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1.
Updates Surg ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130669

RESUMO

EndoVascular and Hybrid Trauma Management (EVTM) has been recently introduced in the treatment of severe pelvic ring injuries. This multimodal method of hemorrhage management counts on several strategies such as the REBOA (resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta). Few data exist on the use of REBOA in patients with a severely injured pelvic ring. The ABO (aortic balloon occlusion) Trauma Registry is designed to capture data for all trauma patients in hemorrhagic shock where management includes REBOA placement. Among all patients included in the ABO registry, 72 patients presented with severe pelvic injuries and were the population under exam. 66.7% were male. Mean and median ISS were respectively 43 and 41 (SD ± 13). Isolated pelvic injuries were observed in 12 patients (16.7%). Blunt trauma occurred in 68 patients (94.4%), penetrating in 2 (2.8%) and combined in 2 (2.8%). Type of injury: fall from height in 15 patients (23.1%), traffic accident in 49 patients (75.4%), and unspecified impact in 1 patient (1.5%). Femoral access was gained pre-hospital in 1 patient, in emergency room in 43, in operating room in 12 and in angio-suite in 16. REBOA was positioned in zone 1 in 59 patients (81,9%), in zone 2 in 1 (1,4%) and in zone 3 in 12 (16,7%). Aortic occlusion was partial/periodical in 35 patients (48,6%) and total occlusion in 37 patients (51,4%). REBOA associated morbidity rate: 11.1%. Overall mortality rate was 54.2% and early mortality rate (≤ 24 h) was 44.4%. In the univariate analysis, factors related to early mortality (≤ 24 h) are lower pH values (p = 0.03), higher base deficit (p = 0.021), longer INR (p = 0.012), minor increase in systolic blood pressure after the REBOA inflation (p = 0.03) and total aortic occlusion (p = 0.008). None of these values resulted significant in the multivariate analysis. In severe hemodynamically unstable pelvic trauma management, REBOA is a viable option when utilized in experienced centers as a bridge to other treatments; its use might be, however, accompanied with severe-to-lethal complications.

2.
World J Emerg Surg ; 15(1): 19, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156296

RESUMO

The epidemiology and the outcomes of acute appendicitis in elderly patients are very different from the younger population. Elderly patients with acute appendicitis showed higher mortality, higher perforation rate, lower diagnostic accuracy, longer delay from symptoms onset and admission, higher postoperative complication rate and higher risk of colonic and appendiceal cancer. The aim of the present work was to investigate age-related factors that could influence a different approach, compared to the 2016 WSES Jerusalem guidelines on general population, in terms of diagnosis and management of elderly patient with acute appendicitis. During the XXIX National Congress of the Italian Society of Surgical Pathophysiology (SIFIPAC) held in Cesena (Italy) in May 2019, in collaboration with the Italian Society of Geriatric Surgery (SICG), the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) and the Italian Society of Emergency Medicine (SIMEU), a panel of experts participated to a Consensus Conference where eight panelists presented a number of statements, which were developed for each of the four topics about diagnosis and management of acute appendicitis in elderly patients, formulated according to the GRADE system. The statements were then voted, eventually modified and finally approved by the participants to the Consensus Conference. The current paper is reporting the definitive guidelines statements on each of the following topics: diagnosis, non-operative management, operative management and antibiotic therapy.

3.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 88(2): e53-e76, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In blunt trauma, orthopedic injuries are often associated with cerebral and torso injuries. The optimal timing for definitive care is a concern. The aim of the study was to develop evidence-based guidelines for damage-control orthopedic (DCO) and early total care (ETC) of pelvic and long-bone fractures, closed or open, and mangled extremities in adult trauma patients with and without associated injuries. METHODS: The literature since 2000 to 2016 was systematically screened according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and meta-analyses protocol. One hundred twenty-four articles were reviewed by a panel of experts to assign grade of recommendation and level of evidence using the Grading of recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system, and an International Consensus Conference, endorsed by several scientific societies was held. RESULTS: The choice between DCO and ETC depends on the patient's physiology, as well as associated injuries. In hemodynamically unstable pelvic fracture patient, extraperitoneal pelvic packing, angioembolization, external fixation, C-clamp, and resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta are not mutually exclusive. Definitive reconstruction should be deferred until recovery of physiological stability. In long bone fractures, DCO is performed by external fixation, while ETC should be preferred in fully resuscitated patients because of better outcomes. In open fractures early debridement within 24 hours should be recommended and early closure of most grade I, II, IIIa performed. In mangled extremities, limb salvage should be considered for non-life-threatening injuries, mostly of upper limb. CONCLUSION: Orthopedic priorities may be: to save a life: control hemorrhage by stabilizing the pelvis and femur fractures; to save a limb: treat soft tissue and vascular injuries associated with fractures, stabilize fractures, recognize, and prevent compartmental syndrome; to save functionality: treat dislocations, articular fractures, distal fractures. While DCO is the best initial treatment to reduce surgical load, ETC should be applied in stable or stabilized patients to accelerate the recovery of normal functions. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Systematic review of predominantly level II studies, level II.

4.
World J Emerg Surg ; 15(1): 10, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSI) represent a considerable burden for healthcare systems. They are largely preventable and multiple interventions have been proposed over past years in an attempt to prevent SSI. We aim to provide a position paper on Operative Room (OR) prevention of SSI in patients presenting with intra-abdominal infection to be considered a future addendum to the well-known World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Guidelines on the management of intra-abdominal infections. METHODS: The literature was searched for focused publications on SSI until March 2019. Critical analysis and grading of the literature has been performed by a working group of experts; the literature review and the statements were evaluated by a Steering Committee of the WSES. RESULTS: Wound protectors and antibacterial sutures seem to have effective roles to prevent SSI in intra-abdominal infections. The application of negative-pressure wound therapy in preventing SSI can be useful in reducing postoperative wound complications. It is important to pursue normothermia with the available resources in the intraoperative period to decrease SSI rate. The optimal knowledge of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic characteristics of antibiotics helps to decide when additional intraoperative antibiotic doses should be administered in patients with intra-abdominal infections undergoing emergency surgery to prevent SSI. CONCLUSIONS: The current position paper offers an extensive overview of the available evidence regarding surgical site infection control and prevention in patients having intra-abdominal infections.

5.
World J Emerg Surg ; 15(1): 2, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of bariatric procedures is increasing worldwide. No consensus or guidelines about the emergency management of long-term complications following bariatric surgery are currently available. The aim of this study is to investigate by a web survey how an emergency surgeon approaches this unique group of patients in an emergency medical scenario and to report their personal experience. METHOD: An international web survey was sent to 197 emergency surgeons with the aim to collect data about emergency surgeons' experience in the management of patients admitted in the emergency department for acute abdominal pain after bariatric surgery. The survey was conceived as a questionnaire composed by 26 (multiple choice and open) questions and approved by a steering committee. RESULTS: One hundred seventeen international emergency surgeons decided to join the project and answered to the web survey with a response rate of 59.39%. CONCLUSIONS: The aim of this WSES web survey was to highlight the current management of patients previously submitted to bariatric surgical procedures by ES. Emergency surgeons must be mindful of postoperative bariatric surgery complications. CT scan with oral intestinal opacification may be useful in making a diagnosis if carefully interpreted by the radiologist and the surgeon. In case of inconclusive clinical and radiological findings, when symptoms fail to improve, surgical exploration for bariatric patients presenting acute abdominal pain, by laparoscopy if expertise is available, is mandatory in the first 12-24 h, to have good outcomes and decrease morbidity rate.

7.
World J Emerg Surg ; 15(1): 13, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070390

RESUMO

Despite evidence supporting the effectiveness of best practices in infection prevention and management, many healthcare workers fail to implement them and evidence-based practices tend to be underused in routine practice. Prevention and management of infections across the surgical pathway should always focus on collaboration among all healthcare workers sharing knowledge of best practices. To clarify key issues in the prevention and management of infections across the surgical pathway, a multidisciplinary task force of experts convened in Ancona, Italy, on May 31, 2019, for a national meeting. This document represents the executive summary of the final statements approved by the expert panel.

8.
World J Emerg Surg ; 15(1): 11, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050987

RESUMO

Emergency surgeons have a crucial role in bridging the gap of skills resulting from the well-known general surgery fragmentation. The multi-specialist general surgery approach is still necessary to define proper diagnosis and therapy priorities in an emergency. Governments have to find effective organizational solutions to maintain emergency general surgery standards of care and to improve them further.

9.
World J Emerg Surg ; 15: 6, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956336

RESUMO

Background: Major trauma patients experience a 20% mortality rate overall, and many survivors remain permanently disabled.In order to monitor the quality of trauma care in the Trauma System, outcomes assessment is essential. Quality indicators on outcome can be expressed as quality of life, functional outcome, and others.The trauma follow-up system was created within the Romagna Trauma System (Italy) in order to monitor the trauma network and assess its long-term outcomes.The aim of this paper is firstly to evaluate the existence of correlations between epidemiological data, severity of injury, and clinical assessment characterizing the acute phase and the long-term outcomes in trauma patients and secondly, to explore the association between outcome variables have been modified. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study over a 10-year period, including patients with severe trauma who survived and were discharged from the intensive care unit. The outcome measures were assessed with the use of the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale and the Euro Quality of Life scale 5 dimension.Demographic data and clinical severity descriptors versus functional outcome were tested in a binary logistic regression model. Results: In all, 428 major trauma patients participated in the study. At 1 year, 50.8% of trauma patients included had a good recovery and 49.2% had some degree of disability. The median value of quality of life was 0.725.At the multivariate analysis, variables showing significant impact on functional outcome were age (p = 0.052, OR 1.025), injury severity score (p = 0.001, OR 1.025), and Glasgow coma scale ≤ 8 (p = 0.001, OR 3.509)The Spearman's Rank correlation coefficient showed a strong correlation between the global level of function variables and quality of life at one year (Spearman's Rho Correlation Coefficient 0.760 (p < 0.0001)). Conclusions: Increased age, increased injury severity score, and severe traumatic brain injury are predictors of long-term disability.Most of these trauma patients show impairments that affect not only the level of functional state but also the quality of life. The degree of functional independence has the greatest positive impact on quality of life.According to our results, after the recovery a prompt recognition of physical and psychological problems with systematic follow-up screening programs can help patients and doctors in defining specific therapeutic-rehabilitation pathways tailored to meet individual requirements.

10.
World J Emerg Surg ; 15: 1, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911813

RESUMO

Background: Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been adopted as the treatment of choice for acute cholecystitis due to a shorter hospital length of stay and no increased morbidity when compared to delayed cholecystectomy. However, randomised studies and meta-analysis report a wide array of timings of early cholecystectomy, most of them set at 72 h following admission. Setting early cholecystectomy at 72 h or even later may influence analysis due to a shift towards a more balanced comparison. At this time, the rate of resolving acute cholecystitis and the rate of ongoing acute process because of failed conservative treatment could be not so different when compared to those operated with a delayed timing of 6-12 weeks. As a result, randomised comparison with such timing for early cholecystectomy and meta-analysis including such studies may have missed a possible advantage of an early cholecystectomy performed within 24 h of the admission, when conservative treatment failure has less potential effects on morbidity. This review will explore pooled data focused on randomised studies with a set timing of early cholecystectomy as a maximum of 24 h following admission, with the aim of verifying the hypothesis that cholecystectomy within 24 h may report a lower post-operative complication rate compared to a delayed intervention. Methods: A systematic review of the literature will identify randomised clinical studies that compared early and delayed cholecystectomy. Pooled data from studies that settled the early intervention within 24 h from admission will be explored and compared in a sub-group analysis with pooled data of studies that settled early intervention as more than 24 h. Discussion: This paper will not provide evidence strong enough to change the clinical practice, but in case the hypothesis is verified, it will invite to re-consider the timing of early cholecystectomy and might promote future clinical research focusing on an accurate definition of timing for early cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis.

11.
World J Emerg Surg ; 15: 2, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911814

RESUMO

Background: The number of bariatric procedures is increasing worldwide. No consensus or guidelines about the emergency management of long-term complications following bariatric surgery are currently available. The aim of this study is to investigate by a web survey how an emergency surgeon approaches this unique group of patients in an emergency medical scenario and to report their personal experience. Method: An international web survey was sent to 197 emergency surgeons with the aim to collect data about emergency surgeons' experience in the management of patients admitted in the emergency department for acute abdominal pain after bariatric surgery. The survey was conceived as a questionnaire composed by 26 (multiple choice and open) questions and approved by a steering committee. Results: One hundred seventeen international emergency surgeons decided to join the project and answered to the web survey with a response rate of 59.39%. Conclusions: The aim of this WSES web survey was to highlight the current management of patients previously submitted to bariatric surgical procedures by ES.Emergency surgeons must be mindful of postoperative bariatric surgery complications. CT scan with oral intestinal opacification may be useful in making a diagnosis if carefully interpreted by the radiologist and the surgeon.In case of inconclusive clinical and radiological findings, when symptoms fail to improve, surgical exploration for bariatric patients presenting acute abdominal pain, by laparoscopy if expertise is available, is mandatory in the first 12-24 h, to have good outcomes and decrease morbidity rate.

12.
World J Emerg Surg ; 15: 3, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31921329

RESUMO

Background: Peptic ulcer disease is common with a lifetime prevalence in the general population of 5-10% and an incidence of 0.1-0.3% per year. Despite a sharp reduction in incidence and rates of hospital admission and mortality over the past 30 years, complications are still encountered in 10-20% of these patients. Peptic ulcer disease remains a significant healthcare problem, which can consume considerable financial resources. Management may involve various subspecialties including surgeons, gastroenterologists, and radiologists. Successful management of patients with complicated peptic ulcer (CPU) involves prompt recognition, resuscitation when required, appropriate antibiotic therapy, and timely surgical/radiological treatment. Methods: The present guidelines have been developed according to the GRADE methodology. To create these guidelines, a panel of experts was designed and charged by the board of the WSES to perform a systematic review of the available literature and to provide evidence-based statements with immediate practical application. All the statements were presented and discussed during the 5th WSES Congress, and for each statement, a consensus among the WSES panel of experts was reached. Conclusions: The population considered in these guidelines is adult patients with suspected complicated peptic ulcer disease. These guidelines present evidence-based international consensus statements on the management of complicated peptic ulcer from a collaboration of a panel of experts and are intended to improve the knowledge and the awareness of physicians around the world on this specific topic. We divided our work into the two main topics, bleeding and perforated peptic ulcer, and structured it into six main topics that cover the entire management process of patients with complicated peptic ulcer, from diagnosis at ED arrival to post-discharge antimicrobial therapy, to provide an up-to-date, easy-to-use tool that can help physicians and surgeons during the decision-making process.

13.
World J Surg ; 44(1): 53-62, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Open abdomen is the cornerstone of damage control strategies in acute care and trauma surgery. The role of BMI has not been well investigated. The aim of the study was to assess the role of BMI in determining outcomes after open abdomen. METHODS: This is an analysis of patients recorded into the International Register of Open Abdomen; patients were classified in two groups according to BMI using a cutoff of 30 kg/m2. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality; secondary outcomes were primary fascia closure rate, length of treatment, complication rate, entero-atmospheric fistula rate and length of ICU stay. RESULTS: A total of 591 patients were enrolled from 57 centers, and obese patients were 127 (21.5%). There was no difference in mortality between the two groups; complications developed during the open treatment were higher in obese patients (63.8% vs. 53.4%, p = 0.038) while post-closure complications rate was similar. Obese patients had a significantly longer duration of the open treatment (9.1 ± 11.5 days vs. 6.3 ± 7.5 days; p = 0,002) and lower primary fascia closure rate (75.5% vs. 89.5%; p < 0,001). No differences in fistula rate were found. There was a linear correlation between the duration of open abdomen and the BMI (Pearson's linear correlation coefficient = 0,201; p < 0,001). CONCLUSIONS: Open abdomen in obese patients seems to be safe as in non-obese patients with similar mortality; however, in obese patients the length of open abdomen is significantly higher with higher complication rate, longer ICU length of stay and lower primary fascia closure rate. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT02382770.

14.
World J Emerg Surg ; 14: 53, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798673

RESUMO

The acute phase management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and polytrauma represents a major challenge. Guidelines for the care of these complex patients are lacking, and worldwide variability in clinical practice has been documented in recent studies. Consequently, the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) decided to organize an international consensus conference regarding the monitoring and management of severe adult TBI polytrauma patients during the first 24 hours after injury. A modified Delphi approach was adopted, with an agreement cut-off of 70%. Forty experts in this field (emergency surgeons, neurosurgeons, and intensivists) participated in the online consensus process. Sixteen recommendations were generated, with the aim of promoting rational care in this difficult setting.

15.
World J Emerg Surg ; 14: 50, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832084

RESUMO

Antibiotics are the pillar of surgery from prophylaxis to treatment; any failure is potentially a leading cause for increased morbidity and mortality. Robust data on the burden of SSI especially those due to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) show variable rates between countries and geographical regions but accurate estimates of the incidence of surgical site infections (SSI) due to AMR and its related global economic impact are yet to be determined. Quantifying the burden of SSI treatment is an incentive to sensitize governments, healthcare systems, and the society to invest in quality improvement and sustainable development. However in the absence of a unified epidemiologically sound infection definition of SSI and a well-designed global surveillance system, the end result is a lack of accurate and reliable data that limits the comparability of estimates between countries and the possibility of tracking changes to inform healthcare professionals about the appropriateness of implemented infection prevention and control strategies. This review aims to highlight the reported gaps in surveillance methods, epidemiologic data, and evidence-based SSI prevention practices and in the methodologies undertaken for the evaluation of the economic burden of SSI associated with AMR bacteria. If efforts to tackle this problem are taken in isolation without a global alliance and data is still lacking generalizability and comparability, we may see the future as a race between the global research efforts for the advancement in surgery and the global alarming reports of the increased incidence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens threatening to undermine any achievement.

16.
World J Emerg Surg ; 14: 54, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827593

RESUMO

Renal and urogenital injuries occur in approximately 10-20% of abdominal trauma in adults and children. Optimal management should take into consideration the anatomic injury, the hemodynamic status, and the associated injuries. The management of urogenital trauma aims to restore homeostasis and normal physiology especially in pediatric patients where non-operative management is considered the gold standard. As with all traumatic conditions, the management of urogenital trauma should be multidisciplinary including urologists, interventional radiologists, and trauma surgeons, as well as emergency and ICU physicians. The aim of this paper is to present the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) and the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) kidney and urogenital trauma management guidelines.

17.
World J Emerg Surg ; 14: 56, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867050

RESUMO

Duodeno-pancreatic and extrahepatic biliary tree injuries are rare in both adult and pediatric trauma patients, and due to their anatomical location, associated injuries are very common. Mortality is primarily related to associated injuries, but morbidity remains high even in isolated injuries. Optimal management of duodeno-bilio-pancreatic injuries is dictated primarily by hemodynamic stability, clinical presentation, and grade of injury. Endoscopic and percutaneous interventions have increased the ability to non-operatively manage these injuries. Late diagnosis and treatment are both associated to increased morbidity and mortality. Sequelae of late presentations of pancreatic injury and complications of severe pancreatic trauma are also increasingly addressed endoscopically and with interventional radiology procedures. However, for moderate and severe extrahepatic biliary and severe duodeno-pancreatic injuries, immediate operative intervention is preferred as associated injuries are frequent and commonly present with hemodynamic instability or peritonitis. The aim of this paper is to present the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) and American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) duodenal, pancreatic, and extrahepatic biliary tree trauma management guidelines.

18.
Shock ; 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) may improve Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) in hypovolemic shock. It has, however, not been studied in patients with impending traumatic cardiac arrest (ITCA). We aimed to study the feasibility and clinical outcome of REBOA in patients with ITCA using data from the ABOTrauma Registry. METHODS: Retrospective and prospective data on the use of REBOA from 16 centers globally were collected. SBP was measured both at pre- and post-REBOA inflation. Data collected included patients' demography, vascular access technique, number of attempts, catheter size, operator, zone and duration of occlusion, and clinical outcome. RESULTS: There were 74 patients in this high-risk patient group. REBOA was performed on all patients. A 7-10Fr catheter was used in 66.7%, 58.5% were placed on the first attempt, 52.1% through blind insertion and 93.2% inflated in Zone I, 64.8% for a period of 30 to 60 minutes, 82.1% by ER doctors, trauma surgeons or vascular surgeons. SBP significantly improved to 90 mmHg following the inflation of REBOA. 36.6% of the patients survived. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has shown that REBOA may be performed in patients with ITCA, SBP can be elevated and 36.6% of the patients survived if REBOA placement is successful.

19.
Am J Surg ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733686

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: No definitive data exist regarding epidemiology and outcomes of patients treated with open abdomen (OA) linked to age. METHODS: This is a prospective, observational, cohort study that includes patients treated with OA. Patients were divided into 4 age groups: group 1: 16-40 y.o.; group 2: 41-60 y.o.; group 3:61-80 y.o.; group 4:> 80 y.o. RESULTS: 760 patients were enrolled. Average age was 60 ±â€¯18aa; 57.2% were males. Most frequent indication was peritonitis (50.9%). Mean open duration of open abdomen was8±18 days. Definitive closure was reached in 81.1% of patients. Complications were recorded in 84.8% of patients with significant differences between groups (p = 0.001). Overall mortality was41.2% with significant differences between groups (p < 0.001) (group 1 25.6%, group 2 36.1%, group 3 44.5%, group 4 67.1%) 1 month follow-up mortality post-OA was 9.2% and 1 year follow-up mortality was 11.6%; CONCLUSIONS: Open abdomen treatment is feasible at every age. Diseases requiring treatment with OA are differently distributed in relation to the different age groups. Advanced age has negative effect on complications and mortality rate.

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