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J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 394-400, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637726


BACKGROUND: The present study examined the potential for 'Smart Food' with respect to contributing to the Sustainable Development Goal 2 of ending malnutrition by 2030, using a small-scale capacity building case study in Oe Be Village, Myingyan district, Mandalay region, Myanmar. Within the study site, refined white rice is the major staple, followed by vegetables and animal source food in inadequate quantities. The protein intake in this particular dry zone community meets only 50% of the daily requirement and even less for those children aged less than 23 months. Therefore, to determine the acceptance and opportunity for legumes and millets which are produced locally, nutritious formulations were introduced for various age groups. In addition, a sensory evaluation of the recipes was conducted to test the acceptance of the nutritious products. RESULTS: Two weeks of the inclusion of millets and pigeonpea in the diets of children aged 6-23 months had a positive impact on wasting, stunting and underweight (P = 0.002, 0.014 and 0.023, respectively). Moreover, the acceptability of these new food products by the children was found to be high. These results indicate an unexplored opportunity for specific millets rich in iron, zinc and calcium, as well as for pigeonpea rich in protein, if prepared in a culturally acceptable way. CONCLUSION: The impact and acceptability of this small scale and short-term intervention indicate the potential for Smart Food products in filling the nutrition gap arising from the traditional food consumption habits in the dry zones of Myanmar. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

Cajanus/metabolismo , Milhetes/metabolismo , Cajanus/química , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/análise , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Milhetes/química , Mianmar , Estado Nutricional , População Rural
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(12)2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835420


A knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study was conducted in three districts of Malawi to test whether the training had resulted in increased knowledge and adoption of recommended pre- and post-harvest crop management practices, and their contribution to reducing aflatoxin contamination in groundnut, maize and sorghum. The study was conducted with 900 farmers at the baseline and 624 farmers at the end-line, while 726 and 696 harvested crop samples were collected for aflatoxin testing at the baseline and end-line, respectively. Results show that the knowledge and practice of pre- and post-harvest crop management for mitigating aflatoxin were inadequate among the farmers at the baseline but somewhat improved after the training as shown at the end-line. As a result, despite unfavorable weather, the mean aflatoxin contamination level in their grain samples decreased from 83.6 to 55.8 ppb (p < 0.001). However, it was also noted that increased knowledge did not significantly change farmers' attitude toward not consuming grade-outs because of economic incentive incompatibility, leaving potential for improving the practices further. This existing gap in the adoption of aflatoxin mitigation practices calls for approaches that take into account farmers' needs and incentives to attain sustainable behavioral change.

Ecol Food Nutr ; : 1-20, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778086


The study aimed to quantify the immediate effects of dietary diversification, food safety, and hygiene interventions on child undernutrition in four rural villages in Kongwa district of central Tanzania. One hundred mothers with their children of less than 24 months old were recruited for this study. The difference-in-difference (DID) method was used to assess the effects of intensive intervention through a learning-by-doing process on the topic of aflatoxin free diversified food utilization and improved hygiene practices. Periodic anthropometric measurements were conducted on the 0th, 7th, 14th, and 21st days, and DID estimator showed the significant and positive average marginal effects of the intervention on Z-Scores being 0.459, 0.252, and 0.493 for wasting, stunting, and underweight, respectively. Notably, at the end of the study, the mean aflatoxin M1 level in urine samples decreased by 64% in the intervention group, while it decreased by 11% in the control group. The study provides quantitative evidence on intensive 21-day training for mothers incorporating integrated technologies yielded positive impacts on their children's nutritional outcomes.

Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484377


The study assessed the potential for use of millets in mid-day school meal programs for better nutritional outcomes of children in a peri-urban region of Karnataka, India, where children conventionally consumed a fortified rice-based mid-day meal. For a three-month period, millet-based mid-day meals were fed to 1500 adolescent children at two schools, of which 136 were studied as the intervention group and were compared with 107 other children in two other schools that did not receive the intervention. The intervention design was equivalent to the parallel group, two-arm, superiority trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio. The end line allocation ratio was 1.27:1 due to attrition. It was found that there was statistically significant improvement in stunting (p = 0.000) and the body mass index (p = 0.003) in the intervention group and not in the control group (p = 0.351 and p = 0.511, respectively). The sensory evaluation revealed that all the millet-based menu items had high acceptability, with the highest scores for the following three items: finger millet idli, a steam cooked fermented savory cake; little and pearl millet bisi belle bath, a millet-lentil hot meal; and upma, a pearl and little millet-vegetable meal. These results suggest significant potential for millets to replace or supplement rice in school feeding programs for improved nutritional outcomes of children.