mAb treatment such as patient access and clinician education. There are no data comparing efficacy or safety of available mAbs. We sought to rapidly launch an adaptive platform trial with the goals of enhancing access to treatment, regardless of geography and socioeconomic status, and evaluating comparative efficacy and safety of available mAbs. Within 21 days from idea genesis, we allocated mAb treatment to all patients within the context of this clinical trial. Within 2 months, we closed the gap of the likelihood of receiving mAb, conditional on background positivity rate, between Black and White patients (Black patients 0.238; White patients 0.241). We describe trial infrastructure, lessons learned, and future directions for a culture of learning while doing.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , COVID-19 , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 775511, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805235

RESUMO

Background: There is wide heterogeneity in sepsis in causative pathogens, host response, organ dysfunction, and outcomes. Clinical and biologic phenotypes of sepsis are proposed, but the role of pathogen data on sepsis classification is unknown. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Recombinant Human Activated Protein C (rhAPC) Worldwide Evaluation in Severe Sepsis (PROWESS) Study. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify sepsis phenotypes using, (i) only clinical variables ("host model") and, (ii) combining clinical with microbiology variables (e.g., site of infection, culture-derived pathogen type, and anti-microbial resistance characteristics, "host-pathogen model"). We describe clinical characteristics, serum biomarkers, and outcomes of host and host-pathogen models. We tested the treatment effects of rhAPC by phenotype using Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: Among 1,690 subjects with severe sepsis, latent class modeling derived a 4-class host model and a 4-class host-pathogen model. In the host model, alpha type (N = 327, 19%) was younger and had less shock; beta type (N=518, 31%) was older with more comorbidities; gamma type (N = 532, 32%) had more pulmonary dysfunction; delta type (N = 313, 19%) had more liver, renal and hematologic dysfunction and shock. After the addition of microbiologic variables, 772 (46%) patients changed phenotype membership, and the median probability of phenotype membership increased from 0.95 to 0.97 (P < 0.01). When microbiology data were added, the contribution of individual variables to phenotypes showed greater change for beta and gamma types. In beta type, the proportion of abdominal infections (from 20 to 40%) increased, while gamma type patients had an increased rate of lung infections (from 50 to 78%) with worsening pulmonary function. Markers of coagulation such as d-dimer and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 were greater in the beta type and lower in the gamma type. The 28 day mortality was significantly different for individual phenotypes in host and host-pathogen models (both P < 0.01). The treatment effect of rhAPC obviously changed in gamma type when microbiology data were added (P-values of log rank test changed from 0.047 to 0.780). Conclusions: Sepsis host phenotype assignment was significantly modified when microbiology data were added to clinical variables, increasing cluster cohesiveness and homogeneity.

18.
Crit Care Med ; 49(11): 1974-1982, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643578
19.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 204(8): 891-901, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652268

RESUMO

Background: Precision medicine focuses on the identification of therapeutic strategies that are effective for a group of patients based on similar unifying characteristics. The recent success of precision medicine in non-critical care settings has resulted from the confluence of large clinical and biospecimen repositories, innovative bioinformatics, and novel trial designs. Similar advances for precision medicine in sepsis and in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are possible but will require further investigation and significant investment in infrastructure. Methods: This project was funded by the American Thoracic Society Board of Directors. A multidisciplinary and diverse working group reviewed the available literature, established a conceptual framework, and iteratively developed recommendations for the Precision Medicine Research Agenda for Sepsis and ARDS. Results: The following six priority recommendations were developed by the working group: 1) the creation of large richly phenotyped and harmonized knowledge networks of clinical, imaging, and multianalyte molecular data for sepsis and ARDS; 2) the implementation of novel trial designs, including adaptive designs, and embedding trial procedures in the electronic health record; 3) continued innovation in the data science and engineering methods required to identify heterogeneity of treatment effect; 4) further development of the tools necessary for the real-time application of precision medicine approaches; 5) work to ensure that precision medicine strategies are applicable and available to a broad range of patients varying across differing racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, and demographic groups; and 6) the securement and maintenance of adequate and sustainable funding for precision medicine efforts. Conclusions: Precision medicine approaches that incorporate variability in genomic, biologic, and environmental factors may provide a path forward for better individualizing the delivery of therapies and improving care for patients with sepsis and ARDS.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Sepse/terapia , Humanos
20.
ATS Sch ; 2(3): 370-385, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667987

RESUMO

Background: Many critical care interventions that require teamwork are adopted slowly and variably despite strong evidence supporting their use. We hypothesize that educational interventions that target the entire interprofessional team (rather than professions in isolation) are one effective way to enhance implementation of complex interventions in the intensive care unit (ICU). Objective: As a first step toward testing this hypothesis, we sought to qualitatively solicit opinions about team dynamics, evidence translation, and interprofessional education as well as current knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding the use of one example of a team-based practice in the ICU-preventive postextubation noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Methods: We conducted a qualitative evaluation using semistructured interviews and focus groups with nurses, respiratory therapists, and physicians working in four ICUs in four hospitals within an integrated health system. ICUs were selected based on variation in academic versus community status. We iteratively analyzed transcripts using a thematic content analysis approach. Results: From December 2018 to January 2019, we conducted 32 interviews (34 people) and 3 focus groups (20 people). Participants included 31 nurses, 15 respiratory therapists, and 8 physicians. Participants had favorable views of how their teams work together but discussed ways team dynamics (e.g., leader inclusiveness) impact care coordination. Participants viewed interprofessional education favorably and shared suggestions regarding preferred content and delivery (e.g., include both profession-specific and team-oriented content). Though participants reported frequently using NIV as a treatment, they described rarely using NIV as a preventive strategy, and nurses and respiratory therapists described challenges to use such as perceived patient discomfort. There were ICU-specific differences in management of patients at a high risk for respiratory failure after extubation, with some preferring to delay extubation. Conclusion: Participants reported optimism that interprofessional education can be an acceptable and effective way to improve translation of evidence into practice. Participants also detailed patient-specific and ICU-wide barriers to the implementation of preventive postextubation NIV. This information about teamwork in the ICU, suggestions for interprofessional education, and barriers and facilitators to use of a target evidence-based practice can inform the development of novel educational strategies in ways that increase acceptability, appropriateness, and feasibility of the intervention.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...