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1.
Muscle Nerve ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618930

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Respiratory status is a key determinant of prognosis in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We aimed to evaluate the determinants of diaphragm ultrasound and its performance in predicting restrictive respiratory patterns in DMD. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of DMD patients followed in our center and admitted for an annual checkup from 2015 to 2018. We included DMD patients who underwent diaphragm ultrasound and pulmonary functional tests. RESULTS: This study included 74 patients with DMD. The right diaphragm thickening fraction (TF) was significantly associated with age (p = 0.001), Walton score (p = 0.012), inspiratory capacity (IC) (p = 0.004), upright Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) (p < 0.0001), supine FVC (p = 0.038), and maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) (p = 0.002). Right diaphragm excursion was significantly associated with age (p < 0.0001), steroid use (p = 0.008), history of spinal fusion (p < 0.0001), BMI (p = 0.002), Walton score (p < 0.0001), IC (p < 0.0001), upright FVC (p < 0.0001), supine FVC (p < 0.0001), and MIP (p < 0.0001). A right diaphragm TF>28% and a right diaphragm excursion>25.4mm were associated with an FVC>50% with, respectively, an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.95 (p =0.001) and 0.93 (p<0.001). A left diaphragm TF>26.8% and a left diaphragm excursion>21.5 mm were associated with an FVC>50% with, respectively, an AUC of 0.95 (p = 0.011) and 0.97 (p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: Diaphragm excursion and diaphragm TF can predict restrictive pulmonary insufficiency in DMD.

2.
JAMA ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606578

RESUMO

Importance: The evidence for benefit of convalescent plasma for critically ill patients with COVID-19 is inconclusive. Objective: To determine whether convalescent plasma would improve outcomes for critically ill adults with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: The ongoing Randomized, Embedded, Multifactorial, Adaptive Platform Trial for Community-Acquired Pneumonia (REMAP-CAP) enrolled and randomized 4763 adults with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 between March 9, 2020, and January 18, 2021, within at least 1 domain; 2011 critically ill adults were randomized to open-label interventions in the immunoglobulin domain at 129 sites in 4 countries. Follow-up ended on April 19, 2021. Interventions: The immunoglobulin domain randomized participants to receive 2 units of high-titer, ABO-compatible convalescent plasma (total volume of 550 mL ± 150 mL) within 48 hours of randomization (n = 1084) or no convalescent plasma (n = 916). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary ordinal end point was organ support-free days (days alive and free of intensive care unit-based organ support) up to day 21 (range, -1 to 21 days; patients who died were assigned -1 day). The primary analysis was an adjusted bayesian cumulative logistic model. Superiority was defined as the posterior probability of an odds ratio (OR) greater than 1 (threshold for trial conclusion of superiority >99%). Futility was defined as the posterior probability of an OR less than 1.2 (threshold for trial conclusion of futility >95%). An OR greater than 1 represented improved survival, more organ support-free days, or both. The prespecified secondary outcomes included in-hospital survival; 28-day survival; 90-day survival; respiratory support-free days; cardiovascular support-free days; progression to invasive mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal mechanical oxygenation, or death; intensive care unit length of stay; hospital length of stay; World Health Organization ordinal scale score at day 14; venous thromboembolic events at 90 days; and serious adverse events. Results: Among the 2011 participants who were randomized (median age, 61 [IQR, 52 to 70] years and 645/1998 [32.3%] women), 1990 (99%) completed the trial. The convalescent plasma intervention was stopped after the prespecified criterion for futility was met. The median number of organ support-free days was 0 (IQR, -1 to 16) in the convalescent plasma group and 3 (IQR, -1 to 16) in the no convalescent plasma group. The in-hospital mortality rate was 37.3% (401/1075) for the convalescent plasma group and 38.4% (347/904) for the no convalescent plasma group and the median number of days alive and free of organ support was 14 (IQR, 3 to 18) and 14 (IQR, 7 to 18), respectively. The median-adjusted OR was 0.97 (95% credible interval, 0.83 to 1.15) and the posterior probability of futility (OR <1.2) was 99.4% for the convalescent plasma group compared with the no convalescent plasma group. The treatment effects were consistent across the primary outcome and the 11 secondary outcomes. Serious adverse events were reported in 3.0% (32/1075) of participants in the convalescent plasma group and in 1.3% (12/905) of participants in the no convalescent plasma group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among critically ill adults with confirmed COVID-19, treatment with 2 units of high-titer, ABO-compatible convalescent plasma had a low likelihood of providing improvement in the number of organ support-free days. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02735707.

3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 673693, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408744

RESUMO

Background: Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) is widely used to treat patients with COVID-19 in China; however, its efficacy remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the efficacy of Tα1 as a COVID-19 therapy. Methods: We performed a multicenter cohort study in five tertiary hospitals in the Hubei province of China between December 2019 and March 2020. The patient non-recovery rate was used as the primary outcome. Results: All crude outcomes, including non-recovery rate (65/306 vs. 290/1,976, p = 0.003), in-hospital mortality rate (62/306 vs. 271/1,976, p = 0.003), intubation rate (31/306 vs. 106/1,976, p = 0.001), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) incidence (104/306 vs. 499/1,976, p = 0.001), acute kidney injury (AKI) incidence (26/306 vs. 66/1,976, p < 0.001), and length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay (14.9 ± 12.7 vs. 8.7 ± 8.2 days, p < 0.001), were significantly higher in the Tα1 treatment group. After adjusting for confounding factors, Tα1 use was found to be significantly associated with a higher non-recovery rate than non-Tα1 use (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1, p = 0.028). An increased risk of non-recovery rate associated with Tα1 use was observed in the patient subgroups with maximum sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores ≥2 (OR 2.0, 95%CI 1.4-2.9, p = 0.024), a record of ICU admission (OR 5.4, 95%CI 2.1-14.0, p < 0.001), and lower PaO2/FiO2 values (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.1-3.4, p = 0.046). Furthermore, later initiation of Tα1 use was associated with a higher non-recovery rate. Conclusion: Tα1 use in COVID-19 patients was associated with an increased non-recovery rate, especially in those with greater disease severity.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/epidemiologia , Timalfasina/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Prognóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Timalfasina/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
N Engl J Med ; 385(9): 790-802, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thrombosis and inflammation may contribute to the risk of death and complications among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). We hypothesized that therapeutic-dose anticoagulation may improve outcomes in noncritically ill patients who are hospitalized with Covid-19. METHODS: In this open-label, adaptive, multiplatform, controlled trial, we randomly assigned patients who were hospitalized with Covid-19 and who were not critically ill (which was defined as an absence of critical care-level organ support at enrollment) to receive pragmatically defined regimens of either therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin or usual-care pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. The primary outcome was organ support-free days, evaluated on an ordinal scale that combined in-hospital death (assigned a value of -1) and the number of days free of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support up to day 21 among patients who survived to hospital discharge. This outcome was evaluated with the use of a Bayesian statistical model for all patients and according to the baseline d-dimer level. RESULTS: The trial was stopped when prespecified criteria for the superiority of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation were met. Among 2219 patients in the final analysis, the probability that therapeutic-dose anticoagulation increased organ support-free days as compared with usual-care thromboprophylaxis was 98.6% (adjusted odds ratio, 1.27; 95% credible interval, 1.03 to 1.58). The adjusted absolute between-group difference in survival until hospital discharge without organ support favoring therapeutic-dose anticoagulation was 4.0 percentage points (95% credible interval, 0.5 to 7.2). The final probability of the superiority of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation over usual-care thromboprophylaxis was 97.3% in the high d-dimer cohort, 92.9% in the low d-dimer cohort, and 97.3% in the unknown d-dimer cohort. Major bleeding occurred in 1.9% of the patients receiving therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and in 0.9% of those receiving thromboprophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: In noncritically ill patients with Covid-19, an initial strategy of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin increased the probability of survival to hospital discharge with reduced use of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support as compared with usual-care thromboprophylaxis. (ATTACC, ACTIV-4a, and REMAP-CAP ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT04372589, NCT04505774, NCT04359277, and NCT02735707.).


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sobrevida
5.
N Engl J Med ; 385(9): 777-789, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thrombosis and inflammation may contribute to morbidity and mortality among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). We hypothesized that therapeutic-dose anticoagulation would improve outcomes in critically ill patients with Covid-19. METHODS: In an open-label, adaptive, multiplatform, randomized clinical trial, critically ill patients with severe Covid-19 were randomly assigned to a pragmatically defined regimen of either therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin or pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis in accordance with local usual care. The primary outcome was organ support-free days, evaluated on an ordinal scale that combined in-hospital death (assigned a value of -1) and the number of days free of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support up to day 21 among patients who survived to hospital discharge. RESULTS: The trial was stopped when the prespecified criterion for futility was met for therapeutic-dose anticoagulation. Data on the primary outcome were available for 1098 patients (534 assigned to therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and 564 assigned to usual-care thromboprophylaxis). The median value for organ support-free days was 1 (interquartile range, -1 to 16) among the patients assigned to therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and was 4 (interquartile range, -1 to 16) among the patients assigned to usual-care thromboprophylaxis (adjusted proportional odds ratio, 0.83; 95% credible interval, 0.67 to 1.03; posterior probability of futility [defined as an odds ratio <1.2], 99.9%). The percentage of patients who survived to hospital discharge was similar in the two groups (62.7% and 64.5%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio, 0.84; 95% credible interval, 0.64 to 1.11). Major bleeding occurred in 3.8% of the patients assigned to therapeutic-dose anticoagulation and in 2.3% of those assigned to usual-care pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with Covid-19, an initial strategy of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation with heparin did not result in a greater probability of survival to hospital discharge or a greater number of days free of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support than did usual-care pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. (REMAP-CAP, ACTIV-4a, and ATTACC ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT02735707, NCT04505774, NCT04359277, and NCT04372589.).


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Respiração Artificial , Falha de Tratamento
6.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(8): 867-886, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251506

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the efficacy of lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Critically ill adults with COVID-19 were randomized to receive lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, combination therapy of lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine or no antiviral therapy (control). The primary endpoint was an ordinal scale of organ support-free days. Analyses used a Bayesian cumulative logistic model and expressed treatment effects as an adjusted odds ratio (OR) where an OR > 1 is favorable. RESULTS: We randomized 694 patients to receive lopinavir-ritonavir (n = 255), hydroxychloroquine (n = 50), combination therapy (n = 27) or control (n = 362). The median organ support-free days among patients in lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, and combination therapy groups was 4 (- 1 to 15), 0 (- 1 to 9) and-1 (- 1 to 7), respectively, compared to 6 (- 1 to 16) in the control group with in-hospital mortality of 88/249 (35%), 17/49 (35%), 13/26 (50%), respectively, compared to 106/353 (30%) in the control group. The three interventions decreased organ support-free days compared to control (OR [95% credible interval]: 0.73 [0.55, 0.99], 0.57 [0.35, 0.83] 0.41 [0.24, 0.72]), yielding posterior probabilities that reached the threshold futility (≥ 99.0%), and high probabilities of harm (98.0%, 99.9% and > 99.9%, respectively). The three interventions reduced hospital survival compared with control (OR [95% CrI]: 0.65 [0.45, 0.95], 0.56 [0.30, 0.89], and 0.36 [0.17, 0.73]), yielding high probabilities of harm (98.5% and 99.4% and 99.8%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Among critically ill patients with COVID-19, lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, or combination therapy worsened outcomes compared to no antiviral therapy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ritonavir , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Teorema de Bayes , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Terminal , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Soins ; 66(856): 37-41, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187653

RESUMO

The deployment of the white plan in intensive care as part of the management of COVD-19 required a new organisation at every level of Raymond-Poincaré hospital in Garches. The closure of certain wards enabled equipment and staff to be pooled, and support services stepped up to the plate by reinventing themselves.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Age Ageing ; 50(5): 1546-1556, 2021 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older patients have a less pronounced immune response to infection, which may also influence infection biomarkers. There is currently insufficient data regarding clinical effects of procalcitonin (PCT) to guide antibiotic treatment in older patients. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: We performed an individual patient data meta-analysis to investigate the association of age on effects of PCT-guided antibiotic stewardship regarding antibiotic use and outcome. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We had access to 9,421 individual infection patients from 28 randomized controlled trials comparing PCT-guided antibiotic therapy (intervention group) or standard care. We stratified patients according to age in four groups (<75 years [n = 7,079], 75-80 years [n = 1,034], 81-85 years [n = 803] and >85 years [n = 505]). The primary endpoint was the duration of antibiotic treatment and the secondary endpoints were 30-day mortality and length of stay. RESULTS: Compared to control patients, mean duration of antibiotic therapy in PCT-guided patients was significantly reduced by 24, 22, 26 and 24% in the four age groups corresponding to adjusted differences in antibiotic days of -1.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] -2.36 to -1.62), -1.98 (95% CI -2.94 to -1.02), -2.20 (95% CI -3.15 to -1.25) and - 2.10 (95% CI -3.29 to -0.91) with no differences among age groups. There was no increase in the risk for mortality in any of the age groups. Effects were similar in subgroups by infection type, blood culture result and clinical setting (P interaction >0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This large individual patient data meta-analysis confirms that, similar to younger patients, PCT-guided antibiotic treatment in older patients is associated with significantly reduced antibiotic exposures and no increase in mortality.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pró-Calcitonina , Idoso , Algoritmos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(7): 2146-2154, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939888

RESUMO

Malnutrition and swallowing disorders are common in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients. We assessed, in adult DMD with home mechanical ventilation (HMV) and cough assist device, its prevalence and the relationships with respiratory muscle strength and long-term respiratory prognosis. We reviewed the patients (n = 117, age 18-39 years [median 24]), followed in a reference center, from 2006 to 2015, to obtain clinical baseline, nutritional status, vital capacity (VC), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP). The median body mass index (BMI) was low (15.6 kg/m²). Included patients had severe restrictive respiratory function with a median VC of 10.5% [7-17] of the predicted value. All patients were on HMV. Prevalence of malnutrition, swallowing disorders, and gastrostomy were respectively 62%, 34%, and 11%. BMI and serum albumin level were significantly associated with MIP, MEP, and VC. The 1-year/5-years cumulative incidences of respiratory events (pulmonary sepsis and acute respiratory distress) were, respectively, 20.7%/44.5%. Using univariate analysis, predictive factors for respiratory events were swallowing disorders (p = .001), transthyretinemia (p = .034), MIP (p = .039), and MEP (p = .03) but not BMI or albuminemia. Using multivariate analysis, only swallowing disorders remained significantly associated with respiratory events (OR = 4.2, IC 95% 1.31-12.2, p = .01). In conclusion, this study highlights the interrelationships between nutritional intake, swallowing function, airway clearance, and respiratory function in adult DMD. A multidisciplinary approach focusing on these previous factors is essential to optimize DMD patient health.

11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(10): 1488-1493, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020032

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is commonly used to treat severe COVID-19, although the clinical outcome of such treatment remains unclear. This study evaluated the effectiveness of IVIG treatment in severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This retrospective multicentre study evaluated 28-day mortality in severe COVID-19 patients with or without IVIG treatment. Each patient treated with IVIG was matched with one untreated patient. Logistic regression and inverse probability weighting (IPW) were used to control confounding factors. RESULTS: The study included 850 patients (421 IVIG-treated patients and 429 non-IVIG-treated patients). After matching, 406 patients per group remained. No significant difference in 28-day mortality was observed after IPW analysis (average treatment effect (ATE) = 0.008, 95% CI -0.081 to 0.097, p 0.863). There were no significant differences between the IVIG group and non-IVIG group for acute respiratory distress syndrome, diffuse intravascular coagulation, myocardial injury, acute hepatic injury, shock, acute kidney injury, non-invasive mechanical ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation, continuous renal replacement therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation except for prone position ventilation (ATE = -0.022, 95% CI -0.041 to -0.002, p 0.028). DISCUSSION: IVIG treatment was not associated with significant changes in 28-day mortality in severe COVID-19 patients. The effectiveness of IVIG in treating patients with severe COVID-19 needs to be further investigated through future studies.

13.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e045041, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980526

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: International guidelines include early nutritional support (≤48 hour after admission), 20-25 kcal/kg/day, and 1.2-2 g/kg/day protein at the acute phase of critical illness. Recent data challenge the appropriateness of providing standard amounts of calories and protein during acute critical illness. Restricting calorie and protein intakes seemed beneficial, suggesting a role for metabolic pathways such as autophagy, a potential key mechanism in safeguarding cellular integrity, notably in the muscle, during critical illness. However, the optimal calorie and protein supply at the acute phase of severe critical illness remains unknown. NUTRIREA-3 will be the first trial to compare standard calorie and protein feeding complying with guidelines to low-calorie low-protein feeding. We hypothesised that nutritional support with calorie and protein restriction during acute critical illness decreased day 90 mortality and/or dependency on intensive care unit (ICU) management in mechanically ventilated patients receiving vasoactive amine therapy for shock, compared with standard calorie and protein targets. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: NUTRIREA-3 is a randomised, controlled, multicentre, open-label trial comparing two parallel groups of patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and vasoactive amine therapy for shock and given early nutritional support according to one of two strategies: early calorie-protein restriction (6 kcal/kg/day-0.2-0.4 g/kg/day) or standard calorie-protein targets (25 kcal/kg/day, 1.0-1.3 g/kg/day) at the acute phase defined as the first 7 days in the ICU. We will include 3044 patients in 61 French ICUs. Two primary end-points will be evaluated: day 90 mortality and time to ICU discharge readiness. The trial will be considered positive if significant between-group differences are found for one or both alternative primary endpoints. Secondary outcomes include hospital-acquired infections and nutritional, clinical and functional outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The NUTRIREA-3 study has been approved by the appropriate ethics committee. Patients are included after informed consent. Results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03573739.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Adulto , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Respiração Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 398, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory event and a fatal complication of viral infections. Whether sHLH may also be observed in patients with a cytokine storm induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is still uncertain. We aimed to determine the incidence of sHLH in severe COVID-19 patients and evaluate the underlying risk factors. METHOD: Four hundred fifteen severe COVID-19 adult patients were retrospectively assessed for hemophagocytosis score (HScore). A subset of 7 patients were unable to be conclusively scored due to insufficient patient data. RESULTS: In 408 patients, 41 (10.04%) had an HScore ≥169 and were characterized as "suspected sHLH positive". Compared with patients below a HScore threshold of 98, the suspected sHLH positive group had higher D-dimer, total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, triglycerides, ferritin, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase isoenzyme, troponin, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, while leukocyte, hemoglobin, platelets, lymphocyte, fibrinogen, pre-albumin, albumin levels were significantly lower (all P < 0.05). Multivariable logistic regression revealed that high ferritin (>1922.58 ng/mL), low platelets (<101 × 109/L) and high triglycerides (>2.28 mmol/L) were independent risk factors for suspected sHLH in COVID-19 patients. Importantly, COVID-19 patients that were suspected sHLH positive had significantly more multi-organ failure. Additionally, a high HScore (>98) was an independent predictor for mortality in COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: HScore should be measured as a prognostic biomarker in COVID-19 patients. In particular, it is important that HScore is assessed in patients with high ferritin, triglycerides and low platelets to improve the detection of suspected sHLH.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/complicações , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Humanos , Incidência , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/epidemiologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(5): 521-537, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876268

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Corticosteroids are now recommended for patients with severe COVID-19 including those with COVID-related ARDS. This has generated renewed interest regarding whether corticosteroids should be used in non-COVID ARDS as well. The objective of this study was to summarize all RCTs examining the use of corticosteroids in ARDS. METHODS: The protocol of this study was pre-registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020200659). We searched online databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CDC library of COVID research, CINAHL, and COCHRANE. We included RCTs that compared the effect of corticosteroids to placebo or usual care in adult patients with ARDS, including patients with COVID-19. Three reviewers abstracted data independently and in duplicate using a pre-specified standardized form. We assessed individual study risk of bias using the revised Cochrane ROB-2 tool and rated certainty in outcomes using GRADE methodology. We pooled data using a random effects model. The main outcome for this review was 28-day-mortality. RESULTS: We included 18 RCTs enrolling 2826 patients. The use of corticosteroids probably reduced mortality in patients with ARDS of any etiology (2740 patients in 16 trials, RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.72-0.95, ARR 8.0%, 95% CI 2.2-12.5%, moderate certainty). Patients who received a longer course of corticosteroids (over 7 days) had higher rates of survival compared to a shorter course. CONCLUSION: The use of corticosteroids probably reduces mortality in patients with ARDS. This effect was consistent between patients with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS, corticosteroid types, and dosage.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Humanos , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Eur Heart J ; 42(20): 1976-1984, 2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748842

RESUMO

AIMS: To estimate the effect of prophylactic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) on survival in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed the data from the French multicentre DMD Heart Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03443115). We estimated the association between the prophylactic prescription of ACEi and event-free survival in 668 patients aged 8 to 13 years, with normal left ventricular function, using (i) a Cox model with intervention as a time-dependent covariate, (ii) a propensity-based analysis comparing ACEi treatment vs. no treatment, and (iii) a set of sensitivity analyses. The study outcomes were overall survival and hospitalizations for heart failure (HF) or acute respiratory failure. Among the 668 patients included in the DMD Heart Registry, 576 (mean age 6.1 ± 2.8 years) were eligible for this study, of whom 390 were treated with ACEi prophylactically. Death occurred in 53 patients (13.5%) who were and 60 patients (32.3%) who were not treated prophylactically with ACEi, respectively. In a Cox model with intervention as a time-dependent variable, the hazard ratio (HR) associated with ACEi treatment was 0.49 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34-0.72] and 0.47 (95% CI 0.31-0.17) for overall mortality after adjustment for baseline variables. In the propensity-based analysis, 278 patients were included in the treatment group and 834 in the control group, with 18.5% and 30.4% 12-year estimated probability of death, respectively. ACEi were associated with a lower risk of death (HR 0.39; 95% CI 0.17-0.92) and hospitalization for HF (HR 0.16; 95% CI 0.04-0.62). All other sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. CONCLUSION: Prophylactic ACEi treatment in DMD was associated with a significantly higher overall survival and lower rates of hospitalization for HF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Registros , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
19.
N Engl J Med ; 384(16): 1491-1502, 2021 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of interleukin-6 receptor antagonists in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is unclear. METHODS: We evaluated tocilizumab and sarilumab in an ongoing international, multifactorial, adaptive platform trial. Adult patients with Covid-19, within 24 hours after starting organ support in the intensive care unit (ICU), were randomly assigned to receive tocilizumab (8 mg per kilogram of body weight), sarilumab (400 mg), or standard care (control). The primary outcome was respiratory and cardiovascular organ support-free days, on an ordinal scale combining in-hospital death (assigned a value of -1) and days free of organ support to day 21. The trial uses a Bayesian statistical model with predefined criteria for superiority, efficacy, equivalence, or futility. An odds ratio greater than 1 represented improved survival, more organ support-free days, or both. RESULTS: Both tocilizumab and sarilumab met the predefined criteria for efficacy. At that time, 353 patients had been assigned to tocilizumab, 48 to sarilumab, and 402 to control. The median number of organ support-free days was 10 (interquartile range, -1 to 16) in the tocilizumab group, 11 (interquartile range, 0 to 16) in the sarilumab group, and 0 (interquartile range, -1 to 15) in the control group. The median adjusted cumulative odds ratios were 1.64 (95% credible interval, 1.25 to 2.14) for tocilizumab and 1.76 (95% credible interval, 1.17 to 2.91) for sarilumab as compared with control, yielding posterior probabilities of superiority to control of more than 99.9% and of 99.5%, respectively. An analysis of 90-day survival showed improved survival in the pooled interleukin-6 receptor antagonist groups, yielding a hazard ratio for the comparison with the control group of 1.61 (95% credible interval, 1.25 to 2.08) and a posterior probability of superiority of more than 99.9%. All secondary analyses supported efficacy of these interleukin-6 receptor antagonists. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with Covid-19 receiving organ support in ICUs, treatment with the interleukin-6 receptor antagonists tocilizumab and sarilumab improved outcomes, including survival. (REMAP-CAP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02735707.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Respiração Artificial
20.
Am J Cardiol ; 147: 58-60, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617818

RESUMO

Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) among hypertensive patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is debated. The aim of the COVIDECA study was to assess the outcome of ACEI and ARB among hypertensive patients presenting with COVID-19. We reviewed from the Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris healthcare record database all patients presenting with confirmed COVID-19 by RT-PCR. We compared hypertensive patients with ACEI or ARB and hypertensive patients without ACEI and ARB. Among 13,521 patients presenting with confirmed COVID-19 by RT-PCR, 2,981 hypertensive patients (mean age: 78.4 ± 13.6 years, 1,464 men) were included. Outcome of hypertensive patients was similar whatever the use or non-use of ACEI or ARB: admission in ICU (13.4% in patients with ACEI or ARB versus 14.8% in patients without ACEI/ARB, p = 0.35), need of mechanical ventilation (5.5% in patients with ACEI or ARB vs 6.3% in patients without ACEI/ARB, p = 0.45), in-hospital mortality (27.5% in patients with ACEI or ARB vs 26.7% in patients without ACEI/ARB, p = 0.70). In conclusion, the use of ACEI and ARB remains safe and can be maintained in hypertensive patients presenting with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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