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1.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 192(2): 283-291, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020107

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Germline mutations in CHEK2 gene represent the second most frequent cause of hereditary breast cancer (BC) after BRCA1/2 lesions. This study aimed to identify the molecular characteristics of CHEK2-driven BCs. METHODS: Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for the remaining CHEK2 allele was examined in 50 CHEK2-driven BCs using allele-specific PCR assays for the germline mutations and analysis of surrounding single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Paired tumor and normal DNA samples from 25 cases were subjected to next-generation sequencing analysis. RESULTS: CHEK2 LOH was detected in 28/50 (56%) BCs. LOH involved the wild-type allele in 24 BCs, mutant CHEK2 copy was deleted in 3 carcinomas, while in one case the origin of the deleted allele could not be identified. Somatic PIK3CA and TP53 mutations were present in 13/25 (52%) and 4/25 (16%) tumors, respectively. Genomic features of homologous recombination deficiency (HRD), including the HRD score ≥ 42, the predominance of BRCA-related mutational signature 3, and the high proportion of long (≥ 5 bp) indels, were observed only in 1/20 (5%) BC analyzed for chromosomal instability. Tumors with the deleted wild-type CHEK2 allele differed from LOH-negative cases by elevated HRD scores (median 23 vs. 7, p = 0.010) and higher numbers of chromosomal segments affected by copy number aberrations (p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Somatic loss of the wild-type CHEK2 allele is observed in approximately half of CHEK2-driven BCs. Tumors without CHEK2 LOH are chromosomally stable. BCs with LOH demonstrate some signs of chromosomal instability; however, its degree is significantly lower as compared to BRCA1/2-associated cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Instabilidade Cromossômica , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade
2.
Int J Cancer ; 148(1): 203-210, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997802

RESUMO

PALB2 is а high-penetrance gene for hereditary breast cancer (BC). Our study aimed to investigate the spectrum of PALB2 mutations in Russian cancer patients. PALB2 sequencing revealed pathogenic variants in 3/190 (1.6%) young-onset and/or familial and/or bilateral BC cases but none in 96 ovarian cancer (OC) or 172 pancreatic cancer patients. Subsequently, seven recurrent PALB2 pathogenic alleles were selected from this and previous Slavic studies and tested in an extended patient series. PALB2 pathogenic variants were detected in 5/585 (0.9%) "high-risk" BC, 10/1508 (0.7%) consecutive BC and 5/1802 (0.3%) OC cases. Haplotyping suggested that subjects with Slavic alleles c.509-510delGA (n = 10) and c.172-175delTTGT (n = 4) as well as carriers of Finnish c.1592delT mutation (n = 4) originated from a single founder each, while PALB2 p.R414X allele (n = 4) had at least two independent founders. Somatic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was revealed in 5/10 chemonaive BCs and in 0/2 BC samples obtained after neoadjuvant therapy. Multigene sequencing identified somatic PALB2 inactivating point mutation in one out of two tumors without PALB2 LOH but in none of four BCs with PALB2 LOH. Genomic instability, as determined by NGS, was observed in four out of five tumors with biallelic PALB2 inactivation but not in the BC sample with the preserved wild-type PALB2 allele. PALB2 germ-line mutations contribute to a small fraction of cancer cases in Russia. The majority although not all PALB2-driven BCs have somatic inactivation of the remaining PALB2 allele and therefore potential sensitivity to platinum compounds and PARP inhibitors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinoma/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Carcinoma/diagnóstico , Carcinoma/terapia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Masculino , Mastectomia , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Mutação Puntual , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Federação Russa , Adulto Jovem
3.
Pathobiology ; 87(6): 367-374, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161400

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is some evidence suggesting a link between BRCA1/2 germline mutations and increased risk of gastric cancer. METHODS: Endoscopic screening for stomach malignancies was performed in 120 BRCA1 mutation carriers in order to evaluate the probability of detecting the tumor disease. RESULTS: No instances of gastric cancer were revealed at the first visit. The analysis of atrophic changes performed by OLGA (Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment) criteria revealed that OLGA stages I-IV alterations were observed in 26 of 41 (63%) subjects aged >50 years as compared to 29 of 79 (37%) in younger subjects (p = 0.007, χ2 test). One BRCA1 mutation carrier developed gastric cancer 4 years after the first visit for endoscopic examination. We performed next-generation sequencing analysis for this tumor and additional 4 archival gastric cancers obtained from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Somatic loss of the remaining BRCA1/2 allele was observed in 3 out of 5 tumors analyzed; all of these carcinomas, but none of the malignancies with the retained BRCA1/2 copy, showed chromosomal instability. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these data justify further studies on the relationships between the BRCA1/2 and gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Programas de Rastreamento , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/prevenção & controle , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Endoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Gástricas/classificação , Neoplasias Gástricas/congênito , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 184(1): 229-235, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Slavic countries is characterized by a high prevalence of founder alleles. METHODS: We analyzed a large data set of Russian breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) patients, who were subjected to founder mutation tests or full-length BRCA1 and BRCA2 analysis. RESULTS: The most commonly applied test, which included four founder mutations (BRCA1: 5382insC, 4153delA, 185delAG; BRCA2: 6174delT), identified BRCA1 or BRCA2 heterozygosity in 399/8533 (4.7%) consecutive BC patients, 230/2317 (9.9%) OC patients, and 30/118 (25.4%) women with a combination of BC and OC. The addition of another four recurrent BRCA1 mutations to the test (BRCA1 C61G, 2080delA, 3819del5, 3875del4) resulted in evident increase in the number of identified mutation carriers (BC: 16/993 (1.6%); OC: 34/1289 (2.6%); BC + OC: 2/39 (5.1%)). Full-length sequencing of the entire BRCA1 and BRCA2 coding region was applied to 785 women, very most of whom demonstrated clinical signs of BRCA-driven disease, but turned out negative for all described above founder alleles. This analysis revealed additional BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers in 54/282 (19.1%) BC, 50/472 (10.6%) OC, and 13/31 (42%) BC + OC patients. The analysis of frequencies of founder and "rare" BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic alleles across various clinical subgroups (BC vs. OC vs. BC + OC; family history positive vs. negative; young vs. late-onset; none vs. single vs. multiple clinical indicators of BRCA1- or BRCA2-associated disease) revealed that comprehensive BRCA1 and BRCA2 analysis increased more than twice the number of identified mutation carriers in all categories of the examined women. CONCLUSION: Full-length BRCA1 and BRCA2 sequencing is strongly advised to Slavic subjects, who have medical indications for BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing but are negative for recurrent BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
5.
J Adv Vet Anim Res ; 7(1): 51-55, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219109

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the callipyge gene (CLPG) polymorphism in sheep of Edilbay, Volgograd, and Kalmyk breeds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The analysis was performed by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms method. The objects of the study were Edilbay fat-tailed sheep (n = 500) at the breeding plant Volgograd-Edilbay (Volgograd region), Volgograd fine-wool sheep (n = 500) at the breeding plant Romashkovskiy (Volgograd region), and Kalmyk fat-tailed sheep (n = 500) at the breeding plant Kirovsky (the Republic of Kalmykia, Yashkul rayon). To conduct the research, tissue samples of 1 cm² from sheep of Kalmyk and Edilbay breeds were taken from the auricle. RESULTS: The allelic CLPG gene variants have been determined and genotypes of representative sampling of the three breeds of livestock grown in the steppe zone of Russia. The presented results of the CLPG gene polymorphism in these sheep breeds grown in Russia were obtained for the first time. The research study has revealed that in terms of the CLPG gene, the Edilbay, Volgograd, and Kalmyk sheep breeds have only a homozygous form. CONCLUSION: The results obtained expand the current understanding of the molecular markers that characterize the meat qualities of sheep.

6.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 179(3): 731-742, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754952

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Germline variants in known breast cancer (BC) predisposing genes explain less than half of hereditary BC cases. This study aimed to identify missing genetic determinants of BC. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing (WES) of lymphocyte DNA was performed for 49 Russian patients with clinical signs of genetic BC predisposition, who lacked Slavic founder mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and NBS1 genes. RESULTS: Bioinformatic analysis of WES data was allowed to compile a list of 229 candidate mutations. 79 of these mutations were subjected to a three-stage case-control analysis. The initial two stages, which involved up to 797 high-risk BC patients, 1504 consecutive BC cases, and 1081 healthy women, indicated a potentially BC-predisposing role for 6 candidates, i.e., USP39 c.*208G > C, PZP p.Arg680Ter, LEPREL1 p.Pro636Ser, SLIT3 p.Arg154Cys, CREB3 p.Lys157Glu, and ING1 p.Pro319Leu. USP39 c.*208G > C was strongly associated with triple-negative breast tumors (p = 0.0001). In the third replication stage, we genotyped the truncating variant of PZP (rs145240281) and the potential splice variant of USP39 (rs112653307) in three independent cohorts of Russian, Byelorussian, and German ancestry, comprising a total of 3216 cases and 2525 controls. The data obtained for USP39 rs112653307 supported the association identified in the initial stages (the combined OR 1.72, p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests the role of a rare splicing variant in BC susceptibility. USP39 encodes an ubiquitin-specific peptidase that regulates cancer-relevant tumor suppressors including CHEK2. Further epidemiological and functional studies involving these gene variants are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Alelos , Processamento Alternativo , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Federação Russa
7.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 165(3): 765-770, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28656489

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Large genomic rearrangements (LGRs) constitute a significant share of pathogenic BRCA1 mutations. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a leading method for LGR detection; however, it is entirely based on the use of commercial kits, includes relatively time-consuming hybridization step, and is not convenient for large-scale screening of recurrent LGRs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed and validated the droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay, which covers the entire coding region of BRCA1 gene and is capable to precisely quantitate the copy number for each exon. RESULTS: 141 breast cancer (BC) patients, who demonstrated evident clinical features of hereditary BC but turned out to be negative for founder BRCA1/2 mutations, were subjected to the LGR analysis. Four patients with LGR were identified, with three cases of exon 8 deletion and one women carrying the deletion of exons 5-7. Excellent concordance with MLPA test was observed. Exon 8 copy number was tested in additional 720 BC and 184 ovarian cancer (OC) high-risk patients, and another four cases with the deletion were revealed; MLPA re-analysis demonstrated that exon 8 loss was a part of a larger genetic alteration in two cases, while the remaining two patients had isolated defect of exon 8. Long-range PCR and next generation sequencing of DNA samples carrying exon 8 deletion revealed two types of recurrent LGRs. CONCLUSION: Droplet digital PCR is a reliable tool for the detection of large genomic rearrangements.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Rearranjo Gênico , Genes BRCA1 , Testes Genéticos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Éxons , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Deleção de Sequência
8.
EPJ Quantum Technol ; 4(1): 10, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179201

RESUMO

Single-photon detectors in space must retain useful performance characteristics despite being bombarded with sub-atomic particles. Mitigating the effects of this space radiation is vital to enabling new space applications which require high-fidelity single-photon detection. To this end, we conducted proton radiation tests of various models of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and one model of photomultiplier tube potentially suitable for satellite-based quantum communications. The samples were irradiated with 106 MeV protons at doses approximately equivalent to lifetimes of 0.6 , 6, 12 and 24 months in a low-Earth polar orbit. Although most detection properties were preserved, including efficiency, timing jitter and afterpulsing probability, all APD samples demonstrated significant increases in dark count rate (DCR) due to radiation-induced damage, many orders of magnitude higher than the 200 counts per second (cps) required for ground-to-satellite quantum communications. We then successfully demonstrated the mitigation of this DCR degradation through the use of deep cooling, to as low as - 86 ∘ C . This achieved DCR below the required 200 cps over the 24 months orbit duration. DCR was further reduced by thermal annealing at temperatures of +50 to + 100 ∘ C .

9.
EPJ Quantum Technol ; 4(1): 11, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179202

RESUMO

Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are a practical option for space-based quantum communications requiring single-photon detection. However, radiation damage to APDs significantly increases their dark count rates and thus reduces their useful lifetimes in orbit. We show that high-power laser annealing of irradiated APDs of three different models (Excelitas C30902SH, Excelitas SLiK, and Laser Components SAP500S2) heals the radiation damage and several APDs are restored to typical pre-radiation dark count rates. Of nine samples we test, six APDs were thermally annealed in a previous experiment as another solution to mitigate the radiation damage. Laser annealing reduces the dark count rates further in all samples with the maximum dark count rate reduction factor varying between 5.3 and 758 when operating at - 80 ∘ C . This indicates that laser annealing is a more effective method than thermal annealing. The illumination power to reach these reduction factors ranges from 0.8 to 1.6 W. Other photon detection characteristics, such as photon detection efficiency, timing jitter, and afterpulsing probability, fluctuate but the overall performance of quantum communications should be largely unaffected by these variations. These results herald a promising method to extend the lifetime of a quantum satellite equipped with APDs.

10.
Curr Pharm Des ; 20(37): 5884-8, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24533940

RESUMO

The phenomenon of blood serum atherogenicity was described as the ability of human serum to induce lipid accumulation in cultured cells. The results of recent two-year prospective study in asymptomatic men provided the evidence for association between the changes in serum atherogenicity and dynamics of carotid intima-media thickness progression. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that blood serum atherogenicity and its changes in dynamics may be associated with accumulation of coronary calcium in subclinical atherosclerosis. It was performed in 782 CHD-free participants of The Heinz Nixdorf RECALL (Risk Factors, Evaluation of Coronary Calcium and Lifestyle) Study, in whom blood samples have been taken at the baseline and at the end of 5-year follow-up. Opposite to the previous findings, the changes in serum atherogenicity did not correlate neither with the extent of coronary artery calcification, nor with the changes in Agatston CAC score. There was a moderate but significant rise in serum atherogenicity after 5-year followup period, and the same dynamics was observed for Agatston CAC score, but not for convenient lipid-related risk factors. The absence of association of the changes in serum atherogenicity with the changes in Agatston CAC score, along with previous findings, provides a point of view that serum-induced intracellular cholesterol accumulation is not related to the processes of calcium deposition in arterial wall, since the last one reflects the progression of already existing subclinical atherosclerotic lesions.


Assuntos
Arteriosclerose/sangue , Arteriosclerose/patologia , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Calcificação Vascular/sangue , Calcificação Vascular/patologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Nature ; 489(7415): 269-73, 2012 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22951967

RESUMO

The quantum internet is predicted to be the next-generation information processing platform, promising secure communication and an exponential speed-up in distributed computation. The distribution of single qubits over large distances via quantum teleportation is a key ingredient for realizing such a global platform. By using quantum teleportation, unknown quantum states can be transferred over arbitrary distances to a party whose location is unknown. Since the first experimental demonstrations of quantum teleportation of independent external qubits, an internal qubit and squeezed states, researchers have progressively extended the communication distance. Usually this occurs without active feed-forward of the classical Bell-state measurement result, which is an essential ingredient in future applications such as communication between quantum computers. The benchmark for a global quantum internet is quantum teleportation of independent qubits over a free-space link whose attenuation corresponds to the path between a satellite and a ground station. Here we report such an experiment, using active feed-forward in real time. The experiment uses two free-space optical links, quantum and classical, over 143 kilometres between the two Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife. To achieve this, we combine advanced techniques involving a frequency-uncorrelated polarization-entangled photon pair source, ultra-low-noise single-photon detectors and entanglement-assisted clock synchronization. The average teleported state fidelity is well beyond the classical limit of two-thirds. Furthermore, we confirm the quality of the quantum teleportation procedure without feed-forward by complete quantum process tomography. Our experiment verifies the maturity and applicability of such technologies in real-world scenarios, in particular for future satellite-based quantum teleportation.

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