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1.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017862

RESUMO

The Heart Failure Academic Research Consortium is a partnership between the Heart Failure Collaboratory (HFC) and Academic Research Consortium (ARC), comprised of leading heart failure (HF) academic research investigators, patients, United States (US) Food and Drug Administration representatives, and industry members from the US and Europe. A series of meetings were convened to establish definitions and key concepts for the evaluation of HF therapies including optimal medical and device background therapy, clinical trial design elements and statistical concepts, and study endpoints. This manuscript summarizes the expert panel discussions as consensus recommendations focused on populations and endpoint definitions; it is not exhaustive or restrictive, but designed to stimulate HF clinical trial innovation. CONDENSED ABSTRACT: The Heart Failure Collaboratory and Academic Research Consortium multi-stakeholder partnership convened to establish expert consensus definitions and key concepts for heart failure clinical trials including optimal medical and device background therapy, clinical trial design elements and statistical concepts, and study endpoints. With uniform definitions, heart failure interventions can be better standardized, evaluated, and compared between trials and patient populations, and the quality of generated evidence may be strengthened.

2.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002110

RESUMO

AIMS: Elderly patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have worse prognosis and less often receive guideline-recommended therapies. We aim to better understand the underlying pathophysiological processes associated with aging in HFrEF potentially leading to targeted therapies in this vulnerable population. METHODS AND RESULTS: From a panel of 363 cardiovascular biomarkers available in 1,611 patients with HFrEF in the BIOSTAT-CHF index cohort and cross-validated in 823 patients in the BIOSTAT-CHF validation cohort, we tested which biomarkers were dysregulated in patients aged > 75yr versus <65yr. Secondly, pathway overrepresentation analyses were performed to identify biological pathways linked to higher plasma concentrations of biomarkers in elderly versus younger patients. After adjustment, multiple test correction (FDR 1%), and cross-validation, 27/363 biomarkers were associated with older age, 22 positively, and 5 negatively. The biomarkers that were positively associated with older age were associated with tumor cell regulation, extra-cellular matrix organization, and inflammatory processes, whereas biomarkers negatively associated with older age were associated with pathways that may point to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Among the 27 biomarkers, WFDC2 (WAP Four-Disulfide-Core-Domain-2) - that broadly functions as a protease inhibitor - was associated with older age and had the strongest association with all outcomes. No protein-by-sex interaction was observed. CONCLUSIONS: In elderly HFrEF patients, pathways associated with extra-cellular matrix organization, inflammatory processes, and tumor cell regulation were activated, while pathways associated with tumor proliferation functions were down-regulated. These findings may help in a better understanding of the aging processes in HFrEF and identify potential therapeutic targets. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Elderly patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have worse prognosis and less often receive guideline-recommended therapies. Using a large set of circulating proteins, elderly patients had higher concentrations of proteins associated with tumor cell regulation, extra-cellular matrix organization, and inflammatory processes, whereas pathways that may point to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis were down-regulated. WAP Four-Disulfide-Core-Domain-2 was associated with older age and had the strongest association with an increased risk of all outcomes. Understanding the underlying pathophysiological processes associated with aging in HFrEF may potentially lead to targeted therapies in this vulnerable population.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959502

RESUMO

AIMS: D-dimer is a marker of fibrin degradation that reflects intravascular coagulation. Therefore, plasma concentrations of D-dimer might predict thromboembolic risk and rivaroxaban treatment effect. The aims of this study were to investigate the association between D-dimer levels and the risk of stroke and other thrombotic, bleeding and fatal events, and whether D-dimer concentrations could predict rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily (vs. placebo) effect in patients enrolled in the COMMANDER-HF trial who were in sinus rhythm, had heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and coronary artery disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Survival models with treatment-by-plasma D-dimer interaction. Baseline measurement of D-dimer was available in 4107 (82%) of 5022 patients enrolled. Median (percentile25-75 ) follow-up was 21 (12.9-32.8) months. The median (percentile25-75 ) plasma concentration of D-dimer was 360 (215-665) ng/mL. The D-dimer tertiles were: (i) ≤255 ng/mL; (ii) 256-515 ng/mL; and (iii) >515 ng/mL. Patients within the tertile 3 were older, and had lower body mass index, blood pressure, haemoglobin, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and left ventricular ejection fraction. Higher plasma D-dimer concentrations were independently associated with higher rates of death, stroke, and venous thromboembolism. For example, the all-cause death adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95%CI) of tertile 3 vs. tertile 1 was 1.77 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-2.11; P < 0.001]. The effect of rivaroxaban was similar in each tertile of D-dimer for all outcomes except stroke. Patients within the tertile 3 had the greatest absolute and relative stroke reduction (tertile 1: HR 1.16, 95% CI 0.49-2.74; tertile 2: HR 1.45, 95% CI 0.77-2.73; tertile 3: HR 0.36, 95% CI 0.18-0.70; P for interaction = 0.008). The number-needed-to-treat to prevent one stroke in tertile 3 was 36. CONCLUSIONS: In COMMANDER-HF, rivaroxaban reduced the risk of stroke but the benefit may be confined to patients with D-dimer concentrations above 515 ng/mL. Prospective trials are warranted to confirm these findings.

5.
Lancet ; 396(10254): 819-829, 2020 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both DAPA-HF (assessing dapagliflozin) and EMPEROR-Reduced (assessing empagliflozin) trials showed that sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibition reduced the combined risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for heart failure in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) with or without diabetes. However, neither trial was powered to assess effects on cardiovascular death or all-cause death or to characterise effects in clinically important subgroups. Using study-level published data from DAPA-HF and patient-level data from EMPEROR-Reduced, we aimed to estimate the effect of SGLT2 inhibition on fatal and non-fatal heart failure events and renal outcomes in all randomly assigned patients with HFrEF and in relevant subgroups from DAPA-HF and EMPEROR-Reduced trials. METHODS: We did a prespecified meta-analysis of the two single large-scale trials assessing the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with HFrEF with or without diabetes: DAPA-HF (assessing dapagliflozin) and EMPEROR-Reduced (assessing empagliflozin). The primary endpoint was time to all-cause death. Additionally, we assessed the effects of treatment in prespecified subgroups on the combined risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for heart failure. These subgroups were based on type 2 diabetes status, age, sex, angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) treatment, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, race, history of hospitalisation for heart failure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), body-mass index, and region (post-hoc). We used hazard ratios (HRs) derived from Cox proportional hazard models for time-to-first event endpoints and Cochran's Q test for treatment interactions; the analysis of recurrent events was based on rate ratios derived from the Lin-Wei-Yang-Ying model. FINDINGS: Among 8474 patients combined from both trials, the estimated treatment effect was a 13% reduction in all-cause death (pooled HR 0·87, 95% CI 0·77-0·98; p=0·018) and 14% reduction in cardiovascular death (0·86, 0·76-0·98; p=0·027). SGLT2 inhibition was accompanied by a 26% relative reduction in the combined risk of cardiovascular death or first hospitalisation for heart failure (0·74, 0·68-0·82; p<0·0001), and by a 25% decrease in the composite of recurrent hospitalisations for heart failure or cardiovascular death (0·75, 0·68-0·84; p<0·0001). The risk of the composite renal endpoint was also reduced (0·62, 0·43-0·90; p=0·013). All tests for heterogeneity of effect size between trials were not significant. The pooled treatment effects showed consistent benefits for subgroups based on age, sex, diabetes, treatment with an ARNI and baseline eGFR, but suggested treatment-by-subgroup interactions for subgroups based on NYHA functional class and race. INTERPRETATION: The effects of empagliflozin and dapagliflozin on hospitalisations for heart failure were consistent in the two independent trials and suggest that these agents also improve renal outcomes and reduce all-cause and cardiovascular death in patients with HFrEF. FUNDING: Boehringer Ingelheim.

6.
N Engl J Med ; 383(15): 1413-1424, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in patients regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. More evidence is needed regarding the effects of these drugs in patients across the broad spectrum of heart failure, including those with a markedly reduced ejection fraction. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 3730 patients with class II, III, or IV heart failure and an ejection fraction of 40% or less to receive empagliflozin (10 mg once daily) or placebo, in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for worsening heart failure. RESULTS: During a median of 16 months, a primary outcome event occurred in 361 of 1863 patients (19.4%) in the empagliflozin group and in 462 of 1867 patients (24.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio for cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.86; P<0.001). The effect of empagliflozin on the primary outcome was consistent in patients regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. The total number of hospitalizations for heart failure was lower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.85; P<0.001). The annual rate of decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate was slower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (-0.55 vs. -2.28 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area per year, P<0.001), and empagliflozin-treated patients had a lower risk of serious renal outcomes. Uncomplicated genital tract infection was reported more frequently with empagliflozin. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients receiving recommended therapy for heart failure, those in the empagliflozin group had a lower risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure than those in the placebo group, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim and Eli Lilly; EMPEROR-Reduced ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03057977.).

8.
Lancet ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative anaemia affects a high proportion of patients undergoing major elective surgery and is associated with poor outcomes. We aimed to test the hypothesis that intravenous iron given to anaemic patients before major open elective abdominal surgery would correct anaemia, reduce the need for blood transfusions, and improve patient outcomes. METHODS: In a double-blind, parallel-group randomised trial, we recruited adult participants identified with anaemia at preoperative hospital visits before elective major open abdominal surgery at 46 UK tertiary care centres. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin less than 130 g/L for men and 120 g/L for women. We randomly allocated participants (1:1) via a secure web-based service to receive intravenous iron or placebo 10-42 days before surgery. Intravenous iron was administered as a single 1000 mg dose of ferric carboxymaltose in 100 mL normal saline, and placebo was 100 mL normal saline, both given as an infusion over 15 min. Unblinded study personnel prepared and administered the study drug; participants and other clinical and research staff were blinded to treatment allocation. Coprimary endpoints were risk of the composite outcome of blood transfusion or death, and number of blood transfusions from randomisation to 30 days postoperatively. The primary analysis included all randomly assigned patients with data available for the primary endpoints; safety analysis included all randomly assigned patients according to the treatment received. This study is registered, ISRCTN67322816, and is closed to new participants. FINDINGS: Of 487 participants randomly assigned to placebo (n=243) or intravenous iron (n=244) between Jan 6, 2014, and Sept 28, 2018, complete data for the primary endpoints were available for 474 (97%) individuals. Death or blood transfusion occurred in 67 (28%) of the 237 patients in the placebo group and 69 (29%) of the 237 patients in the intravenous iron group (risk ratio 1·03, 95% CI 0·78-1·37; p=0·84). There were 111 blood transfusions in the placebo group and 105 in the intravenous iron group (rate ratio 0·98, 95% CI 0·68-1·43; p=0·93). There were no significant differences between the two groups for any of the prespecified safety endpoints. INTERPRETATION: Preoperative intravenous iron was not superior to placebo to reduce need for blood transfusion when administered to patients with anaemia 10-42 days before elective major abdominal surgery. FUNDING: UK National Institute of Health Research Health Technology Assessment Program.

9.
N Engl J Med ; 383(12): 1192, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937055
10.
Circulation ; 142(12): 1205-1218, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955939

RESUMO

With worsening epidemiological trends for both the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and heart failure (HF) worldwide, it is critical to implement optimal prevention and treatment strategies for patients with these comorbidities, either alone or concomitantly. Several guidelines and consensus statements have recommended glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors as add-ons to lifestyle interventions with or without metformin in those at high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk. However, these recommendations are either silent about HF or fail to differentiate between the prevention of HF in those at risk versus the treatment of individuals with manifest HF. Furthermore, these documents do not differentiate among those with different HF phenotypes. This distinction, even though important, may not be critical for sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors in view of the consistent data for benefit for both atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease- and HF-related outcomes that have emerged from the regulatory-mandated cardiovascular outcome trials for all sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors and the recent DAPA-HF trial (Dapagliflozin in Patients with Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction)demonstrating the benefit of dapagliflozin on HF-related outcomes in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction with or without T2DM. However, the distinction may be crucial for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and other antihyperglycemic agents. Indeed, in several of the new statements, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists are suggested treatment not only for patients with T2DM and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but also in those with manifest HF, despite a lack of evidence for the latter recommendation. Although glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists may be appropriate to use in patients at risk for HF, mechanistic insights and observations from randomized trials suggest no clear benefit on HF-related outcomes and even uncertainty regarding the safety in those with HF with reduced ejection fraction. Conversely, theoretical rationales suggest that these agents may benefit patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction. Considering that millions of patients with T2DM have HF, these concerns have public health implications that necessitate the thoughtful use of these therapies. Achieving this aim will require dedicated trials with these drugs in both patients who have HF with reduced ejection fraction and HF with preserved ejection fraction with T2DM to assess their efficacy, safety, and risk-benefit profile.

11.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860353

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with Chagas disease and heart failure (HF) have a poor prognosis similar to that of patients with ischaemic or dilated cardiomyopathy. However, the impact of body composition and muscle strength changes in these aetiologies is still unknown. We aimed to evaluate these parameters across aetiologies in two distinct cohort studies [TESTOsterone-Heart Failure trial (TESTO-HF; Brazil) and Studies Investigating Co-morbidities Aggravating Heart Failure (SICA-HF; Germany)]. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 64 male patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% were matched for body mass index and New York Heart Association class, including 22 patients with Chagas disease (TESTO-HF; Brazil), and 20 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and 22 patients with ischaemic heart disease (SICA-HF; Germany). Lean body mass (LBM), appendicular lean mass (ALM), and fat mass were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sarcopenia was defined as ALM divided by height in metres squared <7.0 kg/m2 (ALM/height2 ) and handgrip strength cut-off for men according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. All patients performed maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography. Chagasic and ischaemic patients had lower total fat mass (16.3 ± 8.1 vs. 19.3 ± 8.0 vs. 27.6 ± 9.4 kg; P < 0.05) and reduced peak oxygen consumption (VO2 ) (1.17 ± 0.36 vs. 1.15 ± 0.36 vs. 1.50 ± 0.45 L/min; P < 0.05) than patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, respectively. Chagasic patients showed a trend towards decreased LBM when compared with ischaemic patients (48.3 ± 7.6 vs. 54.2 ± 6.3 kg; P = 0.09). Chagasic patients showed lower handgrip strength (27 ± 8 vs. 37 ± 11 vs. 36 ± 14 kg; P < 0.05) and FBF (1.84 ± 0.54 vs. 2.75 ± 0.76 vs. 3.42 ± 1.21 mL/min/100 mL; P < 0.01) than ischaemic and dilated cardiomyopathy patients, respectively. There was no statistical difference in the distribution of sarcopenia between groups (P = 0.87). In addition, FBF correlated positively with LBM (r = 0.31; P = 0.012), ALM (r = 0.25; P = 0.046), and handgrip strength (r = 0.36; P = 0.004). In a logistic regression model using peak VO2 as the dependent variable, haemoglobin (odds ratio, 1.506; 95% confidence interval, 1.043-2.177; P = 0.029) and ALM (odds ratio, 1.179; 95% confidence interval, 1.011-1.374; P = 0.035) were independent predictors for peak VO2 adjusted by age, left ventricular ejection fraction, New York Heart Association, creatinine, and FBF. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with Chagas disease and HF have decreased fat mass and exhibit reduced peripheral blood flow and impaired muscle strength compared with ischaemic HF patients. In addition, patients with Chagas disease and HF show a tendency to have greater reduction in total LBM, with ALM remaining an independent predictor of reduced functional capacity in these patients. The percentage of patients affected by sarcopenia was equal between groups.

12.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825781

RESUMO

Selenium is an essential micronutrient, and a low selenium concentration (<100 µg/L) is associated with a poorer quality of life and exercise capacity, and an impaired prognosis in patients with worsening heart failure. Measuring selenium concentrations routinely is laborious and costly, and although its clinical utility is yet to be proven, an easy implemented model to predict selenium status is desirable. A stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed using routinely measured clinical factors. Low selenium was independently predicted by: older age, lower serum albumin, higher N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels, worse kidney function, and the presence of orthopnea and iron deficiency. A 10-points risk-model was developed, and a score of ≥6 points identified >80% of patients with low selenium (sensitivity of 44%, specificity of 80%). Given that selenium and iron overlap in their physiological roles, we evaluated the shared determinants and prognostic associates. Both deficiencies shared similar clinical characteristics, including the model risk factors and, in addition, a low protein intake and high levels of C-reactive protein. Low selenium was associated with a similar or worse prognosis compared to iron deficiency. In conclusion, although it is difficult to exclude low selenium based on clinical characteristics alone, we provide a prediction tool which identifies heart failure patients at higher risk of having a low selenium status.

13.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With improvement of cancer-specific survival, comorbidities and treatment-related side effects, particularly cardiovascular toxicities, need close attention. The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinical characteristics and outcomes of cancer patients requiring coronary angiography during inpatient care. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients hospitalized between 02/2011 and 02/2018 in our two university hospital cancer centers. From a cohort of 60,676 cancer patients, we identified 153 patients (65.7 ± 11.6 years, 73.2% male), who underwent coronary angiography and were eligible for analysis. These were compared to a control group of 153 non-cancer patients pair-matched with respect to age, sex, and indication for catheterization. RESULTS: Cancer patients presented in 66% with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The most prevalent cancer entities were lymphoma (19%) and lung cancer (18.3%). The rate of primary percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) was significantly lower in the cancer cohort (40.5% vs. 53.6%, p = 0.029), although manifestation of coronary artery disease (CAD) and PCI results were comparable (SYNergy between PCI with TAXus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX)-score, delta pre- and post-PCI - 9.8 vs. - 8.0, p = 0.2). Mortality was remarkably high in cancer patients (1-year mortality 46% vs. 8% in non-cancer patients, p < 0.001), particularly with troponin-positive ACS (5-year mortality 71%). CONCLUSION: Strategies to effectively control cardiovascular risks in cancer patients are needed. Additionally, suspected CAD in cancer patients should not prevent prompt diagnostic clarification and optimal revascularization as PCI results in cancer patients are comparable to non-cancer patients and occurrence of troponin-positive ACS leads to a significantly increased risk of mortality.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle wasting is an extremely common feature in patients with heart failure, affecting approximately 20% of ambulatory patients with even higher values during acute decompensation. Its occurrence is associated with reduced exercise capacity, muscle strength, and quality of life. We sought to investigate if the presence of muscle wasting carries prognostic information. METHODS: Two hundred sixty-eight ambulatory patients with heart failure (age 67.1 ± 10.9 years, New York Heart Association class 2.3 ± 0.6, left ventricular ejection fraction 39 ± 13.3%, and 21% female) were prospectively enrolled as part of the Studies Investigating Co-morbidities Aggravating Heart Failure. Muscle wasting as assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was present in 47 patients (17.5%). RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 67.2 ± 28.02 months, 95 patients (35.4%) died from any cause. After adjusting for age, New York Heart Association class, left ventricular ejection fraction, creatinine, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and iron deficiency, muscle wasting remained an independent predictor of death (hazard ratio 1.80, 95% confidence interval 1.01-3.19, P = 0.04). This effect was more pronounced in patients with heart failure with reduced than in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. CONCLUSIONS: Muscle wasting is an independent predictor of death in ambulatory patients with heart failure. Clinical trials are needed to identify treatment approaches to this co-morbidity.

15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(8): e2012469, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756927

RESUMO

Importance: Interpreting randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and their clinical relevance is challenging when P values are either marginally above or below the P = .05 threshold. Objective: To use the concept of reverse fragility index (RFI) to provide a measure of confidence in the neutrality of RCT results when assessed from the clinical perspective. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, a MEDLINE search was conducted for RCTs published from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2018, in JAMA, the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), and The Lancet. Eligible studies were phase 3 and 4 trials with 1:1 randomization and statistically nonsignificant binary primary end points. Data analysis was performed from August 1, 2019, to August 31, 2019. Exposures: Single vs multicenter enrollment, total number of events, private vs government funding, placebo vs active control, and time to event vs frequency data. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the median RFI with interquartile range (IQR) at the P = .05 threshold. Secondary outcomes were the number of RCTs in which the number of participants lost to follow-up was greater than the RFI; the median RFI with IQR at different P value thresholds; the median reverse fragility quotient with IQR; and the correlation between sample sizes, number of events, and P values of the RCT and RFI. Results: Of the 167 RCTs included, 76 (46%) were published in the NEJM, 50 (30%) in JAMA, and 41 (24%) in The Lancet. The median (IQR) sample size was 970 (470-3427) participants, and the median (IQR) number of events was 251 (105-570). The median (IQR) RFI at the P = .05 threshold was 8 (5-13). Fifty-seven RCTs (34%) had an RFI of 5 or lower, and in 68 RCTs (41%) the number of participants lost to follow-up was greater than the RFI. Trials with P values ranging from P = .06 to P = .10 had a median (IQR) RFI of 3 (2-4). When compared, median (IQR) RFIs were not statistically significant for single-center vs multicenter enrollment (5 [4-13] vs 8 [5-13]; P = .41), private vs government-funded studies (9 [5-13] vs 8 [5-13]; P = .34), and time-to-event primary end points vs frequency data (9 [5-14] vs 7 [4-13]; P = .43). The median (IQR) RFI at the P = .01 threshold was 12 (7-19) and at the P = .005 threshold was 14 (9-21). Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that a relatively small number of events (median of 8) had to change to move the primary end point of an RCT from nonsignificant to statistically significant. These findings emphasize the nuance required when interpreting trial results that did not meet prespecified significance thresholds.

16.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602663

RESUMO

Anaemia is defined by WHO as Hb < 13.0 g/dL in male adults and <12.0 g/dL in female adults. It is a common comorbidity in patients of heart failure with both HFrEF and HFpEF. The incidence ranges between 30% and 50%, though in certain communities, it is likely to be higher still. Elderly age, severe heart failure, poor nutrition, and elevation of inflammatory markers are associated with a higher incidence of anaemia. However, the commonest contributing factor to anaemia in HF is iron deficiency. In a Canadian study of 12 065 patients, the incidence of absolute ID was 21% in anaemic patients. Many other western studies have also quoted incidences varying between 35% and 43%. The earlier attempts to improve outcomes by supplementation with Erythropoietic-stimulating factors were unsuccessful and resulted in a higher incidence of thrombotic events. Iron deficiency (ID) has emerged as an important factor in patients of HF, even in those without anaemia and worsens outcomes. It is defined as Ferritin levels below 100 mcg/L or 100-299 µg/L with transferrin saturation of <20%. Attempts to correct ID by oral supplementation have been unsuccessful as seen in IRON-HF and IRONOUT-HF trials. FAIR-HF and CONFIRM-HF conclusively established the role of IV Iron in improving exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with HFrEF. ESC guidelines have given a class IC indication for testing all heart failure patients for ID, and an IIaA recommendation for its correction by IV ferric carboxymaltose was found to be deficient. Ongoing trials will establish the role of IV iron in improving mortality and in HFpEF patients and in patients with acute heart failure.

17.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618139

RESUMO

AIMS: In hospitalized patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), the aims of this study were (i) to assess the proportion meeting the 2016 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) HFpEF criteria and (ii) to compare patients with restrictive/pseudonormal mitral inflow pattern (MIP) vs. patients with MIP other than restrictive/pseudonormal. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included hospitalized participants of the ESC-Heart Failure Association (HFA) EURObservational Research Programme (EORP) HF Long-Term Registry who had echocardiogram with ejection fraction (EF) ≥ 50% during index hospitalization. As no data on e', E/e' and left ventricular (LV) mass index were gathered in the registry, the 2016 ESC HFpEF definition was modified as follows: elevated B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) (≥100 pg/mL for acute HF) and/or N-terminal pro-BNP (≥300 pg/mL) and at least one of the echocardiographic criteria: (i) presence of LV hypertrophy (yes/no), (ii) left atrial volume index (LAVI) of >34 mL/m2 ), or (iii) restrictive/pseudonormal MIP. Next, all patients were divided into four groups: (i) patients with restrictive/pseudonormal MIP on echocardiography [i.e. with presumably elevated left atrial (LA) pressure], (ii) patients with MIP other than restrictive/pseudonormal (i.e. with presumably normal LA pressure), (iii) atrial fibrillation (AF) group, and (iv) 'grey area' (no consistent description of MIP despite no report of AF). Of 6365 hospitalized patients, 1848 (29%) had EF ≥ 50%. Natriuretic peptides were assessed in 28%, LV hypertrophy in 92%, LAVI in 13%, and MIP in 67%. The 2016 ESC HFpEF criteria could be assessed in 27% of the 1848 patients and, if assessed, were met in 52%. Of the 1848 patients, 19% had restrictive/pseudonormal MIP, 43% had MIP other than restrictive/pseudonormal, 18% had AF and 20% were grey area. There were no differences in long-term all-cause or cardiovascular mortality, or all-cause hospitalizations or HF rehospitalizations between the four groups. Despite fewer non-cardiac comorbidities reported at baseline, patients with MIP other than restrictive/pseudonormal (i.e. with presumably normal LA pressure) had more non-cardiovascular (14.0 vs. 6.7 per 100 patient-years, P < 0.001) and cardiovascular non-HF (13.2 vs. 8.0 per 100 patient-years, P = 0.016) hospitalizations in long-term follow-up than patients with restrictive/pseudonormal MIP. CONCLUSIONS: Acute HFpEF diagnosis could be assessed (based on the 2016 ESC criteria) in only a quarter of patients and confirmed in half of these. When assessed, only one in three patients had restrictive/pseudonormal MIP suggestive of elevated LA pressure. Patients with MIP other than restrictive/pseudonormal (suggestive of normal LA pressure) could have been misdiagnosed with acute HFpEF or had echocardiography performed after normalization of LA pressure. They were more often hospitalized for non-HF reasons during follow-up. Symptoms suggestive of acute HFpEF may in some patients represent non-HF comorbidities.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682746

RESUMO

BACHGROUND: Postprandial hyperlipaemia impairs endothelial function, possibly via oxidative-stress-mediated mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of an oral triglyceride load (OTGL) on peripheral endothelial function in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) compared to healthy controls. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional. METHODS: We enrolled 47 patients with HFrEF and 20 healthy controls. Peripheral endothelial function was assessed with EndoPAT2000 technology using a reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) and pulse wave amplitude (PWA) at baseline (after 8-h overnight fasting) as well as 1, 2, 3 and 4-h post-OTGL consumption (250-ml cream drink). Pulse wave amplitude index (PWAI) was calculated as a ratio of PWA at each time point to the baseline PWA. RESULTS: RHI at baseline was lower in HFrEF patients compared to controls (1.7 ± 0.3 and 2.3 ± 0.6, respectively; P = 0.001). The OTGL accounted for a physiologic increase in PWA in healthy controls (p = 0.01), but this change was not observed in HFrEF patients. After 4 h, vasodilator response was significantly increased in healthy controls but not patients with HFrEF (2.3 ± 1.3 vs. 1.3 ± 0.8 respectively, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The main finding of this study was the impaired postprandial dynamic changes in peripheral endothelial function in patients with HFrEF compared to healthy controls. A high-fat load that caused acute hypertriglyceridaemia significantly increased resting blood flow and peak flow at reactive hyperaemia in healthy subjects. By contrast, patients with HFrEF exhibited impaired dynamic changes in peripheral endothelial function after oral triglyceride load.

20.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700409

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with heart failure (HF) have impaired quality of life (QoL). The randomized controlled trial PHARM-CHF investigated whether an interdisciplinary intervention consisting of regular contacts with the community pharmacy and weekly dosing aids improves medication adherence in patients with HF. It is unknown how an intervention involving frequent structured pharmacy visits affects QoL. Our aim was to explore adherence to the intervention and effects on QoL. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 237 patients, n = 110 were randomized to pharmacy care and n = 127 to usual care. The pharmacy care group received a medication review followed by (bi-)weekly dose dispensing and counselling. The median follow-up was 2.0 years [inter-quartile range (IQR) 1.2-2.7]. Median interval between pharmacy visits was 8.4 days (IQR 8.0-10.3) and the visits lasted in median 14 min (IQR 10-15). Median adherence to the intervention was 96% (IQR 84-100). QoL at 365 days was predefined as a main secondary and at 730 days as another secondary endpoint in PHARM-CHF. QoL was measured by the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire; and for 111 patients (n = 47 in the pharmacy care group and n = 64 in the usual care group), data were available at baseline, and after 365 and 730 days (mean age 74 years; 41% female). Improvement in QoL was numerically higher in the pharmacy care group after 365 days and was significantly better after 730 days (difference in total scores -7.7 points [-14.5 to -1.0]; P = 0.026) compared to the usual care group. In all subgroups examined, this treatment effect was preserved. Improvements in the physical and emotional dimensions were numerically higher in the pharmacy care group after 365 days and were significantly better after 730 days: -4.0 points [-6.9 to -1.2]; P = 0.006, and -1.9 points [-3.7 to -0.1]; P = 0.039, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A pharmacy-based interdisciplinary intervention was well received by the patients and suggests clinically important improvements in QoL.

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