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1.
Dig Dis Sci ; 64(12): 3502-3517, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility dysfunction is the most common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies have indicated that GI motility functions are impaired before the onset of PD. AIMS: To investigate the underlying mechanism of PD-induced GI dysmotility in MPTP (1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-induced animal model. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were administered with or without a selective dopamine neurotoxin, MPTP, to induce parkinsonian symptoms. In addition to in vivo studies, in vitro experiments were also conducted in colon specimens using l-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), a metabolic product of MPTP. Gastric emptying, colon motility, nitrergic relaxation, and western blot experiments were performed as reported. RESULTS: MPTP-induced PD mice showed decreased expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and its target phase II genes in gastric and colon neuromuscular tissues. Decreased levels of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4, a critical cofactor for nNOS dimerization) associated with uncoupling of nNOS in gastric and colon tissues exposed to MPTP. Impaired enteric nitrergic system led to delayed gastric emptying and slower colonic motility compared to the control mice. In vitro results in colon specimens confirm that activation of Nrf2 restored MPP+-induced suppression of alpha-synuclein, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), Nrf2, and heme oxygenase-1. In vitro exposure to L-NAME [N(w)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester], a NOS synthase inhibitor, reduced protein expression of TH in colon tissue homogenates. CONCLUSIONS: Loss of Nrf2/BH4/nNOS expression in PD impairs antioxidant gene expression, which deregulates NO synthesis, thereby contributing to the development of GI dysmotility and constipation. Nitric oxide appears to be important to maintain dopamine synthesis in the colon.

2.
Genes Brain Behav ; 9(2): 129-59, 2010 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19958391

RESUMO

Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred (BXD RI) strains derived from C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and covariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict the occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic coregulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium (TMGC) have obtained phenotype data from over 250 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several batteries: response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; "ecstasy" (MDMA), morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes in approximately 70 strains of the recently expanded panel of BXD RI strains. Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent (N = 37) BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data are publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using the MouseTrack database, and are also available in GeneNetwork.org for quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits.


Assuntos
Recombinação Genética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Peso Corporal , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/genética , Habituação Psicofisiológica/genética , Abrigo para Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Dependência de Morfina/genética , Tamanho do Órgão , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética
3.
Life Sci ; 81(7): 600-8, 2007 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17689567

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest that calcium influx via L-type calcium channels is necessary for psychostimulant-induced behavioral sensitization. In addition, chronic amphetamine upregulates subtype Cav1.2-containing L-type calcium channels. In the present studies, we assessed the effect of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and determined whether the functional activity of L-type calcium channels is altered after repeated cocaine administration. Rats were administered daily intraperitoneal injections of either flunarizine (40 mg/kg), diltiazem (40 mg/kg) or cocaine (20 mg/kg) and the combination of the CCBs and cocaine for 30 days. Motor activities were monitored on Day 1, and every 6th day during the 30-day treatment period. Daily cocaine administration produced increased locomotor activity. Maximal augmentation of behavioral response to repeated cocaine administration was observed on Day 18. Flunarizine pretreatment abolished the augmented behavioral response to repeated cocaine administration while diltiazem was less effective. Measurement of tissue monoamine levels on Day 18 revealed cocaine-induced increases in DA and 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens. By contrast to behavioral response, diltiazem was more effective in attenuating increases in monoamine levels than flunarizine. Cocaine administration for 18 days produced increases in calcium uptake in synaptosomes prepared from the nucleus accumbens and frontal cortex. Increases in calcium uptake were abolished by flunarizine and diltiazem pretreatment. Taken together, the augmented cocaine-induced behavioral response on Day 18 may be due to increased calcium uptake in the nucleus accumbens leading to increased dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) release. Flunarizine and diltiazem attenuated the behavioral response by decreasing calcium uptake and decreasing neurochemical release.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cocaína/antagonistas & inibidores , Cocaína/farmacologia , Sinaptossomos/metabolismo , Animais , Monoaminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/fisiologia , Radioisótopos de Cálcio , Núcleo Caudado/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Caudado/metabolismo , Diltiazem/farmacologia , Flunarizina/farmacologia , Masculino , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Accumbens/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sinaptossomos/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 844(1): 201-207, 1998 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29090812

RESUMO

Cocaine is a widely abused psychomotor stimulant which acts in the central nervous system (CNS) by blocking the reuptake site. It has been estimated that between 30-60million people have abused cocaine in the United States. Unfortunately, an effective therapy for cocaine abuse is not available. The calcium channel antagonists (CCAs) are commonly used in the therapy of various cardiovascular diseases and are under investigation due to their potential in modulating calcium-dependent neurotransmitter release. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute effect of isradipine on cocaine-induced locomotor and stereotypic activity and correlate the changes in dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)-levels in the rat brain. Animals were pretreated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with vehicle or CCAs. After 30 minutes they were administered cocaine (20 mg/kg, i.p.). During this period, motor and stereotypic activity was monitored. In a separate experiment, animals were dosed as described above and were sacrificed by decapitation after the 30-minute treatment period. The nucleus accumbens and caudate nucleus were dissected and analyzed for monoamines using a high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD). Isradipine (5mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited cocaine-induced locomotor and stereotypic activity by 49% and 36%, respectively, as compared to controls. In the nucleus accumbens cocaine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) increased extracellular dopamine and serotonin levels by 28% and 73%, respectively, as compared to controls. Isradipine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) pretreatment decreased cocaine-induced extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens by 8% while decreasing serotonin levels by 9%. Cocaine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) produced increased levels of both extracellular dopamine and serotonin (9% and 4%, respectively) in the caudate nucleus. Isradipine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) pretreatment decreased cocaine (20 mg/kg i.p.)-induced extracellular dopamine and serotonin levels in the caudate nucleus by 18% and 8%, respectively. These experiments suggest that a central mechanism may be involved in attenuation of cocaine-induced motor behaviors by isradipine.

5.
Physiol Behav ; 60(5): 1261-7, 1996 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8916180

RESUMO

The effects of daily single injections of 20 mg/kg cocaine on locomotor activity, core temperature, and heart rate were determined by radiotelemetry. There was a progressive increase in locomotor activity over the 30-day treatment period. Cocaine-induced activity was 9-12-fold greater than that of saline-treated animals. Cocaine also caused increases in core temperature and heart rate. Tolerance did not develop to the locomotor, hyperthermic, and tachycardic responses resulting from repeated cocaine administration. Comparison of the time-course of the cocaine-induced responses revealed that, on Day 1 and 3, the peak locomotor activity was observed 15 min after cocaine administration, whereas the hyperthermic response peaked at 95 min on those days. The fact that the peak locomotor activity and the hyperthermic response occurred at different times suggests that different processes acting independently or interacting may be involved in these actions of cocaine.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cocaína/farmacologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Animais , Cocaína/administração & dosagem , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Nervos Periféricos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Telemetria , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Life Sci ; 53(26): 1947-56, 1993.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8255157

RESUMO

The effects of calcium channel entry blockers on cocaine and amphetamine-induced behavioral responses were investigated. Cocaine and amphetamine produced dose-dependent increases in locomotor activity and stereotyped behavior with a maximum response at 40 and 1.2 mg/kg, respectively. The 1,4-dihydropyridine nimodipine and the benzothiazepine diltiazem were more effective in inhibiting cocaine (20 mg/kg)-induced responses than amphetamine (0.6 mg/kg)-induced responses. At doses of cocaine and amphetamine that caused seizures and death, nimodipine, nitrendipine and diltiazem did not offer any protection; rather, they potentiated the toxicities produced by these psychomotor stimulants.


Assuntos
Anfetamina/antagonistas & inibidores , Anfetamina/toxicidade , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Cocaína/antagonistas & inibidores , Cocaína/toxicidade , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Anfetamina/farmacocinética , Animais , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacocinética , Cocaína/farmacocinética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações de Medicamentos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Comportamento Estereotipado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Cell Calcium ; 10(8): 551-60, 1989.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2482794

RESUMO

Thyroid hormones influence Ca2+ homeostasis in both skeletal and cardiac muscle. Since secretory cells, like muscle cells, store and use Ca2+ in stimulus-response coupling, we have studied the effects of thyroid status on Ca2+ mobilization and secretion in a model secretory tissue, the pancreatic acinar cell. Hyperthyroidism was induced by rats by daily, subcutaneous injections of triiodothyronine for 8 days and hypothyroidism by adding 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil to the drinking water for 14 days. Pancreatic acini were prepared by collagenase digestion of pancreatic tissue from hyper- and hypo-thyroid animals and from euthyroid controls. Ca2(+)-mobilization was assessed using Quin-2 fluorescence and secretion by assaying amylase release. The data indicate that the amount of Ca2+ mobilized by the muscarinic agonist carbachol or by cholecystokinin octapeptide increases with increasing thyroid hormone concentrations. Only in hypothyroidism was this change in Ca2+ homeostasis reflected by a parallel change in amylase secretion. This implies the existence of some compensatory mechanism which stabilizes secretory rate in the face of stimulus-evoked increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration.


Assuntos
Amilases/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Hipertireoidismo/metabolismo , Hipotireoidismo/metabolismo , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Aminoquinolinas , Animais , Carbacol/farmacologia , Citosol/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes , Homeostase , Hipertireoidismo/induzido quimicamente , Hipotireoidismo/induzido quimicamente , Ionomicina/farmacologia , Masculino , Propiltiouracila , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos , Sincalida/farmacologia , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/farmacologia , Tri-Iodotironina
8.
Biochim Biophys Acta ; 889(3): 326-33, 1986 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2431719

RESUMO

The effects of the phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) on amylase secretion and cytoplasmic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) were investigated in dispersed guinea pig pancreatic acini. Carbachol evoked dose-dependent increases in amylase secretion and [Ca2+]i with half-maximal responses at 2.5 and 5 microM, respectively. Carbachol-induced calcium transients could be blocked by atropine. In the presence of a maximal effective dose of carbachol, cholecystokinin octapeptide caused no further increase in [Ca2+]i, suggesting that both agonists act on the same pool of trigger calcium. TPA (10(-9)-10(-6) M) stimulated amylase secretion with no change in [Ca2+]i. Maximum amylase secretion occurred at 0.5 microM TPA. Preincubation of acini in the presence of TPA resulted in a time- and dose-dependent inhibition (IC50 = 30 nM) of the carbachol-induced rise in [Ca2+]i, the maximal effect being observed within 3 min. The inactive phorbol ester, 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate was ineffective in inhibiting the carbachol-stimulated rise in [Ca2+]i. These findings suggest that, in addition to stimulating amylase secretion, probably through protein kinase C, TPA may also exert a negative feedback control over secretagogue-induced calcium transients.


Assuntos
Amilases/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Carbacol/farmacologia , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sincalida/farmacologia , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/farmacologia , Animais , Cobaias , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Ésteres de Forbol/farmacologia , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Taxa Secretória/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
J Biol Chem ; 259(21): 13442-50, 1984 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-6149223

RESUMO

A high degree of ATP hydrolytic activity present in purified rat pancreatic acinar cells was localized to plasma membranes. This activity was stimulated almost equally by Mg2+ or Ca2+. Kinetic analysis revealed that the enzyme had a higher affinity for Ca2+ (Kd = 1.73 microM) than Mg2+ (Kd = 2.98 microM) but a similar maximal rate of activity. A comparison of substrate requirements revealed very similar profiles for the Mg2+- and Ca2+-stimulated activities. Combinations of saturating concentrations of Mg2+ or Ca2+ produced the same degree of maximal activity. Investigation of the partial reactions of the ATPase activity revealed two phosphoprotein intermediates (Mr = 115,000 and 130,000) in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+. A significant stimulation of the Ca2+-ATPase activity by calmodulin was observed (Kd = 0.7 microM). Calmodulin increased the Ca2+-sensitivity of this enzyme system; Mg2+ appeared to be required for this effect. The Ca2+-ATPase activity was also stimulated by acidic phospholipids. Using an 125I-labeled calmodulin gel overlay technique, calmodulin was shown to bind in a Ca2+-dependent fashion to 133,000- and 230,000-dalton proteins present in the plasma membrane-enriched fraction. Under conditions that favor Ca2+-dependent kinase activity, calmodulin enhanced the phosphorylation of a 30,000- and 19,000-dalton protein. The major ATP hydrolytic activity in pancreatic acinar plasma membranes was present as an ectoenzyme.


Assuntos
ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio/metabolismo , Calmodulina/farmacologia , Pâncreas/enzimologia , Fosfolipídeos/farmacologia , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Animais , ATPase de Ca(2+) e Mg(2+) , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio/isolamento & purificação , Cátions Bivalentes , Membrana Celular/enzimologia , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Feminino , Técnicas In Vitro , Cinética , Peso Molecular , Pâncreas/citologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo
12.
Clin Chim Acta ; 100(3): 245-52, 1980 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-6444374

RESUMO

Plasma membrane enriched preparations obtained from cultured human skin fibroblasts by differential centrifugation and sucrose density centrifugation techniques were found to contain a Mg2+-dependent Ca2+-stimulated ATPase activity. The specific activity of the (Mg2+ + Ca2+)-ATPase present was 4-5-fold higher than that present in crude membrane preparations and 80-100-fold higher than that present in homogenates. The (Mg2+ + Ca2+)-ATPase activity of both crude and plasma membrane enriched preparations of cultured fibroblasts from cystic fibrosis patients was significantly reduced compared to that activity observed in age-matched controls. This study corroborates our previous observations made in crude homogenate preparations of fibroblasts and indicates another cell type where (Mg2+ + Ca2+)-ATPase activity may be altered in cystic fibrosis.


Assuntos
ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio/metabolismo , Fibrose Cística/enzimologia , Membrana Celular/enzimologia , Criança , Fibroblastos/enzimologia , Humanos , Magnésio , Pele/citologia
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