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1.
Circulation ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175585

RESUMO

Background: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve outcomes in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, but additional information is needed about whether glycemic status influences the magnitude of their benefits on heart failure and renal events. Methods: Patients with class II-IV heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% were randomized to receive empagliflozin (10 mg daily) or placebo in addition to recommended therapy. We prespecified a comparison of the effect of empagliflozin in patients with and without diabetes. Results: Of the 3730 patients enrolled, 1856 (50%) had diabetes, 1268 (34%) had prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4%), and 606 (16%) had normoglycemia (HbA1c <5.7%). The risks of the primary outcome (cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure), total hospitalizations for heart failure, and adverse renal outcomes were higher in patients with diabetes, but were similar between patients with prediabetes and normoglycemia. Empagliflozin reduced the risk of the primary outcome in patients with and without diabetes (hazard ratio 0.72 [95% CI 0.60-0.87] and 0.78 [95% CI 0.64-0.97], respectively, interaction P =0.57). Patients with and without diabetes also did not differ with respect to the effect of empagliflozin on total hospitalizations for heart failure, on the decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate over time, and on the risk of serious adverse renal outcomes. Among these endpoints, the effects of the drug did not differ in patients with prediabetes or normoglycemia. When analyzed as a continuous variable, baseline HbA1c did not significantly modify the benefits of empagliflozin on the primary outcome (P-interaction=0.40). Empagliflozin did not lower HbA1c in patients with prediabetes or normoglycemia and was not associated with increased risk of hypoglycemia. Conclusions: In the EMPEROR-Reduced trial, empagliflozin significantly improved cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, independent of baseline diabetes status and across the continuum of HbA1c.

3.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222388

RESUMO

AIMS: Many cancer patients die due to cardiovascular disease and sudden death, but data on ventricular arrhythmia prevalence and prognostic importance are not known. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2010, we prospectively enrolled 120 unselected patients with lung, colon, or pancreatic cancer due to one of three diagnoses: colorectal (n=33), pancreatic (n=54), or non-small cell lung cancer (n=33). All were free of manifest cardiovascular disease. They were compared to 43 healthy controls similar in age and sex distribution. Each participant underwent 24-hour electrocardiogram recording and cancer patients were followed for up to 12.5 years for survival (median 21 months). 96 cancer patients (80%) died during follow-up (5-year survival: 27% [95%CI 19-35%]). Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) was more frequent in cancer patients vs. controls (8% vs. 0%, p=0.021). The number of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) over 24 hours was not increased in cancer patients vs. controls (median 4 vs. 9, p=0.2). In multivariable analysis, NSVT (HR 2.44, p=0.047) and PVCs (per 100, HR 1.021, p=0.047) were both significant predictors of mortality, independent of other univariable mortality predictors including tumour stage, cancer type, potassium concentration, prior surgery, prior cardiotoxic chemotherapy, and haemoglobin. In patients with colorectal and pancreatic cancer, ≥50 PVCs/24 hours predicted mortality (HR 2.30, p=0.0024), and was identified in 18% and 26% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia is more frequent in unselected patients with colorectal, pancreatic, and non-small cell lung cancer and together with PVCs predict long-term mortality. This raises the prospect of cardiovascular mortality being a target for future treatment interventions in selected cancers.

4.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158222

RESUMO

Background: Skeletal muscle (SM) mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle mass loss may worsen prognosis in chronic heart failure (CHF). Diet-induced obesity may also cause SM mitochondrial dysfunction as well as oxidative stress and inflammation, but obesity per se may be paradoxically associated with high SM mass and mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, as well as with enhanced survival in CHF. Methods: We investigated interactions between myocardial infarction(MI)-induced CHF and diet-induced obesity (12-wk 60% vs. standard 10% fat) in modulating gastrocnemius muscle (GM) mitochondrial ATP and tissue superoxide generation, oxidized glutathione (GSSG), cytokines and insulin signalling activation in 10-wk-old mice in the following groups: lean sham-operated, lean CHF (LCHF), obese CHF (ObCHF; all n = 8). The metabolic impact of obesity per se was investigated by pair-feeding ObCHF to standard diet with stabilized excess body weight until sacrifice at wk 8 post-MI. Results: Compared to sham, LCHF had low GM mass, paralleled by low mitochondrial ATP production and high mitochondrial reative oxygen species (ROS) production, pro-oxidative redox state, pro-inflammatory cytokine changes and low insulin signaling (p < 0.05). In contrast, excess body weight in pair-fed ObCHF was associated with high GM mass, preserved mitochondrial ATP and mitochondrial ROS production, unaltered redox state, tissue cytokines and insulin signaling (p = non significant vs. Sham, p < 0.05 vs. LCHF) despite higher superoxide generation from non-mitochondrial sources. Conclusions: CHF disrupts skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in lean rodents with low ATP and high mitochondrial ROS production, associated with tissue pro-inflammatory cytokine profile, low insulin signaling and muscle mass loss. Following CHF onset, obesity per se is associated with high skeletal muscle mass and preserved tissue ATP production, mitochondrial ROS production, redox state, cytokines and insulin signaling. These paradoxical and potentially favorable obesity-associated metabolic patterns could contribute to reported obesity-induced survival advantage in CHF.

5.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(12): 949-959, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease are at high clinical risk. We assessed the effect of the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor, empagliflozin, on total cardiovascular events and admissions to hospital in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial. METHODS: The EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial was a randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority trial of patients (aged ≥18 years) with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease done between August, 2010, and April, 2015. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to empagliflozin 10 mg or 25 mg, or placebo. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events: a composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal stroke, or non-fatal myocardial infarction. As prespecified, the effects of pooled empagliflozin versus placebo were assessed on total (first plus recurrent) events of major adverse cardiovascular events, fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction, fatal or non-fatal stroke, and admission to hospital for heart failure. We also did post-hoc analyses on additional cardiovascular and admission to hospital outcomes. We used statistical models that preserve randomisation and account for correlation of recurrent events, including negative binomial regression, as prespecified for the primary analyses. The EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01131676, and is closed to accrual. FINDINGS: In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, 7020 patients were randomly assigned and treated with empagliflozin 10 mg (n=2345), empagliflozin 25 mg (n=2342), or placebo (n=2333) and followed up for a median of 3·2 years (IQR 2·2 to 3·6) in the pooled empagliflozin group and 3·1 years (2·2 to 3·5) in the placebo group. Analysing total (first plus recurrent) events, empagliflozin versus placebo reduced the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (rate ratio [RR] 0·78 [95% CI 0·67 to 0·91]; p=0·0020; 12·88 [95% CI 3·74 to 22·02] events prevented per 1000 patient-years); fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction (0·79 [0·62 to 0·998]; p=0·049; 4·97 [-0·68 to 10·61] events prevented per 1000 patient-years); the composite of fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction, or coronary revascularisation (0·80 [0·67 to 0·95]; p=0·012; 11·65 [1·25 to 22·05] events prevented per 1000 patient-years); admission to hospital for heart failure (0·58 [0·42 to 0·81]; p=0·0012; 9·67 [3·07 to 16·28] events prevented per 1000 patient-years); and all-cause admission to hospital (0·83 [0·76 to 0·91]; p<0·0001; 50·41 [26·20 to 74·63] events prevented per 1000 patient-years). For outcomes significantly reduced with empagliflozin, risk reductions were numerically larger for total events than for first events. Total fatal or non-fatal stroke was not significantly different between treatment groups (RR 1·10 [95% CI 0·82 to 1·49]; p=0·52). INTERPRETATION: Empagliflozin reduced the total burden of cardiovascular complications and all-cause admission to hospital in patients with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. FUNDING: The Boehringer Ingelheim and Lilly Alliance.

6.
Lancet ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose has been shown to improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure and iron deficiency. We aimed to evaluate the effect of ferric carboxymaltose, compared with placebo, on outcomes in patients who were stabilised after an episode of acute heart failure. METHODS: AFFIRM-AHF was a multicentre, double-blind, randomised trial done at 121 sites in Europe, South America, and Singapore. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, were hospitalised for acute heart failure with concomitant iron deficiency (defined as ferritin <100 µg/L, or 100-299 µg/L with transferrin saturation <20%), and had a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 50%. Before hospital discharge, participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous ferric carboxymaltose or placebo for up to 24 weeks, dosed according to the extent of iron deficiency. To maintain masking of patients and study personnel, treatments were administered in black syringes by personnel not involved in any study assessments. The primary outcome was a composite of total hospitalisations for heart failure and cardiovascular death up to 52 weeks after randomisation, analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment and had at least one post-randomisation data point. Secondary outcomes were the composite of total cardiovascular hospitalisations and cardiovascular death; cardiovascular death; total heart failure hospitalisations; time to first heart failure hospitalisation or cardiovascular death; and days lost due to heart failure hospitalisations or cardiovascular death, all evaluated up to 52 weeks after randomisation. Safety was assessed in all patients for whom study treatment was started. A pre-COVID-19 sensitivity analysis on the primary and secondary outcomes was prespecified. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02937454, and has now been completed. FINDINGS: Between March 21, 2017, and July 30, 2019, 1525 patients were screened, of whom 1132 patients were randomly assigned to study groups. Study treatment was started in 1110 patients, and 1108 (558 in the carboxymaltose group and 550 in the placebo group) had at least one post-randomisation value. 293 primary events (57·2 per 100 patient-years) occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 372 (72·5 per 100 patient-years) occurred in the placebo group (rate ratio [RR] 0·79, 95% CI 0·62-1·01, p=0·059). 370 total cardiovascular hospitalisations and cardiovascular deaths occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 451 occurred in the placebo group (RR 0·80, 95% CI 0·64-1·00, p=0·050). There was no difference in cardiovascular death between the two groups (77 [14%] of 558 in the ferric carboxymaltose group vs 78 [14%] in the placebo group; hazard ratio [HR] 0·96, 95% CI 0·70-1·32, p=0·81). 217 total heart failure hospitalisations occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 294 occurred in the placebo group (RR 0·74; 95% CI 0·58-0·94, p=0·013). The composite of first heart failure hospitalisation or cardiovascular death occurred in 181 (32%) patients in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 209 (38%) in the placebo group (HR 0·80, 95% CI 0·66-0·98, p=0·030). Fewer days were lost due to heart failure hospitalisations and cardiovascular death for patients assigned to ferric carboxymaltose compared with placebo (369 days per 100 patient-years vs 548 days per 100 patient-years; RR 0·67, 95% CI 0·47-0·97, p=0·035). Serious adverse events occurred in 250 (45%) of 559 patients in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 282 (51%) of 551 patients in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION: In patients with iron deficiency, a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 50%, and who were stabilised after an episode of acute heart failure, treatment with ferric carboxymaltose was safe and reduced the risk of heart failure hospitalisations, with no apparent effect on the risk of cardiovascular death. FUNDING: Vifor Pharma.

7.
Circulation ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198491

RESUMO

Background: The FIDELIO-DKD trial evaluated the effect of the nonsteroidal, selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist finerenone on kidney and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) with optimized renin-angiotensin system blockade. Compared with placebo, finerenone reduced the composite kidney and CV outcomes. We report the effect of finerenone on individual CV outcomes and in patients with and without history of atherosclerotic CV disease (CVD). Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included patients with T2D and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio 30-5000 mg/g and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥25-<75 mL/min/1.73 m2, treated with optimized renin-angiotensin system blockade. Patients with a history of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction were excluded. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive finerenone or placebo. The composite CV outcome included time to CV death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure. Prespecified CV analyses included analyses of the components of this composite and outcomes according to CVD history at baseline. Results: Between September 2015 and June 2018, 13,911 patients were screened and 5674 were randomized; 45.9% of patients had CVD at baseline. Over a median follow-up of 2.6 years (interquartile range, 2.0-3.4 years), finerenone reduced the risk of the composite CV outcome compared with placebo (hazard ratio [HR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-0.99; P=0.034), with no significant interaction between patients with and without CVD (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.71-1.01 in patients with a history of CVD; HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.68-1.08 in patients without a history of CVD; P-value for interaction, 0.85). The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar between treatment arms, with a low incidence of hyperkalemia-related permanent treatment discontinuation (2.3% with finerenone vs 0.8% with placebo in patients with CVD and 2.2% with finerenone vs 1.0% with placebo in patients without CVD). Conclusions: Among patients with CKD and T2D, finerenone reduced incidence of the composite CV outcome, with no evidence of differences in treatment effect based on pre-existing CVD status. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT02540993 (Funded by Bayer AG).

8.
JACC Heart Fail ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199251

RESUMO

The Heart Failure Academic Research Consortium is a partnership between the Heart Failure Collaboratory (HFC) and Academic Research Consortium (ARC), comprised of leading heart failure (HF) academic research investigators, patients, United States (US) Food and Drug Administration representatives, and industry members from the US and Europe. A series of meetings were convened to establish definitions and key concepts for the evaluation of HF therapies including optimal medical and device background therapy, clinical trial design elements and statistical concepts, and study endpoints. This manuscript summarizes the expert panel discussions as consensus recommendations focused on populations and endpoint definitions; it is not exhaustive or restrictive, but designed to stimulate HF clinical trial innovation.

9.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191637

RESUMO

AIMS: Discontinuation or non-publication of trials may hinder scientific progress and violates the commitment made to research participants. We sought to identify the prevalence of discontinuation and non-publication of heart failure (HF) clinical trials. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a cross-sectional search of ClinicalTrials.gov to identify all completed and discontinued HF clinical trials. We limited our search to only include trials that were completed by 31 December 2017. Trials were investigated to identify reasons for discontinuation. Informative termination was defined as trial termination due to safety or efficacy concerns. Data pertaining to the trial phase, funding, intervention, enrolment, and trial completion date were extracted for each trial. A total of 572 trials were included. Of these, 21% (n = 118) were discontinued before completion. Patient accrual was the most frequently cited reason (n = 42; 36%) for trial discontinuation, followed by informative termination (n = 16; 14%) and funding (n = 14; 12%). Overall, 24 780 patients were enrolled in trials that were terminated. Of trials that were completed and not terminated, nearly one-third (n = 131/454; 29%) were not published. Seventy-nine (24%) trials were published within 12 months, 192 (59%) within 24 months, and 252 (78%) trials within 36 months. CONCLUSIONS: Discontinuation and non-publication of HF trials is common. This raises ethical concerns towards participants who volunteer for research and are exposed to potential risks, inconvenience, and discomfort without furthering scientific progress.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(20): 2368-2378, 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183511

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has profoundly changed clinical care and research, including the conduct of clinical trials, and the clinical research ecosystem will need to adapt to this transformed environment. The Heart Failure Academic Research Consortium is a partnership between the Heart Failure Collaboratory and the Academic Research Consortium, composed of academic investigators from the United States and Europe, patients, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the National Institutes of Health, and industry members. A series of meetings were convened to address the challenges caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, review options for maintaining or altering best practices, and establish key recommendations for the conduct and analysis of clinical trials for cardiovascular disease and heart failure. This paper summarizes the discussions and expert consensus recommendations.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Determinação de Ponto Final , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estatística como Assunto
11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094495

RESUMO

The co-occurrence of cancer and heart failure (HF) represents a significant clinical drawback as each disease interferes with the treatment of the other. In addition to shared risk factors, a growing body of experimental and clinical evidence reveals numerous commonalities in the biology underlying both pathologies. Inflammation emerges as a common hallmark for both diseases as it contributes to the initiation and progression of both HF and cancer. Under stress, malignant and cardiac cells change their metabolic preferences to survive, which makes these metabolic derangements a great basis to develop intersection strategies and therapies to combat both diseases. Furthermore, genetic predisposition and clonal haematopoiesis are common drivers for both conditions and they hold great clinical relevance in the context of personalized medicine. Additionally, altered angiogenesis is a common hallmark for failing hearts and tumours and represents a promising substrate to target in both diseases. Cardiac cells and malignant cells interact with their surrounding environment called stroma. This interaction mediates the progression of the two pathologies and understanding the structure and function of each stromal component may pave the way for innovative therapeutic strategies and improved outcomes in patients. The interdisciplinary collaboration between cardiologists and oncologists is essential to establish unified guidelines. To this aim, pre-clinical models that mimic the human situation, where both pathologies coexist, are needed to understand all the aspects of the bidirectional relationship between cancer and HF. Finally, adequately powered clinical studies, including patients from all ages, and men and women, with proper adjudication of both cancer and cardiovascular endpoints, are essential to accurately study these two pathologies at the same time.

12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017862

RESUMO

The Heart Failure Academic Research Consortium is a partnership between the Heart Failure Collaboratory (HFC) and Academic Research Consortium (ARC), comprised of leading heart failure (HF) academic research investigators, patients, United States (US) Food and Drug Administration representatives, and industry members from the US and Europe. A series of meetings were convened to establish definitions and key concepts for the evaluation of HF therapies including optimal medical and device background therapy, clinical trial design elements and statistical concepts, and study endpoints. This manuscript summarizes the expert panel discussions as consensus recommendations focused on populations and endpoint definitions; it is not exhaustive or restrictive, but designed to stimulate HF clinical trial innovation.

13.
Circulation ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081531

RESUMO

Background: Empagliflozin reduces the risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure in patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, with or without diabetes, but additional data are needed about the effect of the drug on inpatient and outpatient events that reflect worsening heart failure. Methods: We randomly assigned 3730 patients with class II-IV heart failure with an ejection fraction of ≤40% to double-blind treatment with placebo or empagliflozin (10 mg once daily), in addition to recommended treatments for heart failure, for a median of 16 months. We prospectively collected information on inpatient and outpatient events reflecting worsening heart failure and prespecified their analysis in individual and composite endpoints. Results: Empagliflozin reduced the combined risk of death, hospitalization for heart failure or an emergent/urgent heart failure visit requiring intravenous treatment (415 vs 519 patients; empagliflozin vs placebo, respectively; hazard ratio 0.76, 95% CI: 0.67-0.87), P <0.0001. This benefit reached statistical significance at 12 days after randomization. Empagliflozin reduced the total number of heart failure hospitalizations that required intensive care (hazard ratio 0.67, 95% CI 0.50-0.90, P=0.008) and that required a vasopressor or positive inotropic drug or mechanical or surgical intervention (hazard ratio 0.64, 95% CI: 0.47-0.87, P=0.005). As compared with placebo, fewer patients in the empagliflozin group reported intensification of diuretics (297 vs 414), hazard ratio 0.67, 95% CI: 0.56-0.78, P<0.0001. Additionally, patients assigned to empagliflozin were 20-40% more likely to experience an improvement in NYHA functional class and were 20-40% less likely to experience worsening of NYHA functional class, with statistically significant effects that were apparent 28 days after randomization and maintained during long-term follow-up. The risk of any inpatient or outpatient worsening heart failure event in the placebo group was high (48.1 per 100 patient-years of follow-up), and it was reduced by empagliflozin (hazard ratio 0.70, 95% CI: 0.63-0.78), P<0.0001. Conclusions: In patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, empagliflozin reduced the risk and total number of inpatient and outpatient worsening heart failure events, with benefits seen early after initiation of treatment and sustained for the duration of double-blind therapy. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT03057977.

14.
Circulation ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095032

RESUMO

Background: In EMPEROR-Reduced, empagliflozin reduced cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization, total HF hospitalizations, and slowed the progressive decline in kidney function in patients with HF and a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), with and without diabetes. We aim to study the effect of empagliflozin on cardiovascular and kidney outcomes across the spectrum of kidney function. Methods: In this pre-specified analysis, patients were categorized by the presence or absence of CKD at baseline (eGFR<60ml/min/1.73m2 or UACR>300mg/g). The primary and key secondary outcomes were (1) a composite of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization (primary outcome); (2) total HF hospitalizations, and (3) eGFR slope. The direct impact on kidney events was investigated by a prespecified composite kidney outcome (defined as a sustained profound decline in eGFR, chronic dialysis or transplant). The median follow-up was 16 months. Results: 3730 patients were randomized to empagliflozin or placebo, of whom 1978 (53%) had CKD. Empagliflozin reduced the primary outcome and total HF hospitalizations in patients with and without CKD: primary outcome HR=0.78 (95%CI=0.65-0.93) and HR=0.72 (95%CI=0.58-0.90), respectively; interaction P=0.63. Empagliflozin slowed the slope of eGFR decline by 1.11 (0.23-1.98) ml/min/1.73m2/year in patients with CKD and by 2.41 (1.49-3.32) ml/min/1.73m2/year in patients without CKD. The risk of the composite kidney outcome was reduced similarly in patients with and without CKD: HR=0.53 (95%CI=0.31-0.91) and HR=0.46 (95%CI=0.22-0.99), respectively. The effect of empagliflozin on the primary composite outcome and the key secondary outcomes was consistent across a broad range of baseline kidney function, measured by clinically relevant eGFR subgroups or by albuminuria, including patients with eGFR as low as 20 ml/min/1.73m2. Empagliflozin was well tolerated in CKD patients. Conclusions: In EMPEROR-reduced, empagliflozin had a beneficial effect on the key efficacy outcomes and slowed the rate of kidney function decline in patients with and without CKD and regardless of the severity of kidney impairment at baseline. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT03057977.

15.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002110

RESUMO

AIMS: Elderly patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have worse prognosis and less often receive guideline-recommended therapies. We aim to better understand the underlying pathophysiological processes associated with aging in HFrEF potentially leading to targeted therapies in this vulnerable population. METHODS AND RESULTS: From a panel of 363 cardiovascular biomarkers available in 1,611 patients with HFrEF in the BIOSTAT-CHF index cohort and cross-validated in 823 patients in the BIOSTAT-CHF validation cohort, we tested which biomarkers were dysregulated in patients aged > 75yr versus <65yr. Secondly, pathway overrepresentation analyses were performed to identify biological pathways linked to higher plasma concentrations of biomarkers in elderly versus younger patients. After adjustment, multiple test correction (FDR 1%), and cross-validation, 27/363 biomarkers were associated with older age, 22 positively, and 5 negatively. The biomarkers that were positively associated with older age were associated with tumor cell regulation, extra-cellular matrix organization, and inflammatory processes, whereas biomarkers negatively associated with older age were associated with pathways that may point to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Among the 27 biomarkers, WFDC2 (WAP Four-Disulfide-Core-Domain-2) - that broadly functions as a protease inhibitor - was associated with older age and had the strongest association with all outcomes. No protein-by-sex interaction was observed. CONCLUSIONS: In elderly HFrEF patients, pathways associated with extra-cellular matrix organization, inflammatory processes, and tumor cell regulation were activated, while pathways associated with tumor proliferation functions were down-regulated. These findings may help in a better understanding of the aging processes in HFrEF and identify potential therapeutic targets. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Elderly patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have worse prognosis and less often receive guideline-recommended therapies. Using a large set of circulating proteins, elderly patients had higher concentrations of proteins associated with tumor cell regulation, extra-cellular matrix organization, and inflammatory processes, whereas pathways that may point to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis were down-regulated. WAP Four-Disulfide-Core-Domain-2 was associated with older age and had the strongest association with an increased risk of all outcomes. Understanding the underlying pathophysiological processes associated with aging in HFrEF may potentially lead to targeted therapies in this vulnerable population.

16.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068051

RESUMO

The Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has recently issued a position paper on the role of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in heart failure (HF). The present document provides an update of the position paper, based of new clinical trial evidence. Accordingly, the following recommendations are given: • Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin empagliflozin, or ertugliflozin have consistently demonstrated to be effective for the prevention of HF hospitalization in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease or at high cardiovascular risk. The specifically listed agents are recommended. • Dapagliflozin or empagliflozin are recommended to reduce the combined risk of HF hospitalization and cardiovascular death in symptomatic patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction, already receiving guideline-directed medical therapy, regardless of the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

17.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency (ID) is frequent in heart failure (HF), linked with exercise intolerance and poor prognosis. Intravenous iron repletion improves clinical status in HF patients with LVEF≤45%. However, uncertainty exists about the accuracy of serum biomarkers in diagnosing ID. STUDY AIMS: 1) to identify the iron biomarker with the greatest accuracy for the diagnosis of ID in bone marrow in patients with ischaemic HF; 2) to establish the prevalence of ID using this biomarker and its prognostic value in HF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bone marrow was stained for iron in 30 patients with ischaemic HF with LVEF≤45% and 10 healthy controls, and ID was diagnosed for 0-1 grades (Gale scale). 791 patients with HF with LVEF≤45% were prospectively followed-up for 3 years. Serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were assessed as iron biomarkers. Most patients with HF (25, 83%) had ID in bone marrow, but none of the controls (p<0.001). Serum sTfR had the best accuracy in predicting ID in bone marrow (AUC: 0.920, 95%CI: 0.761-0.987, for cut-off 1.25 mg/L sensitivity 84%, specificity 100%). Serum sTfR was ≥1.25 mg/L in 47% of HF patients, in 56% and 46% of anaemics and non-anaemics, respectively (p<0.05). The reclassification methods revealed that serum sTfR significantly added the prognostic value to the baseline prognostic model, and to the greater extent than plasma NT-proBNP. Based on internal derivation and validation procedures, serum sTfR ≥1.41 mg/L was the optimal threshold for predicting 3-year mortality, independent of other established variables. CONCLUSIONS: High serum sTfR accurately reflects depleted iron stores in bone marrow in patients with HF, and identifies those with a high 3-year mortality.

18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063412

RESUMO

AIMS: Depression is a frequent comorbidity in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Telemonitoring has emerged as a novel option in CHF care. However, patients with depression have been excluded in most telemedicine studies. This pre-specified subgroup analysis of the Telemedical Interventional Monitoring in Heart Failure (TIM-HF) trial investigates the effect of telemonitoring on depressive symptoms over a period of 12 months. METHODS AND RESULTS: The TIM-HF study randomly assigned 710 patients with CHF to either usual care (UC) or a telemedical intervention (TM) using non-invasive devices for daily monitoring electrocardiogram, blood pressure and body weight. Depression was evaluated by the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) with scores ≥10 defining clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Mixed model repeated measures were performed to calculate changes in PHQ-9 score. Quality of life was measured by the Short Form-36. At baseline, 156 patients had a PHQ-9 score ≥10 points (TM: 79, UC: 77) with a mean of 13.2 points indicating moderate depressiveness. Patients randomized to telemedicine showed an improvement of their PHQ-9 scores, whereas UC patients remained constant (P = 0.004). Quality of life parameters were improved in the TM group compared to UC. Adjustment was performed for follow-up, New York Heart Association class, medication, age, current living status, number of hospitalizations within the last 12 months and serum creatinine. In the study population without depression, the PHQ-9 score was similar at baseline and follow-up. CONCLUSION: Telemedical care improved depressive symptoms and had a positive influence on quality of life in patients with CHF and moderate depression.

19.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111389

RESUMO

Heart failure is a major health and economic challenge in both developing and developed countries. Despite advances in pharmacological and device therapies for patients with a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and heart failure, their quality of life and exercise capacity are often persistently impaired, morbidity and mortality remain high and the health economic and societal costs are considerable. For patients with heart failure and preserved LVEF, diuretic management has an essential role for controlling congestion and symptoms, even if no intervention has convincingly shown to reduce morbidity or mortality. Remote monitoring might improve care delivery and clinical outcomes for patients regardless of LVEF. A great variety of innovative remote monitoring technologies and algorithms are being introduced, including patient self-managed testing, wearable devices, technologies either integrated into established clinically indicated therapeutic devices, such as pacemakers and defibrillators, or as stand-alone are in development providing the promise of further improvements in service delivery and clinical outcomes. In this article, we will discuss unmet needs in the management of patients with heart failure, how remote monitoring might contribute to future solutions, and provide an overview of current and novel remote monitoring technologies.

20.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 2983-2991, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121218

RESUMO

AIMS: Impaired autonomic nervous system regulation is frequently observed in patients with stroke. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the impact of cardiac autonomic tone on functional outcome after the early post-stroke rehabilitation. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred and three consecutive patients (67 ± 11 years, body mass index (BMI) 27.1 ± 5.4 kg/m2 , 64% men) with ischaemic (84% of patients) and haemorrhagic stroke were studied. Depressed heart rate variability (HRV), as a surrogate marker of increased sympathetic tone, was defined by the standard deviation of NN intervals < 100 ms and HRV triangular index ≤ 20 assessed from a 24 h Holter electrocardiogram at admission to rehabilitation (23 ± 16 days after stroke). Twenty-two per cent of patients had depressed HRV at baseline and were comparable with patients with normal HRV with regard to their functional [Barthel Index (BI), modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and Rivermead Motor Assessment (RMA)] and biochemical status. After a 4-week follow-up, 70% of patients with depressed HRV showed a cumulative functional disability, defined by mRS ≥ 4, BI ≤ 70, and RMA ≤ 5, in contrast to patients with normal HRV (35%, P = 0.003). Patients with depressed HRV showed a worse functional status by BI (-16%, P < 0.001), RMA (-12%, P < 0.05), and mRS (+16%, P < 0.01), compared with patients with normal HRV. Cumulative functional disability was associated with depressed HRV (odds ratio 4.25, 95% confidence interval 1.56-11.54, P < 0.005) after adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index (odds ratio 4.6, 95% confidence interval 1.42-14.97, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of autonomic cardiovascular dysregulation in patients with subacute stroke was associated with adverse functional outcome after the early post-stroke rehabilitation.

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