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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist finerenone and the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor canagliflozin reduce cardiorenal risk in albuminuric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). At first glance, the results of FIDELIO-DKD (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02540993) and CREDENCE appear disparate. In FIDELIO-DKD, the primary end-point had a 18% (95% CI 7% to 27%) relative risk reduction; in CREDENCE the primary end-point had a 30% (95% CI 18% to 41%) relative risk reduction. Unlike CREDENCE, FIDELIO-DKD trial included patients with high albuminuria but excluded patients with symptomatic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The primary end-point in the FIDELIO-DKD trial was kidney specific and included a sustained decline in eGFR of ≥40% from baseline. In contrast, the primary end-point in the CREDENCE trial was included a sustained decline in eGFR of ≥57% from baseline and cardiovascular death. This post-hoc exploratory analysis investigated how differences in trial design-inclusion/exclusion criteria and definition of primary outcomes- influenced observed treatment effects. METHODS: Patients from FIDELIO-DKD who met the CKD inclusion criteria of the CREDENCE study (urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio >300-5000 mg/g and an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 30-<90 ml/min/1.73 m2 at screening) were included in this analysis. The primary end point was a cardiorenal composite (cardiovascular death, kidney failure, estimated glomerular filtration rate decrease of ≥57% sustained for ≥4 weeks or renal death). Patients with symptomatic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction were excluded from FIDELIO-DKD. Therefore, in a sensitivity analysis, we further adjusted for the baseline prevalence of heart failure. RESULTS: Of 4619/5674 (81.4%) patients who met the subgroup inclusion criteria, 49.6% were treated with finerenone and 50.4% received placebo. The rate of the cardiorenal composite end point was 43.9/1000 patient years with finerenone compared to 59.5/1000 patient years with placebo. The relative risk was significantly reduced by 26% with finerenone versus placebo (hazard ratio 0.74, 95% CI 0.63-0.87).In CREDENCE, the rate of the cardiorenal composite end point was 43.2/1000 patient years with canagliflozin compared to 61.2/1000 patient years with placebo; a 30% risk reduction was observed with canagliflozin (hazard ratio 0.70, 95% CI 0.59-0.82). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis highlights the pitfalls of direct comparisons between trials. When key differences in trial design are considered, FIDELIO-DKD and CREDENCE demonstrate cardiorenal benefits of a similar magnitude.

2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800079

RESUMO

AIMS: In patients with current or a history of hyperkalaemia, treatment with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) is often compromised. Patiromer, a novel potassium (K+ ) binder, may improve serum K+ levels and adherence to RAASi. METHODS: The DIAMOND trial will enrol ~820 patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF; ejection fraction ≤40%). Patients meeting the screening criteria will enter a single-blinded run-in phase where they will be started or continued on a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) titrated to 50 mg/day and other RAASi therapy to ≥50% target dose, and patiromer. Patiromer will be titrated up to a maximum three packs/day (8.4 g/pack) to achieve optimal doses of RAASi without hyperkalaemia. The run-in phase will last up to 12 weeks, following which patients will undergo double-blind randomization in a 1:1 ratio to receive either continued patiromer or placebo (patiromer withdrawal). The primary endpoint is the mean difference in serum K+ from randomization between patiromer and placebo arms. Secondary endpoints will include hyperkalaemia events with K+ value >5.5 mEq/L, durable enablement of MRA at target dose, investigator-reported adverse events of hyperkalaemia, hyperkalaemia-related clinical endpoints and an overall RAASi Use Score (using a 0-8-point scale) comprising all-cause death, occurrence of cardiovascular hospitalization or usage of comprehensive HF medication. CONCLUSION: The DIAMOND trial is designed to determine if patiromer can favourably impact K+ control in patients with HFrEF with hyperkalaemia or a history of hyperkalaemia leading to RAASi therapy compromise, and in turn improve RAASi use.

3.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(11): 2752-2762, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805628

RESUMO

The physiological role of iron extends well beyond hematopoiesis. Likewise, the pathophysiological effects of iron deficiency (ID) extend beyond anemia. Although inextricably interrelated, ID and anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are distinct clinical entities. For more than 3 decades, however, nephrologists have focused primarily on the correction of anemia. The achievement of target hemoglobin (Hgb) concentrations is prioritized over repletion of iron stores, and iron status is generally a secondary consideration only assessed in those patients with anemia. Historically, the correction of ID independent of anemia has not been a primary focus in the management of CKD. In contrast, ID is a key therapeutic target in the setting of heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF); correction of ID in this population improves functional status and quality of life and may improve cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. Given the strong interrelationships between HF and CKD, it is reasonable to consider whether iron therapy alone may benefit those with CKD and evidence of ID irrespective of Hgb concentration. In this review, we differentiate anemia from ID by considering both epidemiologic and pathophysiological perspectives and by reviewing the evidence linking correction of ID to outcomes in patients with HF and/or CKD. Furthermore, we discuss existing gaps in evidence and provide proposals for future research and practical considerations for clinicians.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816550

RESUMO

AIMS: Whereas the combination of anaemia and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been extensively studied in patients with heart failure (HF), the contribution of iron deficiency (ID) to this dysfunctional interplay is unknown; we aimed to assess clinical associates and pathophysiological pathways related to ID in this multimorbid syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 2151 patients with HF from the BIOSTAT-CHF cohort. Patients were stratified based on ID (TSAT <20%), anaemia (WHO definition) and/or CKD (eGFR <60mL/min). Patients were mainly men (73.3%), with a median age of 70.5 (interquartile range, 61.4-78.1). ID was more prevalent than CKD and anaemia (63.3%, 47.2%, 35.6% respectively), with highest prevalence in those with concomitant CKD and anaemia (77.5% vs. 59.3%; P<0.001). There was a considerable overlap in biomarkers and pathways between patients with isolated ID, anaemia or CKD, or in combination, with processes related to immunity, inflammation, cell survival and cancer amongst the common pathways. Key biomarkers shared between syndromes with ID include TFRC, IL-6, FGF23, and BMP6. Having ID, either alone or on top of anaemia and/or CKD, was associated with a lower overall summary KCCQ score, an impaired 6-minute walk test and increased incidence of hospitalizations and/or mortality in multivariable analyses (all p <0.05). CONCLUSION: ID, CKD and/or anaemia in patients with HF have great overlap in biomarker profiles, suggesting common pathways associated with these syndromes. ID either alone or on top of CKD and anaemia is associated with worse quality of life, exercise capacity and prognosis of patients with worsening HF.

5.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738340

RESUMO

AIMS: Control of pulmonary pressures monitored remotely reduced heart failure hospitalizations mainly by lowering filling pressures through the use of loop diuretics. Sacubitril/valsartan improves heart failure outcomes and increases the kidney sensitivity for diuretics. We explored whether sacubitril/valsartan is associated with less utilization of loop diuretics in patients guided with haemodynamic monitoring in the CardioMEMS European Monitoring Study for Heart Failure (MEMS-HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: The MEMS-HF population (n = 239) was separated by the use of sacubitril/valsartan (n = 68) or no use of it (n = 164). Utilization of diuretics and their doses was prespecified in the protocol and was monitored in both groups. Multivariable regression, ANCOVA, and a generalized linear model were used to fit baseline covariates with furosemide equivalents and changes for 12 months. MEMS-HF participants (n = 239) were grouped in sacubitril/valsartan users [n = 68, 64 ± 11 years, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 25 ± 9%, cardiac index (CI) 1.89 ± 0.4 L/min/m2 ] vs. non-users (n = 164, 70 ± 10 years, LVEF 36 ± 16%, CI 2.11 ± 0.58 L/min/m2 , P = 0.0002, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.0015, respectively). In contrast, mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) values were comparable between groups (29 ± 11 vs. 31 ± 11 mmHg, P = 0.127). Utilization of loop diuretics was lower in patients taking sacubitril/valsartan compared with those without (P = 0.01). Significant predictor of loop diuretic use was a history of renal failure (P = 0.005) but not age (P = 0.091). After subjects were stratified by sacubitril/valsartan or other diuretic use, PAP was nominally, but not significantly lower in sacubitril/valsartan-treated patients (baseline: P = 0.52; 6 months: P = 0.07; 12 months: P = 0.53), while there was no difference in outcome or PAP changes. This difference was observed despite lower CI (P = 0.0015). Comparable changes were not observed for other non-loop diuretics (P = 0.21). CONCLUSIONS: In patients whose treatment was guided by remote PAP monitoring, concomitant use of sacubitril/valsartan was associated with reduced utilization of loop diuretics, which could potentially be relevant for outcomes.

6.
Circulation ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775784

RESUMO

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are independently associated with heart failure (HF), a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. In the FIDELIO-DKD and FIGARO DKD trials, finerenone (a selective, nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist) improved cardiovascular outcomes in patients with albuminuric CKD and T2D. These prespecified analyses from FIGARO-DKD assessed the impact of finerenone on clinically important HF outcomes. Methods: Patients with T2D and albuminuric CKD (urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio [UACR] ≥30 to <300 mg/g and estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥25 to ≤90 ml/min/1.73 m2, or UACR ≥300 to ≤5000 mg/g and eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2,), without symptomatic HF with reduced ejection fraction, were randomized to finerenone or placebo. Time-to-first event outcomes included: new-onset HF (first hospitalization for HF [HHF] in patients without a history of HF at baseline); cardiovascular death or first HHF; HF-related death or first HHF; first HHF; cardiovascular death or total (first or recurrent) HHF; HF-related death or total HHF; and total HHF. Outcomes were evaluated in the overall population and in prespecified subgroups categorized by baseline HF history (as reported by the investigators). Results: Overall, 7352 patients were included in these analyses; 571 (7.8%) had a history of HF at baseline. New-onset HF was significantly reduced with finerenone versus placebo (1.9% versus 2.8%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.68 [95% CI 0.50-0.93]; P=0.0162). In the overall population, the incidences of all HF outcomes analyzed were significantly lower with finerenone than placebo, including a 18% lower risk of cardiovascular death or first HHF (HR, 0.82 [95% CI 0.70-0.95]; P=0.011), a 29% lower risk of first HHF (HR, 0.71 [95% CI 0.56-0.90]; P=0.0043) and a 30% lower rate of total HHF (rate ratio, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.52- 0.94]). The effects of finerenone on improving HF outcomes were not modified by a history of HF. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was balanced between treatment groups. Conclusions: The results from these FIGARO-DKD analyses demonstrate that finerenone reduces new-onset HF and improves other HF outcomes in patients with CKD and T2D, irrespective of a history of HF.

7.
Circulation ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779658

RESUMO

Background: Patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have significant impairment in health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In EMPEROR-Preserved, we evaluated the efficacy of empagliflozin on HRQoL in patients with HFpEF and whether the clinical benefit observed with empagliflozin varies according to baseline health status. Methods: HRQoL was measured using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) at baseline, 12, 32 and 52 weeks. Patients were divided by baseline KCCQ Clinical Summary Score (CSS) tertiles and the effect of empagliflozin on outcomes were examined. The effect of empagliflozin on KCCQ-CSS, Total Symptom Score (TSS) and Overall Summary Score (OSS) were evaluated. Responder analyses were performed to compare the odds of improvement and deterioration in KCCQ related to treatment with empagliflozin. Results: The effect of empagliflozin on reducing the risk of time to cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization was consistent across baseline KCCQ-CSS tertiles (HR 0.83 [0.69-1.00], HR 0.70 [0.55-0.88] and HR 0.82 [0.62-1.08] for scores <62.5, 62.5-83.3 and ≥83.3, respectively; P trend=0.77). Similar results were seen for total HF hospitalizations. Patients treated with empagliflozin had significant improvement in KCCQ-CSS versus placebo (+1.03, +1.24 and +1.50 at 12, 32 and 52 weeks, respectively P<0.01); similar results were seen for TSS and OSS. At 12 weeks, patients on empagliflozin had higher odds of improvement ≥5 points (OR 1.23; 95%CI 1.10, 1.37), ≥10 points (1.15; 95%CI 1.03, 1.27), and ≥15 points (1.13; 95%CI 1.02, 1.26) and lower odds of deterioration ≥5 points in KCCQ-CSS (0.85; 95%CI 0.75, 0.97). A similar pattern was seen at 32 and 52 weeks, and results were consistent for TSS and OSS. Conclusions: In patients with HFpEF, empagliflozin reduced the risk for major HF outcomes across the range of baseline KCCQ scores. Empagliflozin improved HRQoL, an effect that appeared early and was sustained for at least one year.

8.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664409

RESUMO

Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a complex multifactorial clinical syndrome, developing as a continuum, and progressing from the initial insult (underlying cause) to the subsequent occurrence of organ failure and death. There is a large phenotypic variability in CS, as a result of the diverse aetiologies, pathogenetic mechanisms, haemodynamics, and stages of severity. Although early revascularization remains the most important intervention for CS in settings of acute myocardial infarction, the administration of timely and effective antithrombotic therapy is critical to improving outcomes in these patients. In addition, other clinical settings or non-acute myocardial infarction aetiologies, associated with high thrombotic risk, may require specific regimens of short-term or long-term antithrombotic therapy. In CS, altered tissue perfusion, inflammation, and multi-organ dysfunction induce unpredictable alterations to antithrombotic drugs' pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Other interventions used in the management of CS, such as mechanical circulatory support, renal replacement therapies, or targeted temperature management, influence both thrombotic and bleeding risks and may require specific antithrombotic strategies. In order to optimize safety and efficacy of these therapies in CS, antithrombotic management should be more adapted to CS clinical scenario or specific device, with individualized antithrombotic regimens in terms of type of treatment, dose, and duration. In addition, patients with CS require a close and appropriate monitoring of antithrombotic therapies to safely balance the increased risk of bleeding and thrombosis.

10.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687289

RESUMO

AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) are two growing epidemics that frequently co-exist. We aimed to gain insights into underlying pathophysiological pathways in HF patients with AF by comparing circulating biomarkers using pathway overrepresentation analyses. METHODS AND RESULTS: From a panel of 92 biomarkers from different pathophysiological domains available in 1,620 patients with HF, we first tested which biomarkers were dysregulated in patients with HF and AF (n = 648) compared with patients in sinus rhythm (n = 972). Secondly, pathway overrepresentation analyses were performed to identify biological pathways linked to higher plasma concentrations of biomarkers in patients who had HF and AF. Findings were validated in an independent HF cohort (n = 1,219, 38% with AF). Patient with AF and HF were older, less often women, and less often had a history of coronary artery disease compared with those in sinus rhythm. In the index cohort, 24 biomarkers were upregulated in patients with AF and HF. In the validation cohort, 8 biomarkers were upregulated, which all overlapped with the 24 biomarkers found in the index cohort. The strongest up-regulated biomarkers in patients with AF were spondin-1 (fold change 1.18, p = 1.33x10-12), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (fold change 1.32, p = 1.08x10-8), and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-7 (fold change 1.33, p = 1.35x10-18). Pathway overrepresentation analyses revealed that the presence of AF was associated with activation amyloid-beta metabolic processes, amyloid-beta formation, and amyloid precursor protein catabolic processes with a remarkable consistency observed in the validation cohort. CONCLUSION: In two independent cohorts of patients with HF, the presence of AF was associated with activation of three pathways related to amyloid-beta. These hypothesis-generating results warrant confirmation in future studies. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Using an unbiased approach, we identified and validated dysregulation of three amyloid-beta related pathways in patients who had heart failure (HF) with concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF). Amyloid-beta depositions are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, but might also play a role in pathophysiological processes outside the central nervous system. Biopsy studies are needed to confirm the pathophysiological role of amyloid-beta in patients with AF and HF. Diagnostic and therapeutic implications should be investigated in the light of potential pathophysiological overlap between the three aging-related epidemics: Alzheimer's disease, AF and HF.

12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612556

RESUMO

Patients with heart failure (HF) who contract SARS-CoV-2 infection are at a higher risk of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Regardless of therapeutic attempts in COVID-19, vaccination remains the most promising global approach at present for controlling this disease. There are several concerns and misconceptions regarding the clinical indications, optimal mode of delivery, safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines for patients with HF. This document provides guidance to all healthcare professionals regarding the implementation of a COVID-19 vaccination scheme in patients with HF. COVID-19 vaccination is indicated in all patients with HF, including those who are immunocompromised (e.g. after heart transplantation receiving immunosuppressive therapy) and with frailty syndrome. It is preferable to vaccinate against COVID-19 patients with HF in an optimal clinical state, which would include clinical stability, adequate hydration and nutrition, optimized treatment of HF and other comorbidities (including iron deficiency), but corrective measures should not be allowed to delay vaccination. Patients with HF who have been vaccinated against COVID-19 need to continue precautionary measures, including the use of facemasks, hand hygiene and social distancing. Knowledge on strategies preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection (including the COVID-19 vaccination) should be included in the comprehensive educational programmes delivered to patients with HF. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

13.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655282

RESUMO

In heart failure (HF), acute decompensation can occur quickly and unexpectedly because of worsening of chronic HF or to new-onset HF diagnosed for the first time ('de novo'). Patients presenting with acute HF (AHF) have a poor prognosis comparable with those with acute myocardial infarction, and any delay of treatment initiation is associated with worse outcomes. Recent HF guidelines and recommendations have highlighted the importance of a timely diagnosis and immediate treatment for patients presenting with AHF to decrease disease progression and improve prognosis. However, based on the available data, there is still uncertainty regarding the optimal 'time-to-treatment' effect in AHF. Furthermore, the immediate post-worsening HF period plays an important role in clinical outcomes in HF patients after hospitalization and is known as the 'vulnerable phase' characterized by high risk of readmission and early death. Early and intensive treatment for HF patients in the 'vulnerable phase' might be associated with lower rates of early readmission and mortality. Additionally, in the chronic stable HF outpatient, treatments are often delayed or not initiated when symptoms are stable, ignoring the risk for adverse outcomes such as sudden death. Consequently, there is a dire need to better identify HF patients during hospitalization and after discharge and treating them adequately to improve their prognosis. HF is an urgent clinical scenario along all its stages and disease conditions. Therefore, time plays a significant role throughout the entire patient's journey. Therapy should be optimized as soon as possible, because this is beneficial regardless of severity or duration of HF. Time lavished before treatment initiation is recognized as important modifiable risk factor in HF.

15.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628706

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the feasibility and efficacy of interatrial shunt devices (IASD) for the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF). METHODS AND RESULTS: MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception until April 2021 were searched for prospective studies investigating dedicated transcatheter IASD for the treatment of CHF. Standardised mean differences were calculated for the within-group changes before and after implantation of the IASD. The pre-defined primary outcome was change in 6-min walking distance (6MWD) from baseline to 12 months. Other outcomes were change in New York Heart Association class, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), echocardiographic and haemodynamic data, device performance and safety. Subgroup analyses were crude univariable meta-regression analyses. Six studies (five single-arm open-label studies, one sham-controlled trial) were included. In these, 226 patients underwent IASD implantation using four different devices. From baseline to 12 months, 6MWD increased by 28.1 m [95% confidence interval (CI) 10.9-45.3] with no evidence for a difference between devices (P for interaction = 0.66) and patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) >40% or ≤40% (P for interaction = 0.21). At 12 months, HRQoL improved by 17.7 points (95% CI 10.8-24.6) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) decreased by 2.0 mmHg (95% CI -3.6 to -0.4). There were no changes in LVEF or N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide during follow-up. Shunt patency ranged from 50% for the first-generation v-Wave to 100% for the Corvia IASD II and the second-generation v-Wave system, respectively. The summary risk of serious adverse device-related effects was 8% (95% CI 1-20) at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Interatrial shunt device implantation in CHF is feasible and associates with improved submaximal exercise capacity (measured by 6MWD) and HRQoL, and reductions in PCWP.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676694

RESUMO

Sarcopenia or muscle wasting is a progressive and generalized skeletal muscle disorder involving the accelerated loss of muscle mass and function, often associated with muscle weakness (dynapenia) and frailty. Whereas primary sarcopenia is related to ageing, secondary sarcopenia happens independent of age in the context of chronic disease states such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). Sarcopenia has become a major focus of research and public policy debate due to its impact on patient's health-related quality of life, health-care expenditure, morbidity, and mortality. The development of sarcopenia in patients with CKD is multifactorial and it may occur independently of weight loss or cachexia including under obese sarcopenia. Hormonal imbalances can facilitate the development of sarcopenia in the general population and is a common finding in CKD. Hormones that may influence the development of sarcopenia are testosterone, growth hormone, insulin, thyroid hormones, and vitamin D. Although the relationship between free testosterone level that is low in uraemic patients and sarcopenia in CKD is not well-defined, functional improvement may be seen. Unlike testosterone, it is known that vitamin D is associated with muscle strength, muscle size, and physical performance in patients with CKD. Outcomes after vitamin D replacement therapy are still controversial. The half-life of growth hormone (GH) is prolonged in patients with CKD. Besides, IGF-1 levels are normal in patients with Stage 4 CKD-a minimal reduction is seen in the end-stage renal disease. Unresponsiveness or resistance of IGF-1 and changes in the GH/IGF-1 axis are the main causes of sarcopenia in CKD. Low serum T3 level is frequent in CKD, but the net effect on sarcopenia is not well-studied. CKD patients develop insulin resistance (IR) from the earliest period even before GFR decline begins. IR reduces glucose utilization as an energy source by hepatic gluconeogenesis, decreasing muscle glucose uptake, impairing intracellular glucose metabolism. This cascade results in muscle protein breakdown. IR and sarcopenia might also be a new pathway for targeting. Ghrelin, oestrogen, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone may be other players in the setting of sarcopenia. In this review, we mainly examine the effects of hormonal changes on the occurrence of sarcopenia in patients with CKD via the available data.

17.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545701

RESUMO

AIMS: There is limited information on the association between left ventricular (LV) dimensions and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced LV ejection fraction (HFrEF) receiving recommended HF treatment. We investigated the association between LV dimensions and CV outcomes in HFrEF patients receiving recommended HF treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the association between LV echocardiographic dimensions and CV outcomes using conventional Cox models in 1138 HFrEF patients in sinus rhythm randomized to warfarin or aspirin treatment in the Warfarin vs. Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction (WARCEF) trial. LV enlargement, whether by diameter [LV end-diastolic diameter index (LVEDDI) and LV end-systolic diameter index (LVESDI)] or volume [LV end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI) and LV end-systolic volume index (LVESVI)], was independently associated with all-cause death [LVEDDI: hazard ratio (HR) per cm/m2 1.53, LVESDI: HR per cm/m2 1.65, LVEDVI: HR per 10 mL/m2 1.07, and LVESVI: HR per 10 mL/m2 1.10; all P values < 0.001], CV death (HR 1.68, 1.79, 1.09, and 1.12, respectively; all P values < 0.001), and HF hospitalization (HR 1.59, 1.79, 1.06, and 1.08, respectively; all P values < 0.001). No association was observed with myocardial infarction or stroke. The associations were independent of LV ejection fraction values, and incremental to them. LV volumes conferred additional predictive value over LV diameters. CONCLUSIONS: Left ventricular enlargement is an independent predictor of CV events in patients with HFrEF and recommended HF treatment. LV dimensions should be considered in the risk assessment.

18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476878

RESUMO

AIMS: Iron deficiency (ID) is associated with poor prognosis regardless of anaemia. Intravenous iron improves quality of life and outcomes in patients with ID and heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). In the Swedish HF registry, we assessed (i) frequency and predictors of ID testing; (ii) prevalence and outcomes of ID with/without anaemia; (iii) use of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) and its predictors in patients with ID. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used multivariable logistic regressions to assess patient characteristics independently associated with ID testing/FCM use, and Cox regressions to assess risk of outcomes associated with ID. Of 21 496 patients with HF and any ejection fraction enrolled in 2017-2018, ID testing was performed in 27%. Of these, 49% had ID and more specifically 36% had ID-/anaemia-, 15% ID-/anaemia+, 29% ID+/anaemia-, and 20% ID+/anaemia+ (48%, 39%, 13%, 30% and 18% in HFrEF, respectively). Risk of recurrent all-cause hospitalizations was higher in patients with ID regardless of anaemia. Of 1959 patients with ID, 19% received FCM (24% in HFrEF). Important independent predictors of ID testing and FCM use were anaemia, higher New York Heart Association class, having HFrEF, and referral to HF specialty care. CONCLUSION: In this nationwide HF registry, ID testing occurred in only about a quarter of the patients. Among tested patients, ID was present in one half, but only one in five patients received FCM indicating low adherence to current guidelines on screening and treatment.

19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(13): 1321-1332, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between the benefits of empagliflozin in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has not been reported. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to evaluate the relationship between NT-proBNP and empagliflozin effects in EMPEROR-Reduced (Empagliflozin Outcome Trial in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction). METHODS: Patients with HFrEF were randomly assigned to placebo or empagliflozin 10 mg daily. NT-proBNP was measured at baseline, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, 52 weeks, and 100 weeks. Patients were divided into quartiles of baseline NT-proBNP. RESULTS: Incidence rates for each study outcome were 4- to 6-fold higher among those in the highest versus lowest NT-proBNP quartiles (≥3,480 vs <1,115 pg/mL). Study participants with higher NT-proBNP had 2- to 3-fold total hospitalizations higher than the lowest NT-proBNP quartile. Empagliflozin reduced risk for major cardiorenal events without heterogeneity across NT-proBNP quartiles (primary endpoint Pinteraction = 0.94; renal composite endpoint Pinteraction = 0.71). Empagliflozin treatment significantly reduced NT-proBNP at all timepoints examined; by 52 weeks, the adjusted mean difference from placebo was 13% (P < 0.001). An NT-proBNP in the lowest quartile (<1,115 pg/mL) 12 weeks after randomization was associated with lower risk for subsequent cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization regardless of baseline concentration. Treatment with empagliflozin resulted in 27% higher adjusted odds of an NT-proBNP concentration of <1,115 pg/mL by 12 weeks compared with placebo (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In EMPEROR-Reduced, higher baseline NT-proBNP concentrations were associated with greater risk for adverse heart failure or renal outcomes, but empagliflozin reduced risk regardless of baseline NT-proBNP concentration. The NT-proBNP concentration after treatment with empagliflozin better informs subsequent prognosis than pretreatment concentrations. (Empagliflozin Outcome Trial in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction [EMPEROR-Reduced]; NCT03057977).

20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(13): 1337-1348, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Empagliflozin reduces the risk of cardiovascular death or heart failure (HF) hospitalization in patients with reduced ejection fraction. Its interplay with systolic blood pressure (SBP) is not known. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to evaluate the interplay of SBP and the effects of empagliflozin in EMPEROR-Reduced (Empagliflozin Outcome Trial in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction). METHODS: Study patients (N = 3,730) were randomly assigned to groups according to SBP at baseline (<110 mm Hg, n = 928; 110-130 mm Hg, n = 1,755; >130 mm Hg, n = 1,047). This study explored the influence of SBP on the effects of empagliflozin on cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization (primary outcome), as well as on total HF hospitalizations, rate of decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate, renal outcomes, and empagliflozin's effects and significance on SBP. RESULTS: Over a median of 16 months considering only patients receiving placebo, baseline SBP and the risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for HF (P trend = 0.0015) were inversely related. Corrected for placebo, a slight early increase was observed in SBP at <110 mm Hg, no change at 110-130 mm Hg, and a slight reduction at >130 mm Hg. These between-group differences were of borderline significance (P for interaction trend = 0.05-0.10) after 4 and 12 weeks but were not significant later. SBP at baseline did not influence the effect of empagliflozin to reduce the risk of HF events or renal endpoints. When treated with empagliflozin, patients with SBP <110 mm Hg did not have an increased rate of symptomatic hypotension. CONCLUSIONS: Empagliflozin was effective and safe, with no meaningful interaction between SBP and the effects of empagliflozin in the EMPEROR-Reduced trial. (Empagliflozin Outcome Trial in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction [EMPEROR-Reduced]; NCT03057977).

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