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2.
N Engl J Med ; 381(8): 716-726, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serelaxin is a recombinant form of human relaxin-2, a vasodilator hormone that contributes to cardiovascular and renal adaptations during pregnancy. Previous studies have suggested that treatment with serelaxin may result in relief of symptoms and in better outcomes in patients with acute heart failure. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, event-driven trial, we enrolled patients who were hospitalized for acute heart failure and had dyspnea, vascular congestion on chest radiography, increased plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides, mild-to-moderate renal insufficiency, and a systolic blood pressure of at least 125 mm Hg, and we randomly assigned them within 16 hours after presentation to receive either a 48-hour intravenous infusion of serelaxin (30 µg per kilogram of body weight per day) or placebo, in addition to standard care. The two primary end points were death from cardiovascular causes at 180 days and worsening heart failure at 5 days. RESULTS: A total of 6545 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. At day 180, death from cardiovascular causes had occurred in 285 of the 3274 patients (8.7%) in the serelaxin group and in 290 of the 3271 patients (8.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 1.15; P = 0.77). At day 5, worsening heart failure had occurred in 227 patients (6.9%) in the serelaxin group and in 252 (7.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.07; P = 0.19). There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidence of death from any cause at 180 days, the incidence of death from cardiovascular causes or rehospitalization for heart failure or renal failure at 180 days, or the length of the index hospital stay. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients who were hospitalized for acute heart failure, an infusion of serelaxin did not result in a lower incidence of death from cardiovascular causes at 180 days or worsening heart failure at 5 days than placebo. (Funded by Novartis Pharma; RELAX-AHF-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01870778.).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Relaxina/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Relaxina/efeitos adversos , Relaxina/farmacologia , Falha de Tratamento , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos
3.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461239

RESUMO

Aims: Stroke is often a devastating event among patients with heart failure with reduced ejection (HFrEF). In COMMANDER HF, rivaroxaban 2.5 mg b.i.d. did not reduce the composite of first occurrence of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction compared with placebo in patients with HFrEF, coronary artery disease (CAD), and sinus rhythm. We now examine the incidence, timing, type, severity, and predictors of stroke or a transient ischaemic attack (TIA), and seek to establish the net clinical benefit of treatment with low-dose rivaroxaban. Methods and results: In this double-blind, randomized trial, 5022 patients who had HFrEF(≤40%), elevated natriuretic peptides, CAD, and who were in sinus rhythm were treated with rivaroxaban 2.5 mg b.i.d. or placebo in addition to antiplatelet therapy, after an episode of worsening HF. The primary neurological outcome for this post hoc analysis was time to first event of any stroke or TIA. Over a median follow-up of 20.5 (25th­75th percentiles 20.0­20.9) months, 150 all-cause stroke (127) or TIA (23) events occurred (ischaemic stroke in 82% and haemorrhagic stroke in 11% of stroke events). Overall, 47.5% of first-time strokes were either disabling (16.5%) or fatal (31%). Prior stroke, low body mass index, geographic region, and the CHA2DS2-VASc score were predictors of stroke/TIA. Rivaroxaban significantly reduced the primary neurological endpoint of all-cause stroke or TIA compared with placebo by 32% (1.29 events vs. 1.90 events per 100 patient-years), adjusted for the time from index HF event to randomization and stratified by geographic region (adjusted hazard ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.49­0.94), with a number needed to treat of 164 patients per year to prevent one stroke/TIA event. The principal safety endpoint of fatal bleeding or bleeding into a critical space, occurred at a similar rate on rivaroxaban and placebo (0.44 events vs. 0.55 events per 100 patient-years). Conclusion: Patients with HFrEF and CAD are at risk for stroke or TIA in the period following an episode of worsening heart failure in the absence of atrial fibrillation. Most strokes are of ischaemic origin and nearly half are either disabling or fatal. Rivaroxaban at a dose of 2.5 mg b.i.d. reduced rates of stroke or TIA compared with placebo in this population. Trial Registration: COMMANDER HF (A Study to Assess the Effectiveness and Safety of Rivaroxaban in Reducing the Risk of Death, Myocardial Infarction, or Stroke in Participants with Heart Failure and Coronary Artery Disease Following an Episode of Decompensated Heart Failure); ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01877915.

4.
Lancet ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guideline-recommended doses of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), and ß blockers are similar for men and women with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), even though there are known sex differences in pharmacokinetics of these drugs. We hypothesised that there might be sex differences in the optimal dose of ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers in patients with HFrEF. METHODS: We did a post-hoc analysis of BIOSTAT-CHF, a prospective study in 11 European countries of patients with heart failure in whom initiation and up-titration of ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers was encouraged by protocol. We included only patients with left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40%, and excluded those who died within the first 3 months. Primary outcome was a composite of time to all-cause mortality or hospitalisation for heart failure. Findings were validated in ASIAN-HF, an independent cohort of 3539 men and 961 women with HFrEF. FINDINGS: Among 1308 men and 402 women with HFrEF from BIOSTAT-CHF, women were older (74 [12] years vs 70 [12] years, p<0·0001) and had lower bodyweights (72 [16] kg vs 85 [18] kg, p<0·0001) and heights (162 [7] cm vs 174 [8] cm, p<0·0001) than did men, although body-mass index did not differ significantly. A similar number of men and women reached guideline-recommended target doses of ACE inhibitors or ARBs (99 [25%] vs 304 [23%], p=0·61) and ß blockers (57 [14%] vs 168 [13%], p=0·54). In men, the lowest hazards of death or hospitalisation for heart failure occurred at 100% of the recommended dose of ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers, but women showed approximately 30% lower risk at only 50% of the recommended doses, with no further decrease in risk at higher dose levels. These sex differences were still present after adjusting for clinical covariates, including age and body surface area. In the ASIAN-HF registry, similar patterns were observed for both ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers, with women having approximately 30% lower risk at 50% of the recommended doses, with no further benefit at higher dose levels. INTERPRETATION: This study suggests that women with HFrEF might need lower doses of ACE inhibitors or ARBs and ß blockers than men, and brings into question what the true optimal medical therapy is for women versus men. FUNDING: European Commission.

5.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In heart failure (HF), levels of NT-proBNP are influenced by the presence of concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF), making it difficult to distinguish between HF versus AF in patients with raised NT-proBNP. It is unknown whether levels of GDF-15 are also influenced by AF in patients with HF. In this study we compared the plasma levels of NT-proBNP versus GDF-15 in patients with HF in AF versus sinus rhythm (SR). METHODS: In a post hoc analysis of the index cohort of BIOSTAT-CHF (n = 2516), we studied patients with HF categorized into three groups: (1) AF at baseline (n = 733), (2) SR at baseline with a history of AF (n = 183), and (3) SR at baseline and no history of AF (n = 1025). The findings were validated in the validation cohort of BIOSTAT-CHF (n = 1738). RESULTS: Plasma NT-proBNP levels of patients who had AF at baseline were higher than those of patients in SR (both with and without a history of AF), even after multivariable adjustment (3417 [25th-75th percentile 1897-6486] versus 1788 [682-3870], adjusted p < 0.001, versus 2231 pg/mL [902-5270], adjusted p < 0.001). In contrast, after adjusting for clinical confounders, the levels of GDF-15 were comparable between the three groups (3179 [2062-5253] versus 2545 [1686-4337], adjusted p = 0.36, versus 2294 [1471-3855] pg/mL, adjusted p = 0.08). Similar patterns of both NT-proBNP and GDF-15 were found in the validation cohort. CONCLUSION: These data show that in patients with HF, NT-proBNP is significantly influenced by underlying AF at time of measurement and not by previous episodes of AF, whereas the levels of GDF-15 are not influenced by the presence of AF. Therefore, GDF-15 might have additive value combined with NT-proBNP in the assessment of patients with HF and concomitant AF.

7.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347289

RESUMO

AIMS: Epidemiological heart failure (HF) data in the era of natriuretic peptides and echocardiography are scarce. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the HF prevalence in the general population. We will also investigate natriuretic peptide cut-off for diagnosis of HF. Finally, we will be able to identify left ventricular function phenotypes and study relations between cardiac function, clinical presentation, and health-related quality of life. METHODS AND RESULTS: Screening Of adult urBan pOpulation To diAgnose Heart Failure (SOBOTA-HF) is a cross-sectional prevalence study in a representative sample of Murska Sobota residents aged 55 years or more. Individuals will be invited to attend screening visit with point-of-care N-terminal pro-b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) testing. All subjects with NT-proBNP ≥ 125 pg/mL will be invited for a diagnostic visit that will include history and physical examination, electrocardiogram, echocardiography, blood and urine sampling, ankle brachial index, pulmonary function tests, body composition measurement, physical performance tests, and questionnaires. To validate the screening procedure, a control group (NT-proBNP < 125 pg/mL) will undergo the same diagnostic evaluation. An external centre will validate echocardiography results, and the HF diagnosis will be adjudicated within an international HF expert panel. Overall and age-specific HF prevalence will be calculated in individuals ≥ 55 years and extrapolated to the whole population. CONCLUSIONS: The SOBOTA-HF study will test the latest HF guideline diagnostic criteria in the general population sample. Next to HF prevalence, it will provide insight into left ventricular function and general patient phenotype; we will also extend current understanding of natriuretic peptides for HF screening.

8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosing non-acute heart failure (HF) remains challenging, notably in the early stages of the syndrome. The diagnostic value of mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) has been proven in acute onset HF, but its role in early non-acute HF is unknown. We aimed to determine the diagnostic value of MR-proANP in suspected non-acute HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 721 people suspected of non-acute HF in primary care underwent standardised diagnostic work-up including chest X-ray, electrocardiogram, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) measurement and echocardiography. Of these, 245 people underwent additional MR-proANP measurements. The outcome of HF was assessed by an expert panel comprised of two cardiologists and one expert physician, who used all available diagnostic information including echocardiography, but were blinded to biomarker results. Of the 245 people (mean age 71.0 years, 62.9% female), 72 (29.4%) were diagnosed with HF. The c-statistics of MR-proANP and NT-proBNP as single diagnostic test were 0.77 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.84] and 0.79 (95% CI 0.73-0.86), respectively. The cut-point with the highest accuracy for MR-proANP was 120 pmol/L [sensitivity/specificity/positive predictive value (PPV)/negative predictive value (NPV) 0.72, 0.69, 0.46, and 0.86, respectively], and the best exclusionary cut-point was 40 pmol/L (sensitivity/specificity/PPV/NPV 0.99, 0.06, 0.30, and 0.92, respectively). After addition of MR-proANP on top of a previously validated clinical model, the c-statistic rose from 0.82 (95% CI 0.76-0.88) to 0.86 (95% CI 0.80-0.92), and with the addition of NT-proBNP to 0.87 (95% CI 0.81-0.92). No sex interactions between the biomarkers and HF were found in the multivariable models. CONCLUSION: MR-proANP provides added diagnostic value in suspected non-acute HF, similar to NT-proBNP.

9.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(7): 932-942, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218819

RESUMO

AIMS: Heart failure (HF) is associated with considerable symptom burden and impairment in physical functioning and quality of life. The sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin reduced the risk of HF hospitalisation and cardiovascular death in patients with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, and could potentially improve congestion symptoms and exercise capacity in patients with HF. We describe the designs of the EMPERIAL-Preserved and EMPERIAL-Reduced trials of empagliflozin in patients with chronic stable HF, with or without type 2 diabetes. METHODS: EMPERIAL-Preserved and EMPERIAL-Reduced are randomised, placebo-controlled trials designed to investigate the effects of empagliflozin on exercise capacity and patient-reported outcomes in patients with chronic stable HF with preserved ejection fraction [HFpEF; left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) > 40%] and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF; LVEF ≤ 40%), respectively. In each trial, approximately 300 patients will be randomised 1:1 to receive empagliflozin 10 mg or placebo once daily for 12 weeks. In both trials, the primary endpoint is the change from baseline in 6-min walk test distance at week 12. Key secondary endpoints are the change from baseline in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire total symptom score and change from baseline in dyspnoea score of the Chronic Heart Failure Questionnaire at week 12. CONCLUSION: The EMPERIAL-Preserved and EMPERIAL-Reduced trials will determine the effects of empagliflozin on exercise capacity and patient-reported outcomes in patients with HFpEF and HFrEF, respectively, and provide insight into the potential of empagliflozin in the treatment of patients with HF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03448406 (EMPERIAL-Preserved), NCT03448419 (EMPERIAL-Reduced).

10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(7): 827-843, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243866

RESUMO

Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a potentially life-threatening condition typically presenting as heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in the last month of pregnancy or in the months following delivery in women without another known cause of heart failure. This updated position statement summarizes the knowledge about pathophysiological mechanisms, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of PPCM. As shortness of breath, fatigue and leg oedema are common in the peripartum period, a high index of suspicion is required to not miss the diagnosis. Measurement of natriuretic peptides, electrocardiography and echocardiography are recommended to promptly diagnose or exclude heart failure/PPCM. Important differential diagnoses include pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, hypertensive heart disease during pregnancy, and pre-existing heart disease. A genetic contribution is present in up to 20% of PPCM, in particular titin truncating variant. PPCM is associated with high morbidity and mortality, but also with a high probability of partial and often full recovery. Use of guideline-directed pharmacological therapy for HFrEF is recommended in all patients respecting contraindications during pregnancy/lactation. The oxidative stress-mediated cleavage of the hormone prolactin into a cardiotoxic fragment has been identified as a driver of PPCM pathophysiology. Pharmacological blockade of prolactin release using bromocriptine as a disease-specific therapy in addition to standard therapy for heart failure treatment has shown promising results in two clinical trials. Thresholds for devices (implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, cardiac resynchronization therapy and implanted long-term ventricular assist devices) are higher in PPCM than in other conditions because of the high rate of recovery. The important role of education and counselling around contraception and future pregnancies is emphasised.

11.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(7): 696-701, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188392

RESUMO

Importance: Iron deficiency is present in half of patients with heart failure (HF) and is associated with increased morbidity and an impaired prognosis. Iron deficiency due to low iron storage (LIS) and defective iron utilization (DIU) are not entirely the same clinical problem, although they generally receive the same treatment. Objective: To define and describe similarities and differences between LIS and DIU in patients with HF. Design, Setting, and Participants: This analysis included data from 2 prospective observational studies: the Definition of Iron Deficiency in Chronic Heart Failure (DEFINE-HF) study, a single-center study conducted from 2013 to 2015 including 42 patients with a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction of 45% or less scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and the A Systems Biology Study to Tailored Treatment in Chronic Heart Failure (BIOSTAT-CHF) study, a multinational study conducted from 2010 to 2014 including 2357 patients with worsening HF from 69 centers in 11 countries. The median (interquartile range) follow-up time was 1.8 (1.3-2.3) years. Data were analyzed from January 2018 to January 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The DEFINE-HF cohort was set up to derive a definition for different etiologies of iron deficiency using bone marrow iron staining as the criterion standard. This definition was applied to the BIOSTAT-CHF cohort to assess its association with clinical profile, biomarkers, and the primary composite end point of all-cause mortality or HF hospitalizations. Results: Among the 42 patients in the DEFINE-HF study, 10 (24%) were women, and the mean (SD) age was 68.0 (9.5) years. Low iron storage was defined as a bone marrow-validated combination of transferrin saturation less than 20% and a serum ferritin concentration of 128 ng/mL or less; DIU was defined as transferrin saturation less than 20% and a serum ferritin concentration greater than 128 ng/mL. These criteria were applied to 2356 patients with worsening HF in the BIOSTAT-CHF study; 1074 (45.6%) were women, and the mean (SD) age was 68.9 (12.0) years. A total of 1453 patients with worsening HF (61.6%) had iron deficiency, of whom 960 (66.1%) had LIS and 493 (33.9%) had DIU. Low iron storage was characterized by a higher proportion of anemia and a poorer quality of life, while DIU was characterized by higher levels of various inflammatory markers. Both LIS and DIU were associated with an impaired 6-minute walking test. Low iron storage was independently associated with the composite end point of all-cause mortality or HF hospitalizations (hazard ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.26-1.71; P < .001), while DIU was not (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.87-1.26; P = .64). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, both LIS and DIU were prevalent in patients with HF and had a distinct clinical profile. Only LIS was independently associated with increased rates of morality and HF hospitalizations, while DIU was not.

12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(6): 739-746, Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011203

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Resting sympathetic hyperactivity and impaired parasympathetic reactivation after exercise have been described in patients with heart failure (HF). However, the association of these autonomic changes in patients with HF and sarcopenia is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of autonomic modulation on sarcopenia in male patients with HF. Methods: We enrolled 116 male patients with HF and left ventricular ejection fraction < 40%. All patients underwent a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Maximal heart rate was recorded and delta heart rate recovery (∆HRR) was assessed at 1st and 2nd minutes after exercise. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded by microneurography. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure body composition and sarcopenia was defined by the sum of appendicular lean muscle mass (ALM) divided by height in meters squared and handgrip strength. Results: Sarcopenia was identified in 33 patients (28%). Patients with sarcopenia had higher MSNA than those without (47 [41-52] vs. 40 [34-48] bursts/min, p = 0.028). Sarcopenic patients showed lower ∆HRR at 1st (15 [10-21] vs. 22 [16-30] beats/min, p < 0.001) and 2nd min (25 [19-39] vs. 35 [24-48] beats/min, p = 0.017) than non-sarcopenic. There was a positive correlation between ALM and ∆HRR at 1st (r = 0.26, p = 0.008) and 2nd min (r = 0.25, p = 0.012). We observed a negative correlation between ALM and MSNA (r = -0.29, p = 0.003). Conclusion: Sympatho-vagal imbalance seems to be associated with sarcopenia in male patients with HF. These results highlight the importance of a therapeutic approach in patients with muscle wasting and increased peripheral sympathetic outflow.


Resumo Fundamento: Hiperatividade simpática de repouso e uma reativação parassimpática diminuída pós-exercício têm sido descritas em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC). No entanto, a associação dessas alterações autonômicas em pacientes com IC sarcopênicos ainda não são conhecidas. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o impacto da modulação autonômica sobre sarcopenia em pacientes com IC do sexo masculino. Métodos: Foram estudados 116 pacientes com IC e fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda inferior a 40%. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos ao teste de exercício cardiopulmonar máximo. A frequência cardíaca máxima foi registrada, e o delta de recuperação da frequência cardíaca (∆RFC) foi avaliado no primeiro e no segundo minuto após o exercício. A atividade nervosa simpática muscular (ANSM) foi registrada por microneurografia. A Absorciometria Radiológica de Dupla Energia foi usada para medir composição cpororal, e a sarcopenia definida como a soma da massa muscular apendicular (MMA) dividida pela altura em metros ao quadrado e força da mão. Resultados: A sarcopenia foi identificada em 33 pacientes (28%). Os pacientes com sarcopenia apresentaram maior ANSM que aqueles sem sarcopenia - 47 (41-52) vs. 40 (34-48) impulsos (bursts)/min, p = 0,028). Pacientes sarcopênicos apresentaram ∆RFC mais baixo no primeiro [15 (10-21) vs. 22 (16-30) batimentos/min, p < 0,001) e no segundo [25 (19-39) vs. 35 (24-48) batimentos/min, p = 0,017) minuto que pacientes não sarcopênicos. Observou-se uma correlação positiva entre a MMA e a ANSM (r = -0,29; p = 0,003). Conclusão: Um desequilíbrio simpático-vagal parece estar associado com sarcopenia em pacientes com IC do sexo masculino. Esses resultados destacam a importância de uma abordagem terapêutica em pacientes com perda muscular e fluxo simpático periférico aumentado.

13.
ESC Heart Fail ; 6(4): 621-628, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148411

RESUMO

AIMS: Iron deficiency worsens symptoms, quality of life, and exercise capacity in chronic heart failure (CHF) and might do so by promoting fluid retention. We assessed whether iron repletion improved congestion in CHF and appraised the prognostic utility of calculated plasma volume status (PVS), a novel index of congestion, in the FAIR-HF data set. METHODS AND RESULTS: In FAIR-HF, 459 iron deficient CHF patients were randomized to intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) or saline and assessed at 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Using weight and haematocrit, we calculated PVS in 436 patients. At baseline, PVS and weight were -5.5 ± 7.7% and 76.9 ± 14.3 kg, with peripheral oedema evident in 35% of subjects. Higher PVS values correlated to other congestion surrogates such as lower serum albumin. At 4 weeks, FCM was associated with greater reductions in weight (0.02) and PVS (P < 0.0001), and a trend for improved peripheral oedema at 24 weeks (0.07). Irrespective of treatment allocation, patients with a decrease in PVS from baseline to week 24 had higher increments in 6 min walking distance (61.4 m vs. 43.5 m, 0.02) and were more likely to improve their NYHA class (33.3% vs. 15.5%, 0.001). A PVS > -4% at baseline predicted worse outcomes even after adjustment for treatment assignment (hazard ratio 1.88, 95% confidence interval 1.01-3.51, 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous iron therapy with FCM is associated with early reductions in PVS and weight, implying that decongestion might be one mechanism via which iron repletion aids CHF patients. Calculated PVS is of prognostic utility in this cohort.

14.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132222

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the proportion of patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) who are eligible for sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) based on the European Medicines Agency/Food and Drug Administration (EMA/FDA) label, the PARADIGM-HF trial and the 2016 ESC guidelines, and the association between eligibility and outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Outpatients with HFrEF in the ESC-EORP-HFA Long-Term Heart Failure (HF-LT) Registry between March 2011 and November 2013 were considered. Criteria for LCZ696 based on EMA/FDA label, PARADIGM-HF and ESC guidelines were applied. Of 5443 patients, 2197 and 2373 had complete information for trial and guideline eligibility assessment, and 84%, 12% and 12% met EMA/FDA label, PARADIGM-HF and guideline criteria, respectively. Absent PARADIGM-HF criteria were low natriuretic peptides (21%), hyperkalemia (4%), hypotension (7%) and sub-optimal pharmacotherapy (74%); absent Guidelines criteria were LVEF>35% (23%), insufficient NP levels (30%) and sub-optimal pharmacotherapy (82%); absent label criteria were absence of symptoms (New York Heart Association class I). When a daily requirement of ACEi/ARB ≥ 10 mg enalapril (instead of ≥ 20 mg) was used, eligibility rose from 12% to 28% based on both PARADIGM-HF and guidelines. One-year heart failure hospitalization was higher (12% and 17% vs. 12%) and all-cause mortality lower (5.3% and 6.5% vs. 7.7%) in registry eligible patients compared to the enalapril arm of PARADIGM-HF. CONCLUSIONS: Among outpatients with HFrEF in the ESC-EORP-HFA HF-LT Registry, 84% met label criteria, while only 12% and 28% met PARADIGM-HF and guideline criteria for LCZ696 if requiring ≥ 20 mg and ≥ 10 mg enalapril, respectively. Registry patients eligible for LCZ696 had greater heart failure hospitalization but lower mortality rates than the PARADIGM-HF enalapril group.

15.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129929

RESUMO

AIMS: The TIM-HF2 study showed less days lost due to unplanned cardiovascular hospitalization or all-cause death and improved survival in patients randomly assigned to remote patient management (RPM) instead of standard of care. METHODS AND RESULTS: This substudy explored whether the biomarkers mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) could be used to identify low-risk patients unlikely to benefit from RPM, thereby allowing more efficient allocation of the intervention. For 1538 patients of the trial (median age 73 years, interquartile range 64-78 years, 30% female), baseline biomarkers were used to select subpopulations recommended for RPM with various safety endpoints (100%, 98%, 95% sensitivity), and efficacy of RPM was assessed. Both biomarkers were strongly associated with events. The primary endpoint of lost days increased from 1.0% (1.4%) in the lowest to 17.3% (17.6%) in the highest quintile of NT-proBNP (MR-proADM). After combining biomarkers to identify patients recommended for RPM with 95% sensitivity, in the most efficient scenario (excluding 27% of patients; NT-proBNP < 413.7 pg/mL and MR-proADM < 0.75 nmol/L), the effect of RPM on patients was highly similar to the original trial (ratio of lost days: 0.78, hazard ratio for all-cause death: 0.68). Number needed to treat for all-cause death was lowered from 28 to 21. Rates of emergencies and telemedical efforts were significantly lower among patients not recommended for RPM. Biomarker guidance would have saved about 150 h effort/year per 100 patients of the eligible population. CONCLUSIONS: The combined use of MR-proADM and NT-proBNP may allow safe, more precise, effective and cost-saving allocation of patients with heart failure to RPM and warrants further prospective studies.

16.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(5): e005544, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PENK (proenkephalin) is a stable surrogate for enkephalins, endogenous opioid peptides, which exert cardiodepressive effects and improve renal function. PENK has been associated with heart failure (HF) severity and renal dysfunction. We therefore hypothesized that PENK could be associated with deterioration of kidney function and could have a role as a novel renal marker in HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 2180 patients with HF of a large multicenter cohort (BIOSTAT-CHF [A Systems Biology Study to Tailored Treatment in Chronic Heart Failure]), the relationship between PENK and clinical variables, plasma and urinary biomarkers, and clinical end points was established. Data were validated in a separate cohort of 1703 patients with HF. PENK was elevated (>80 pmol/L, 99th percentile) in 1245 (57%) patients. Higher PENK was associated with more advanced HF and glomerular and tubular dysfunction. The strongest independent predictor of PENK was estimated glomerular filtration rate. Others were plasma NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; all P<0.001). Using correlation heatmaps and hierarchical cluster analyses, PENK clustered with estimated glomerular filtration rate, creatinine, NGAL, galectin-3, and urea. Higher PENK was independently associated with increased risk of deterioration of kidney function between baseline and 9 months (odds ratio, 1.29 [1.02-1.65] per PENK doubling; P=0.038; defined as >25% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate) and mortality (hazard ratio, 1.23 [1.07-1.43] per doubling; P=0.004). Analyses in the validation cohort yielded comparable findings. CONCLUSIONS: Higher PENK levels are associated with more severe HF, with glomerular and tubular renal dysfunction, with incidence of a deterioration of kidney function, and with mortality. These findings suggest that the opioid system might be involved in deteriorating kidney function in HF.

17.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129923

RESUMO

The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has published a series of guidelines on heart failure (HF) over the last 25 years, most recently in 2016. Given the amount of new information that has become available since then, the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC recognized the need to review and summarise recent developments in a consensus document. Here we report from the HFA workshop that was held in January 2019 in Frankfurt, Germany. This expert consensus report is neither a guideline update nor a position statement, but rather a summary and consensus view in the form of consensus recommendations. The report describes how these guidance statements are supported by evidence, it makes some practical comments, and it highlights new research areas and how progress might change the clinical management of HF. We have avoided re-interpretation of information already considered in the 2016 ESC/HFA guidelines. Specific new recommendations have been made based on the evidence from major trials published since 2016, including sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, MitraClip for functional mitral regurgitation, atrial fibrillation ablation in HF, tafamidis in cardiac transthyretin amyloidosis, rivaroxaban in HF, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in non-ischaemic HF, and telemedicine for HF. In addition, new trial evidence from smaller trials and updated meta-analyses have given us the chance to provide refined recommendations in selected other areas. Further, new trial evidence is due in many of these areas and others over the next 2 years, in time for the planned 2021 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure.

18.
Kidney Int ; 95(6): 1304-1317, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053387

RESUMO

The incidence and prevalence of heart failure (HF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are increasing, and as such a better understanding of the interface between both conditions is imperative for developing optimal strategies for their detection, prevention, diagnosis, and management. To this end, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) convened an international, multidisciplinary Controversies Conference titled Heart Failure in CKD. Breakout group discussions included (i) HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and nondialysis CKD, (ii) HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and nondialysis CKD, (iii) HFpEF and dialysis-dependent CKD, (iv) HFrEF and dialysis-dependent CKD, and (v) HF in kidney transplant patients. The questions that formed the basis of discussions are available on the KDIGO website http://kdigo.org/conferences/heart-failure-in-ckd/, and the deliberations from the conference are summarized here.

19.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(8): 965-973, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087601

RESUMO

AIMS: Inflammation is a central process in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF), but trials targeting tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were largely unsuccessful. Interleukin (IL)-6 is an important inflammatory mediator and might constitute a potential pharmacologic target in HF. However, little is known regarding the association between IL-6 and clinical characteristics, outcomes and other inflammatory biomarkers in HF. We thus aimed to identify and characterize these associations. METHODS AND RESULTS: Interleukin-6 was measured in 2329 patients [89.4% with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40%] of the BIOSTAT-CHF cohort. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and HF hospitalization during 2 years, with all-cause, cardiovascular (CV), and non-CV death as secondary outcomes. Approximately half (56%) of all included patients had plasma IL-6 values greater than the previously determined 95th percentile of normal values at baseline. Elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, procalcitonin and hepcidin, younger age, TNF-α/IL-1-related biomarkers, or having iron deficiency, atrial fibrillation and LVEF > 40% independently predicted elevated IL-6 levels. IL-6 independently predicted the primary outcome [HR (95% confidence interval) per doubling: 1.16 (1.11-1.21), P < 0.001], all-cause mortality [1.22 (1.16-1.29), P < 0.001] and CV as well as non-CV mortality [1.16 (1.09-1.24), P < 0.001; 1.31 (1.18-1.45), P < 0.001], but did not improve discrimination in previously published risk models. CONCLUSIONS: In a large, heterogeneous cohort of HF patients, elevated IL-6 levels were found in more than 50% of patients and were associated with iron deficiency, reduced LVEF, atrial fibrillation and poorer clinical outcomes. These findings warrant further investigation of IL-6 as a potential therapeutic target in specific HF subpopulations.

20.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(8): 1012-1021, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129917

RESUMO

AIMS: Medication non-adherence is frequent and is associated with high morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). We investigated whether an interdisciplinary intervention improves adherence in elderly CHF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study population (mean age 74 years, 62% male, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 47%, 52% in New York Heart Association class III) consisted of 110 patients randomized into the pharmacy care and 127 into the usual care group. The median follow-up was 2.0 years (interquartile range 1.2-2.7). The pharmacy care group received a medication review followed by regular dose dispensing and counselling. Control patients received usual care. The primary endpoint was medication adherence as proportion of days covered (PDC) within 365 days for three classes of heart failure medications (beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists). The main secondary outcome was the proportion of adherent patients (PDC ≥ 80%). The primary safety endpoint was days lost due to unplanned cardiovascular hospitalizations (blindly adjudicated) or death. Pharmacy care compared with usual care resulted in an absolute increase in mean adherence to three heart failure medications for 365 days [adjusted difference 5.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-9.8, P = 0.007]. The proportion of patients classified as adherent increased (odds ratio 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.9, P = 0.005). Pharmacy care improved quality of life after 2 years (adjusted difference in Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire scores -7.8 points (-14.5 to -1.1; P = 0.02), compared to usual care. Pharmacy care did not affect the safety endpoints of hospitalizations or deaths. CONCLUSION: Pharmacy care safely improved adherence to heart failure medications and quality of life.

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