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1.
Environ Res ; 178: 108629, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476682

RESUMO

Numerous epidemiological studies have confirmed the negative influences of air pollutants on human health, where fine particles (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) cause the highest health risks. However, the traditional studies have only involved the ambient concentration for a short to medium time period, which ignores the influence of indoor sources, the individual time-activity pattern, and the fact that the health status is impacted by the long-term accumulated exposure. The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology to simulate the lifelong exposure (rather than outdoor concentration) to PM2.5 and NO2 for individuals in Europe. This method is realized by developing a probabilistic model that integrates an outdoor air quality model, a model estimating indoor air pollution, an exposure model, and a life course trajectory model for predicting retrospectively the employment status. This approach has been applied to samples of two population studies in the frame of the European Commission FP7-ENVIRONMENT research project HEALS (Health and Environment-wide Associations based on Large Population Surveys), where socioeconomic data of the participants have been collected. Results show that the simulated exposures to both pollutants for the samples are influenced by socio-demographic characteristics, including age, gender, residential location, employment status and smoking habits. Both outdoor concentrations and indoor sources play an important role in the total exposure. Moreover, large variances have been observed among countries and cities. The application of this methodology provides valuable insights for the exposure modelling, as well as important input data for exploring the correlation between exposure and health impacts.

2.
COPD ; 16(2): 118-125, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298600

RESUMO

Exposure to organic dusts is an independent causative factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Unhealthy dietary patterns have been associated with poor lung function in smokers. This study investigated whether dietary patterns were associated with post-bronchodilator airway obstruction, a hallmark of COPD, in dairy farmers exposed to organic dusts. All subjects were identified by screening programs and patients with airflow obstruction were matched with subjects with normal spirometry. Six groups were compared, defined by their exposures (non-smoking dairy farmers, smokers ≥ 10 pack-years with no occupational exposure, and smoking dairy farmers) and the presence or absence of post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction, resulting in 321 study subjects. The Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) score was calculated based on an adapted food frequency questionnaire. Mean total AHEI scores were similar in all groups. Comparison between smokers with post-bronchodilator airway obstruction and subjects with post-bronchodilator airway obstruction related to occupational exposure found minimal differences in dietary patterns: dairy farmers had lower scores for the ratio of white to red meat and higher scores for cereal fiber consumption. As in previous studies, smokers with post-bronchodilator airway obstruction exhibited higher lipid intakes and lower carbohydrate intakes than their counterparts with normal spirometry. No evidence of any meaningful difference in dietary patterns was found between subjects with post-bronchodilator airway obstruction detected by screening and healthy controls, either in dairy farmers or in smokers with no occupational exposure.

3.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 199(11): 1312-1334, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149852

RESUMO

Rationale: Workplace inhalational hazards remain common worldwide, even though they are ameliorable. Previous American Thoracic Society documents have assessed the contribution of workplace exposures to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on a population level, but not to other chronic respiratory diseases. The goal of this document is to report an in-depth literature review and data synthesis of the occupational contribution to the burden of the major nonmalignant respiratory diseases, including airway diseases; interstitial fibrosis; hypersensitivity pneumonitis; other noninfectious granulomatous lung diseases, including sarcoidosis; and selected respiratory infections. Methods: Relevant literature was identified for each respiratory condition. The occupational population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated for those conditions for which there were sufficient population-based studies to allow pooled estimates. For the other conditions, the occupational burden of disease was estimated on the basis of attribution in case series, incidence rate ratios, or attributable fraction within an exposed group. Results: Workplace exposures contribute substantially to the burden of multiple chronic respiratory diseases, including asthma (PAF, 16%); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (PAF, 14%); chronic bronchitis (PAF, 13%); idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (PAF, 26%); hypersensitivity pneumonitis (occupational burden, 19%); other granulomatous diseases, including sarcoidosis (occupational burden, 30%); pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (occupational burden, 29%); tuberculosis (occupational burden, 2.3% in silica-exposed workers and 1% in healthcare workers); and community-acquired pneumonia in working-age adults (PAF, 10%). Conclusions: Workplace exposures contribute to the burden of disease across a range of nonmalignant lung conditions in adults (in addition to the 100% burden for the classic occupational pneumoconioses). This burden has important clinical, research, and policy implications. There is a pressing need to improve clinical recognition and public health awareness of the contribution of occupational factors across a range of nonmalignant respiratory diseases.

4.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(3): 627-633, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229269

RESUMO

We review the history of the classification and coding changes for anaphylaxis and provide current and perspective information in the field. In 2012, an analysis of Brazilian data demonstrated undernotification of anaphylaxis-related deaths because of the difficulties of coding using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. This work triggered strategic international actions supported by the Joint Allergy Academies and the International Classification of Diseases World Health Organization (WHO) leadership to update the classification of allergic disorders for the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision (ICD-11), which resulted in construction of the pioneer "Allergic and hypersensitivity conditions" chapter. The usability of the new framework has been tested by evaluating the same data published in 2012 from the ICD-11 perspective. Coding accuracy was much improved, reaching 95% for definite anaphylaxis. As the results were provided to the WHO Mortality Reference Group, coding rules have been changed, allowing anaphylaxis to be recorded as an underlying cause of death in official mortality statistics. The mandatory use of ICD-11 from January 2022 for documenting cause of death could have 2 immediate consequences: (1) the reported number of anaphylaxis-related deaths might increase because of more appropriate coding and (2) the cross-sectional and longitudinal mortality data generated might ultimately lead to a better understanding of anaphylaxis epidemiology and improved health policies directed at reducing anaphylaxis-related mortality.

6.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 124, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208466

RESUMO

Allergic mechanisms related to environmental and occupational exposure have been suggested to contribute to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationships between atopy markers, persistent airflow limitation (PAL) and occupational exposure in dairy farmers. METHODS: Clinical and biological (total IgE and 21 allergen specific IgE) markers of atopy were assessed in 101 dairy farmers with PAL (DF-PAL), 85 non-farmers with PAL (NF-PAL) (both groups were prospectively included from a screening program performed between 2011 and 2015), and matched controls, i.e. 98 farmers without PAL (DF-controls) and 89 non-farming subjects without PAL (NF-controls). Occupational exposure in farmers was estimated using a validated questionnaire. RESULTS: Prevalence of allergy history was significantly higher in DF-PAL and in NF-PAL than in controls. Polysensitization, and sensitization to seasonal and food allergens were more frequent in DF-PAL than in DF-controls, respectively: 13.8% vs 1% (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 17.5 (2.2-134), 11.9% vs 3.1% (aOR: 4.4 (1.2-7.2) and 16.8% vs 4.1% (aOR: 5.2 (1.7-7.2)). The prevalence of atopy markers was similar between NF-PAL patients and NF-controls. CONCLUSIONS: PAL in farmers is associated with a high rate of markers of atopy, supporting atopy as a risk indicator. Clinical trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02540408).

7.
Allergy ; 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070805

RESUMO

The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) organized the first European Strategic Forum on Allergic Diseases and Asthma. The main aim was to bring together all relevant stakeholders and decision-makers in the field of allergy, asthma and clinical Immunology around an open debate on contemporary challenges and potential solutions for the next decade. The Strategic Forum was an upscaling of the EAACI White Paper aiming to integrate the Academy's output with the perspective offered by EAACI's partners. This collaboration is fundamental for adapting and integrating allergy and asthma care into the context of real-world problems. The Strategic Forum on Allergic Diseases brought together all partners who have the drive and the influence to make positive change: national and international societies, patients' organizations, regulatory bodies and industry representatives. An open debate with a special focus on drug development and biomedical engineering, big data and information technology and allergic diseases and asthma in the context of environmental health concluded that connecting science with the transformation of care and a joint agreement between all partners on priorities and needs are essential to ensure a better management of allergic diseases and asthma in the advent of precision medicine together with global access to innovative and affordable diagnostics and therapeutics.

9.
Allergy ; 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Google Trends (GTs) is a web-based surveillance tool that explores the searching trends of specific queries via Google. This tool proposes to reflect the real-life epidemiology of allergic rhinitis and asthma. However, the validation of GTs against pollen concentrations is missing at the country level. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we used GTs (a) to compare the terms related to allergy in France, (b) to assess seasonal variations across the country for 5 years and (c) to compare GTs and pollen concentrations for 2016. METHODS: Google Trends queries were initially searched to investigate the terms reflecting pollen and allergic diseases. 13- and 5-year GTs were used in France. Then, 5-year GTs were assessed in all metropolitan French regions to assess the seasonality of GTs. Finally, GTs were compared with pollen concentrations (Réseau National de Surveillance en Aerobiology) for 2016 in seven regions (GTs) and corresponding cities (pollen concentrations). RESULTS: The combination of searches for "allergy" as a disease, "pollen" as a disease cause and "ragweed" as a plant was needed to fully assess the pollen season in France. "Asthma" did not show any seasonality. Using the 5-year GTs, an annual and clear seasonality of queries was found in all regions depending on the predicted pollen exposure for spring and a summer peak but not for winter peaks. The agreement between GT queries and pollen concentrations is usually poor except for spring trees and grasses. Moreover, cypress pollens are insufficiently reported by GTs. CONCLUSIONS: Google Trends cannot predict the pollen season in France.

10.
Respir Med ; 148: 31-36, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An initial epidemiological study carried out 18 years ago in Marseilles indicated that the air quality in schools was poor and that there was an association between the level of fine particulates and the occurrence of asthma in children. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the change in the prevalence of childhood asthma and allergic diseases and their link with the levels of air pollutants and other factors of potential risk. METHODS: In 2016, using a questionnaire identical to the one used for the 1st survey in 1998-1999, we collected information regarding the symptoms, the diagnosis, and the potential confounding factors. We measured the main indoor and outdoor pollutants at the schools. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of asthma and of allergic diseases exhibited an increasing trend in the time interval between the two studies, significant only for dry cough and pollen allergy. The level of air pollutants decreased significantly indoors. In spite of this, we found a correlation and a dose-effect relationship between the level of PM2.5 and the prevalence of asthma. A family history of asthma and allergies, the insalubrity of the place of residence, and a non-Mediterranean diet were also associated with the risk of these diseases. CONCLUSION: In the time interval between the two studies, which were 18 years apart, despite a reduction in the level of air pollutants in classrooms, asthma was still related to PM2.5. Other potentially causative or contributing environmental factors were also related to asthma and allergies.

11.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 49(4): 442-460, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobile technology may help to better understand the adherence to treatment. MASK-rhinitis (Mobile Airways Sentinel NetworK for allergic rhinitis) is a patient-centred ICT system. A mobile phone app (the Allergy Diary) central to MASK is available in 22 countries. OBJECTIVES: To assess the adherence to treatment in allergic rhinitis patients using the Allergy Diary App. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study was carried out on all users who filled in the Allergy Diary from 1 January 2016 to 1 August 2017. Secondary adherence was assessed by using the modified Medication Possession Ratio (MPR) and the Proportion of days covered (PDC) approach. RESULTS: A total of 12 143 users were registered. A total of 6 949 users reported at least one VAS data recording. Among them, 1 887 users reported ≥7 VAS data. About 1 195 subjects were included in the analysis of adherence. One hundred and thirty-six (11.28%) users were adherent (MPR ≥70% and PDC ≤1.25), 51 (4.23%) were partly adherent (MPR ≥70% and PDC = 1.50) and 176 (14.60%) were switchers. On the other hand, 832 (69.05%) users were non-adherent to medications (MPR <70%). Of those, the largest group was non-adherent to medications and the time interval was increased in 442 (36.68%) users. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Adherence to treatment is low. The relative efficacy of continuous vs on-demand treatment for allergic rhinitis symptoms is still a matter of debate. This study shows an approach for measuring retrospective adherence based on a mobile app. This also represents a novel approach for analysing medication-taking behaviour in a real-world setting.

12.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 49(4): 526-536, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peach is a common elicitor of food allergic reactions. Peach-induced immediate reactions may occur as benign pollen-food syndromes, usually due to birch pollen-related PR-10 cross-reactivity in temperate climates, and as potentially severe primary food allergies, predominantly related to nsLTP Pru p 3 in Mediterranean regions. The newly described peach allergen Pru p 7 has gained recent attention as a potential peach allergy severity marker. Sensitization to Pru p 7 and its allergenic homologues of the gibberellin-regulated protein family occurs in areas with high Cupressaceae tree pollen exposure. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the distribution, clinical characteristics and molecular associations of Pru p 7 sensitization among subjects with suspected peach allergy in different regions of France. METHODS: Subjects with suspected peach allergy (n = 316) were included. Diagnostic work-up was performed according to current guidelines, including open food challenge when required. IgE antibody measurements and competition experiments were performed using the ImmunoCAP assay platform. RESULTS: Sensitization to Pru p 7 was present in 171 (54%) of all subjects in the study and in 123 of 198 (62%) diagnosed as peach allergic, more than half of whom were sensitized to no other peach allergen. Frequency and magnitude of Pru p 7 sensitization were associated with the presence of peach allergy, the clinical severity of peach-induced allergic reactions and the level of cypress pollen exposure. Cypress pollen extract completely outcompeted IgE binding to Pru p 7. Pru p 7 was extremely potent in basophil activation tests. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A subtype of Cupressaceae pollinosis, characterized by Pru p 7 sensitization, can be an underlying cause of severe peach allergy.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 656: 870-876, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625673

RESUMO

Evidence is cumulating on the adverse health effects of environmental exposures on health of the fetus and the childbearing mothers. Among mother's conditions, gestational diabetes mellitus has been considered rarely in spite of its importance for both mother and child. We determined the role of maternal exposure to lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and manganese (Mn) to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on diagnosed GDM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in diabetes-free mothers from the French EDEN mother-child cohort. 623 pregnant women without pre-existing diabetes were included in the study. GDM and IGT were diagnosed by a gynecologist during consultations after blood analysis. Pb, Cd and Mn were measured in second-trimester blood samples. Associations between ln-transformed concentrations of metals and GDM and IGT respectively were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders. The prevalences of GDM and IGT were 7.1% and 10.1% respectively. After adjustment for confounders, Cd was statistically related to having had a diagnosis of GDM or IGT (Adjusted Odds-Ratio (AOR): 1.61, 1.05-2.48), and Pb to GDM at borderline significance (AOR: 1.65, 0.82-3.34). Our findings add to the growing evidence supporting the role of maternal exposure to heavy toxic metals that persist longtime in the environment as a risk factor for GDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Diabetes Gestacional/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Intolerância à Glucose/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(2): 808-809, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553549
15.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 15(11): 1247-1255, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382778

RESUMO

Migrants represent a diverse population comprising workers, students, undocumented individuals, and refugees. Worldwide, approximately 1 billion people were considered migrants in 2016. Notably, about 65 million of these migrants were forcibly displaced from their homes, and 20 million were considered refugees. While the geopolitical consequences of such migration continue to be considered, less is known about the impact of these events on the respiratory health of migrants and refugees. In recognition of this knowledge gap, the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society brought together investigators with diverse and relevant expertise to participate in a workshop and develop a consensus on research needs on the respiratory health of migrants and refugees. The workshop focused on environmental and occupational hazards, chronic noninfectious diseases, and respiratory infectious diseases, which were presented by experts in three distinct sessions, each culminating with panel discussions. A writing committee collected summaries prepared by speakers and other participants, and the information was collated into a single document. Recommendations were formulated, and differences were resolved by discussion and consensus. The group identified important areas of research need, while emphasizing that reducing the burden of pulmonary, critical care, and sleep disorders in migrants and refugees will require a concerted effort by all stakeholders. Using best research practices, considering how research impacts policies affecting migrant and refugee populations, and developing new approaches to engage and fund trainees, clinical investigators, and public health practitioners to conduct high-quality research on respiratory health of migrants and refugees is essential.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short-term effects of air pollution are documented more than long-term effects. OBJECTIVE: We investigated 12-year impacts of ambient air pollutants on cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality at the departmental level in metropolitan France. METHODS: Daily air pollution data at 2-km resolution, including concentrations of particulate matter of 10 µm or 2.5 µm in diameter or less (PM10 and PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3), were accrued from the CHIMERE database for 1999 and 2000. Simultaneously, morbidity (hospitalizations) and mortality data were collected in 2012 using the ESPS (Enquête Santé et Protection Sociale/Health, Health Care and Insurance Survey) survey data and the CepiDc (Centre d'Épidémiologie sur les Causes Médicales de Décès/French Epidemiology Centre on Medical Causes of Death) database. Based on Poisson regression analyses, the long-term effect was estimated. A higher risk of all-cause mortality was observed using CépiDc database, with a relative risk of 1.024 (95% CI: 1.022, 1.026) and 1.029 (95% CI: 1.027, 1.031) for a 10 µg/m³ increase in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases likewise exhibited long-term associations with both PM2.5 and PM10. Using ESPS survey data, a significant risk was observed for both PM2.5 and PM10 in all-cause mortality and all-cause morbidity. Although a risk for higher all-cause mortality and morbidity was also present for NO2, the cause-specific relative risk due to NO2 was found to be lesser, as compared to PM. Nevertheless, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity were related to NO2, along with PM2.5 and PM10. However, the health effect of O3 was seen to be substantially lower in comparison to the other pollutants. CONCLUSION: Our study confirmed that PM has a long-term impact on mortality and morbidity. Exposure to NO2 and O3 could also lead to increased health risks.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30473712

RESUMO

Background: The SNAPSHOT program provides current data on the allergic rhinitis burden in the adult general population of five Middle Eastern countries (Egypt, Turkey, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, the latter three grouped into a Gulf cluster). Methods: A multi-country, cross-sectional, epidemiological program conducted by telephone in a random sample of the adult general population; quotas were defined per country demographics. Subjects were screened for allergic rhinitis using the Score For Allergic Rhinitis questionnaire. Current prevalence (last 12 months) was estimated. Disease severity and control were assessed using the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma classification and Rhinitis Control Assessment Test respectively. Quality of sleep, impact on daily activities and quality of life were measured using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Sheehan Disability Scale and EuroQol Five-Dimension questionnaire respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate risk factors and co-morbidities. Results: 1808 of 33,486 subjects enrolled in the SNAPSHOT program fulfilled the case definition for allergic rhinitis. Prevalence was 3.6% [95% CI 3.2-4.0%] in Egypt, 6.4% [95% CI 5.9-6.9%] in Turkey and 6.4% [95% CI 6.0-6.9%] in the Gulf cluster. Risk factors identified were country, co-morbid asthma and income. Subjects with allergic rhinitis reported a significantly lower quality of life compared to the general population (p < 0.0001). Overall, 55% of allergic rhinitis subjects were moderate/severe and 33% were uncontrolled. Both these groups reported impaired quality of life and quality of sleep and increased impairment of daily activities compared to mild/well-controlled subjects (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Although the observed prevalence of allergic rhinitis in these Middle Eastern countries is low compared to western countries, its burden is considerable. Allergic rhinitis in general, and specifically uncontrolled and severe disease, results in a negative impact on quality of life, quality of sleep and daily activities.

18.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207290, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485327

RESUMO

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic disease affecting a large amount of the population. To optimize treatment and disease management, it is crucial to detect patients suffering from severe forms. Several tools have been used to classify patients according to severity: standardized questionnaires, visual analogue scales (VAS) and cluster analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the best method to stratify patients suffering from seasonal AR and to propose cut-offs to identify severe forms of the disease. In a multicenter French study (PollinAir), patients suffering from seasonal AR were assessed by a physician that completed a 17 items questionnaire and answered a self-assessment VAS. Five methods were evaluated to stratify patients according to AR severity: k-means clustering, agglomerative hierarchical clustering, Allergic Rhinitis Physician Score (ARPhyS), total symptoms score (TSS-17), and VAS. Fisher linear, quadratic discriminant analysis, non-parametric kernel density estimation methods were used to evaluate miss-classification of the patients and cross-validation was used to assess the validity of each scale. 28,109 patients were categorized into "mild", "moderate", and "severe", through the 5 different methods. The best discrimination was offered by the ARPhyS scale. With the ARPhyS scale, cut-offs at a score of 8-9 for mild to moderate and of 11-12 for moderate to severe symptoms were found. Score reliability was also acceptable (Cronbach's α coefficient: 0.626) for the ARPhyS scale, and excellent for the TSS-17 (0.864). The ARPhyS scale seems the best method to target patients with severe seasonal AR. In the present study, we highlighted optimal discrimination cut-offs. This tool could be implemented in daily practice to identify severe patients that need a specialized intervention.

19.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351340

RESUMO

International collaborations among birth cohorts to better understand asthma and allergies have increased in the last years. However, differences in definitions and methods preclude direct pooling of original individual participant data. We harmonized data from 14 birth cohorts, with three to 20 follow-ups, from nine European countries, as part of the Mechanisms of the Development of Asthma and Allergies (MeDALL) project. The harmonization process followed six steps: organization of the harmonization panel; identification of variables relevant to MeDALL objectives (candidate variables); proposal of a definition for each candidate variable (reference definition); assessment of the compatibility of each cohort variable to its reference definition (inferential equivalence) and classifications of this inferential equivalence as complete, partial, or impossible; workshop to agree on the reference definitions and classifications of inferential equivalence; and data preparation and delivery through a knowledge management portal. We agreed on 137 reference definitions. The inferential equivalence of 3,551 cohort variables to their corresponding reference definition was classified as complete, partial and impossible for 70%, 15% and 15% of the variables, respectively. A harmonized database was delivered. In birth cohorts of asthma and allergies, the harmonization of data for pooled analyses is feasible and may achieve high inferential comparability. The MeDALL harmonization approach can be used in other collaborative projects.

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