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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480653

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 in children has been linked to various clinical presentation, from paucisymptomatic cutaneous eruptions, to multisystemic inflammatory syndrome. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy who presented with persistent fever and pancytopenia, associated to a skin rash. An extensive etiological workup showed a positive serology for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and Epstein-Barr virus. A few weeks later, type B acute lymphocytic leukemia was diagnosed. This case underlines the polymorphic appearance of coronavirus disease-2019 and the need for critical appraisal.

2.
Eur J Cancer ; 145: 71-80, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer patients are at increased risk of second primary neoplasms (SPNs). We assessed incidence and risk factors for early SPNs with a focus on cancer predisposition syndromes (CPSs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cohort study used data from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry. We included patients with first primary neoplasms (FPNs) diagnosed before age 21 years from 1986 to 2015 and identified SPNs occurring before age 21. We calculated standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and absolute excess risks (AERs) using Swiss population cancer incidence data, and cumulative incidence of SPNs. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) of risk factors for SPNs using Fine and Gray competing risk regression. RESULTS: Among 8074 childhood cancer patients, 304 (4%) were diagnosed with a CPS and 94 (1%) developed early SPNs. The incidence of SPNs was more than 10-fold higher in childhood cancer patients than the incidence of neoplasms in the general population (SIR = 10.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.7-13.1) and the AER was 179/100,000 person-years (CI: 139-219). Cumulative incidence of SPNs 20 years after FPN diagnosis was 23% in patients with CPSs (CI: 12-41%) and 2.7% in those without (CI: 2.0-3.6%). Risk factors for SPNs were CPSs (HR = 7.8, CI: 4.8-12.7), chemotherapy (HR = 2.2, CI: 1.1-4.6), radiotherapy (HR = 1.9, CI = 1.2-2.9), haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HR = 1.8, CI: 1-3.3), and older age (15-20 years) at FPN diagnosis (HR = 1.9, CI: 1.1-3.2). CONCLUSION: CPSs are associated with a high risk of SPNs before age 21 years. Identification of CPSs is important for appropriate cancer surveillance and targeted screening.

4.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(4): 295-307, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332189

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Total body irradiation (TBI) before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is efficacious, but long-term side effects are concerning. We investigated whether preparative combination chemotherapy could replace TBI in such patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: FORUM is a randomized, controlled, open-label, international, multicenter, phase III, noninferiority study. Patients ≤ 18 years at diagnosis, 4-21 years at HSCT, in complete remission pre-HSCT, and with an HLA-compatible related or unrelated donor were randomly assigned to myeloablative conditioning with fractionated 12 Gy TBI and etoposide versus fludarabine, thiotepa, and either busulfan or treosulfan. The noninferiority margin was 8%. With 1,000 patients randomly assigned in 5 years, 2-year minimum follow-up, and one-sided alpha of 5%, 80% power was calculated. A futility stopping rule would halt random assignment if chemoconditioning was significantly inferior to TBI (EudraCT: 2012-003032-22; ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01949129). RESULTS: Between April 2013 and December 2018, 543 patients were screened, 417 were randomly assigned, 212 received TBI, and 201 received chemoconditioning. The stopping rule was applied on March 31, 2019. The median follow-up was 2.1 years. In the intention-to-treat population, 2-year overall survival (OS) was significantly higher following TBI (0.91; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.95; P < .0001) versus chemoconditioning (0.75; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.81). Two-year cumulative incidence of relapse and treatment-related mortality were 0.12 (95% CI, 0.08 to 0.17; P < .0001) and 0.02 (95% CI, < 0.01 to 0.05; P = .0269) following TBI and 0.33 (95% CI, 0.25 to 0.40) and 0.09 (95% CI, 0.05 to 0.14) following chemoconditioning, respectively. CONCLUSION: Improved OS and lower relapse risk were observed following TBI plus etoposide compared with chemoconditioning. We therefore recommend TBI plus etoposide for patients > 4 years old with high-risk ALL undergoing allogeneic HSCT.

5.
J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod ; 50(2): 102029, 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259962

RESUMO

Ovarian failure is a major long-term adverse event following gonadotoxic treatment of malignant diseases. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation can be offered in some conditions to preserve fertility. We report the case of a 13-year-old female with a diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia, who presented with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism after unilateral ovariectomy for fertility preservation and before highly gonadotoxic treatment. Even though damage seemed only partial, this case suggests that the remaining contralateral ovarian function may be compromised after ovarian tissue cryopreservation, leading per se to a hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Although indication of ovarian cryopreservation is not called into question in situations of highly gonadotoxic therapy, this procedure should only be performed after evaluation by a specialized multidisciplinary team and provided a solid indication.

6.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20375, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232506

RESUMO

Fluoropyrimidines (FPs), mainly 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and its oral prodrug capecitabine (Cap), remain the backbone of the treatment of many different solid tumors. Despite their broad use in clinical routine, 10–40% of patients experience severe, and in rare cases (0.2–0.5%) even lethal, FP-related toxicity in early chemotherapy cycles. Today, there is a plethora of evidence that genetic variants in the gene encoding for the 5-FU catabolising enzyme dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD, encoded by DPYD) are predictive of severe FP-related toxicities, and international clinical practice recommendations for DPYD genotype-guided FP dosing and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) are available. In spite of this strong evidence and DPYD genotyping becoming standard practice in other countries, it is has not been widely adopted in Switzerland to date. Here, we discuss current guidelines on genotype-guided FP dosing and TDM, and propose recommendations tailored to the situation in Switzerland to facilitate their clinical uptake for the further individualisation of FP chemotherapy. We recommend preemptive testing of four DPYD variants (c.1905+1G>A (rs3918290), c.1679T>G (rs55886062), c.2846A>T (rs67376798) and c.1129-5923C>G (rs75017182, c.1236G>A/HapB3)) in patients with an indication for FP-based chemotherapy, with the costs reimbursed through the compulsory health insurance in Switzerland. Carriers of these variants (6.5% in the Swiss population) have a 40–50% risk of developing severe early-onset toxicity when treated with standard FP doses. In these patients, we therefore recommend the use of a reduced starting dose, based on a dose adjustment scheme provided herein. Furthermore, we recommend the use of infusional 5-FU in patients with a DPYD risk genotype in order to enable TDM-based dose escalation. Only if the use of an infusional 5-FU regimen is not feasible should a slow titration of Cap, starting with the recommended reduced dose and basing further doses on monitoring of toxicity, be considered. Given that several studies have shown that TDM in 5-FU treatment improves not only the therapy’s safety, but potentially also its efficacy, we also include detailed TDM-based dosing guidelines and discuss the pre-analytical aspects of 5-FU TDM.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239655

RESUMO

Childhood cancer survivors treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are at high risk for pulmonary morbidity and mortality. In this retrospective study we described transplant characteristics of pediatric patients who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Switzerland and how these characteristics changed over time, compared self-reported pulmonary outcomes between transplanted and non-transplanted survivors, and investigated risk factors for the reported pulmonary outcomes. As part of the population-based Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we sent questionnaires to all ≥5-year childhood cancer survivors diagnosed 1976-2010 at age ≤20 years. We included 132 transplanted survivors and 368 matched non-transplanted survivors. During the study period transplant characteristics changed, with decreasing use of total body irradiation and increased use of peripheral blood stem cells and mismatched and unrelated donors as transplant source. One-fifth of transplanted survivors (20%, 95%CI 13-27%) and 18% of non-transplanted survivors (95%CI 13-21%) reported at least one pulmonary outcome. None of the analyzed factors was significantly associated with an increased risk of pulmonary outcomes in multivariable analysis. We found that pulmonary outcomes were frequently reported in transplanted and non-transplanted childhood cancer survivors, indicating a strong need for long-term pulmonary follow-up care.

8.
J Vis Exp ; (164)2020 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104076

RESUMO

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are metabolic enzymes responsible for the elimination of endogenous or exogenous electrophilic compounds by glutathione (GSH) conjugation. In addition, GSTs are regulators of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) involved in apoptotic pathways. Overexpression of GSTs is correlated with decreased therapeutic efficacy among patients undergoing chemotherapy with electrophilic alkylating agents. Using GST inhibitors may be a potential solution to reverse this tendency and augment treatment potency. Achieving this goal requires the discovery of such compounds, with an accurate, quick, and easy enzyme assay. A spectrophotometric protocol using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) as the substrate is the most employed method in the literature. However, already described GST inhibition experiments do not provide a protocol detailing each stage of an optimal inhibition assay, such as the measurement of the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) for CDNB or indication of the employed enzyme concentration, crucial parameters to assess the inhibition potency of a tested compound. Hence, with this protocol, we describe each step of an optimized spectrophotometric GST enzyme assay, to screen libraries of potential inhibitors. We explain the calculation of both the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) and the constant of inhibition (Ki)-two characteristics used to measure the potency of an enzyme inhibitor. The method described can be implemented using a pool of GSTs extracted from cells or pure recombinant human GSTs, namely GST alpha 1 (GSTA1), GST mu 1 (GSTM1) or GST pi 1 (GSTP1). However, this protocol cannot be applied to GST theta 1 (GSTT1), as CDNB is not a substrate for this isoform. This method was used to test the inhibition potency of curcumin using GSTs from equine liver. Curcumin is a molecule exhibiting anti-cancer properties and showed affinity towards GST isoforms after in silico docking predictions. We demonstrated that curcumin is a potent competitive GST inhibitor, with an IC50 of 31.6 ± 3.6 µM and a Ki of 23.2 ± 3.2 µM. Curcumin has potential to be combined with electrophilic chemotherapy medication to improve its efficacy.

9.
Ann Hematol ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098041

RESUMO

Busulfan and cyclophosphamide (BuCy) is a frequently used myeloablative conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Theoretical considerations and pharmacological data indicate that application of busulfan prior to subsequent cyclophosphamide (BuCy) may trigger liver toxicity. Reversing the order of application to cyclophosphamide-busulfan (CyBu) might be preferable, a hypothesis supported by animal data and retrospective studies. We performed a prospective randomized trial to determine impact of order of application of Bu and Cy before allo-HCT in 70 patients with hematological malignancy, 33 patients received BuCy and 37 CyBu for conditioning. In the short term, there were minimal differences in liver toxicity favoring CyBu over BuCy, significant only for alanine amino transferase at day 30 (p = 0.03). With longer follow-up at 4 years, non-relapse mortality (6% versus 27%, p = 0.05) was lower and survival (63% versus 43%, p = 0.06) was higher with CyBu compared to BuCy. Other outcomes, such as engraftment (p = 0.21), acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (p = 0.40; 0.36), and relapse (p = 0.79), were similar in both groups. We prospectively show evidence that the order of application of Cy and Bu in myeloablative conditioning in allo-HCT patients has impact on outcome.

10.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-11, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996404

RESUMO

Cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes participate in several cellular processes in addition to facilitating glutathione conjugation reactions that eliminate endogenous and exogenous toxic compounds, especially electrophiles. GSTs are thought to interact with various kinases, resulting in the modulation of apoptotic processes and cellular proliferation. The present research used a combination of in silico and in vitro studies to investigate protein-protein interactions between the seven most abundant cytosolic GSTs-GST alpha-1 (GST-A1), GST alpha-2 (GST-A2), GST mu-1 (GST-M1), GST mu-2 (GST-M2), GST mu-5 (GST-M5), GST theta-1 (GST-T1) and GST pi-1 (GST-P1)-and Mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (MAPK8) and Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1). MAPK8 and ASK1 were chosen as this study's protein interaction partners because of their predominant role in electrophile or cytokine-induced stress-mediated apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis. The highest degree of sequence homology or sequence similarity was observed in two GST subgroups: the GST-A1, GST-A2 and GST-P1 isoforms constituted subgroup1; the GST-M1, GST-M2 and GST-M5 isoforms constituted subgroup 2. The GST-T1 isoform diverged from these isoforms. In silico investigations revealed that GST-M1 showed a significantly higher binding affinity to MAPK8, and its complex was more structurally stable than the other isoforms, in the order GST-M1 > GST-M5 > GST-P1 > GST-A2 > GST-A1 > GST-M2 > GST-T1. Similarly, GST-A1, GST-P1 and GST-T1 actively interacted with ASK1, and their structural stability was also better, in the order GST-T1 > GST-A1 > GST-P1 > GST-A2 > GST-M5 > GST-M1 > GST-M2. To validate in silico results, we performed in vitro crosslinking and mass spectroscopy experiments. Results indicated that GST-M1 interacted with GST-T1 to form heterodimers and confirmed the predicted interaction between GST-M1 and MAPK8. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

11.
Data Brief ; 32: 106227, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939381

RESUMO

Genetic association studies suggest a genetic predisposition for cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Among other candidate genes, thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) is considered a critical gene for susceptibility to cisplatin-induced hearing loss in a pharmacogenetic guideline. The PanCareLIFE cross-sectional cohort study evaluated the genetic associations in a large pan-European population and assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the genetic markers. 1,112 pediatric cancer survivors who had provided biomaterial for genotyping were screened for participation in the pharmacogenetic association study. 900 participants qualified for inclusion. Based on the assessment of original audiograms, patients were assigned to three phenotype categories: no, minor, and clinically relevant hearing loss. Fourteen variants in eleven candidate genes (ABCC3, OTOS, TPMT, SLC22A2, NFE2L2, SLC16A5, LRP2, GSTP1, SOD2, WFS1, and ACYP2) were genotyped. The genotype and phenotype data represent a resource for conducting meta-analyses to derive a more precise pooled estimate of the effects of genes on the risk of hearing loss due to platinum treatment.

12.
Eur J Cancer ; 138: 212-224, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irreversible sensorineural hearing loss is a common side effect of platinum treatment with the potential to significantly impair the neurocognitive, social and educational development of childhood cancer survivors. Genetic association studies suggest a genetic predisposition for cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Among other candidate genes, thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) is considered a critical gene for susceptibility to cisplatin-induced hearing loss in a pharmacogenetic guideline. The aim of this cross-sectional cohort study was to confirm the genetic associations in a large pan-European population and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the genetic markers. METHODS: Eligibility criteria required patients to be aged less than 19 years at the start of chemotherapy, which had to include cisplatin and/or carboplatin. Patients were assigned to three phenotype categories: no, minor and clinically relevant hearing loss. Fourteen variants in eleven candidate genes (ABCC3, OTOS, TPMT, SLC22A2, NFE2L2, SLC16A5, LRP2, GSTP1, SOD2, WFS1 and ACYP2) were investigated. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to model the relationship between genetic predictors and platinum ototoxicity, adjusting for clinical risk factors. Additionally, measures of the diagnostic accuracy of the genetic markers were determined. RESULTS: 900 patients were included in this study. In the multinomial logistic regression, significant unique contributions were found from SLC22A2 rs316019, the age at the start of platinum treatment, cranial radiation and the interaction term [platinum compound]∗[cumulative dose of cisplatin]. The predictive performance of the genetic markers was poor compared with the clinical risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: PanCareLIFE is the largest study of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity to date and confirmed a role for the polyspecific organic cation transporter SLC22A2. However, the predictive value of the current genetic candidate markers for clinical use is negligible, which puts the value of clinical factors for risk assessment of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity back into the foreground.

14.
J Psychosoc Oncol Res Pract ; 2(3): e024, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832904

RESUMO

Background: We describe post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in parents of long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCS-parents) and compare them to parents of similar-aged children (comparison-parents) of the Swiss general population (SGP). We compare type of reported stressful event, prevalence of PTSS and PTSD, and psychosocial and cancer-related characteristics associated with PTSS. We further describe the respective normative data for the SGP. Methods: We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional questionnaire survey in a population-based sample of long-term CCS-parents (survivors aged ≤16 years at diagnosis, ≥20 years at study, >5 years post-diagnosis) and in the SGP. Using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, we measured PTSS regarding the most stressful event experienced, and computed probable cases of PTSD. Results: Participants included 663 CCS-parents (39.4% fathers) and 1035 individuals of the SGP (40.0% male), of which we identified 391 comparison-parents (41.2% fathers). Illness was most often indicated as stressful event (CCS-parents: 49.5%, comparison-parents: 27.6%, SGP: 25.3%). Prevalence of PTSS and PTSD (CCS-parents: 4.8%, comparison-parents: 6.7%, SGP: 5.6%) did not significantly differ. Lower education was associated with higher intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal in all samples (all P ≤ .003). Parents of children with a chronic illness reported higher intrusion (all P ≤ .004). We found no associations with cancer-related characteristics. Conclusions: No increased risk for PTSS or PTSD was found among CCS-parents. Individuals with lower education and those with a chronically ill child might benefit from additional support to help manage and resolve the stress symptoms in the long term.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860667

RESUMO

Background Given that social media is quickly penetrating clinical practice, it is essential to explore how these technologies can be used to improve patient-centered care. This is particularly important for healthcare professionals caring for adolescents and young adults (AYA), amid whom the use of social media is nearly universal and whose medical and psychosocial needs are often underestimated by the pediatric or adult oncology settings in which they are treated. Objectives To examine the perspectives of various medical professionals on the emerging role of social media in AYA oncology. Methods Three focus groups were performed with Swiss healthcare professionals involved in the care of AYA patients with cancer. The focus groups were analyzed using thematic coding. Results Healthcare professionals caring for AYA cancer patients in Switzerland are reluctant to step into the social media sphere because they find it difficult to navigate professional boundaries in an unfamiliar space where different contexts collapse. Nurses and younger healthcare professionals who tend to have a more intimate relationship with AYA, often lack virtual mentorship to know how to maintain online professionalism. Adolescents and young adults cancer-related social media presence was unknown to our participants which resulted in missed occasions to inform, educate and care for this often underserved population of cancer patients. Conclusions More practical guidance is needed to help healthcare professionals with how to integrate social media into clinical practice. Setting up fruitful collaborations between medical institutions and existing AYA support groups online might be the best way forward.

16.
Biomolecules ; 10(8)2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731356

RESUMO

Many primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are recognised as being associated with malignancies, particularly lymphoid malignancies, which represent the highest proportion of cancers occurring in conjunction with this underlying condition. When patients present with genetic errors of immunity, clinicians must often reflect on whether to manage antitumoral treatment conventionally or to take a more personalised approach, considering possible existing comorbidities and the underlying status of immunodeficiency. Recent advances in antitumoral immunotherapies, such as monoclonal antibodies, antigen-specific adoptive cell therapies or compounds with targeted effects, potentially offer significant opportunities for optimising treatment for those patients, especially with lymphoid malignancies. In cases involving PIDs, variable oncogenic mechanisms exist, and opportunities for antitumoral immunotherapies can be considered accordingly. In cases involving a DNA repair defect or genetic instability, monoclonal antibodies can be proposed instead of chemotherapy to avoid severe toxicity. Malignancies secondary to uncontrolled virus-driven proliferation or the loss of antitumoral immunosurveillance may benefit from antivirus cell therapies or allogeneic stem cell transplantation in order to restore the immune antitumoral caretaker function. A subset of PIDs is caused by gene defects affecting targetable signalling pathways directly involved in the oncogenic process, such as the constitutive activation of phosphoinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) in activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta syndrome (APDS), which can be settled with PI3K/AKT inhibitors. Therefore, immunotherapy provides clinicians with interesting antitumoral therapeutic weapons to treat malignancies when there is an underlying PID.

17.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(10): 1819-1827, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653625

RESUMO

The pharmacokinetics of low-dose busulfan (BU) were investigated as a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen for autologous gene therapy (GT) in pediatric subjects with adenosine deaminase-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency disease (ADA SCID). In 3 successive clinical trials, which included either γ-retroviral (γ-RV) or lentiviral (LV) vectors, subjects were conditioned with BU using different dosing nomograms. The first cohort received BU doses based on body surface area (BSA), the second cohort received doses based on actual body weight (ABW), and in the third cohort, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) was used to target a specific area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). Neither BSA-based nor ABW-based dosing achieved a consistent cumulative BU AUC; in contrast, TDM-based dosing led to more consistent AUC. BU clearance increased as subject age increased from birth to 18 months. However, weight and age alone were insufficient to accurately predict the dose that would consistently achieve a target AUC. Furthermore, various clinical, laboratory, and genetic factors (eg, genotypes for glutathione-S-transferase isozymes known to participate in BU metabolism) were analyzed, but no single finding predicted subjects with rapid versus slow clearance. Analysis of BU AUC and the postengraftment vector copy number (VCN) in granulocytes, a surrogate marker of the level of engrafted gene-modified hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), demonstrated gene marking at levels sufficient for therapeutic benefit in the subjects who had achieved the target BU AUC. Although many factors determine the ultimate engraftment following GT, this work demonstrates that the BU AUC correlated with the eventual level of engrafted gene-modified HSPCs within a vector group (γ-RV versus LV), with significantly higher levels of granulocyte VCN in the recipients of LV-modified grafts compared to recipients of γ-RV-transduced grafts. Taken together, these findings provide insight into low-dose BU pharmacokinetics in the unique setting of autologous GT for ADA SCID, and these dosing principles may be applied to future GT trials using low-dose BU to open the bone marrow niche.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594103

RESUMO

Up to 40% of donor-recipient pairs in SCT have some degree of ABO incompatibility, which may cause severe complications. The aim of this study was to describe available options and survey current practices by means of a questionnaire circulated within the EBMT Pediatric Diseases Working Party investigators. Major ABO incompatibility (donor's RBCs have antigens missing on the recipient's cell surface, towards which the recipient has circulating isohemagglutinins) requires most frequently an intervention in case of bone marrow grafts, as immediate or delayed hemolysis, delayed erythropoiesis and pure red cell aplasia may occur. RBC depletion from the graft (82%), recipient plasma-exchange (14%) were the most common practices, according to the survey. Graft manipulation is rarely needed in mobilized peripheral blood grafts. In case of minor incompatible grafts (donor has isohemagglutinins directed against recipient RBC antigens), isohemagglutinin depletion from the graft by plasma reduction/centrifugation may be considered, but acute tolerability of minor incompatible grafts is rarely an issue. According to the survey, minor ABO incompatibility was either managed by means of plasma removal from the graft, especially when isohemagglutinin titer was above a certain threshold, or led to no intervention at all (41%). Advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.

19.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(7): 495-502, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fever in neutropenia is the most frequent complication of chemotherapy for cancer. The temperature limit defining fever used clinically varies. A higher limit can avoid unnecessary diagnoses in patients spontaneously recovering from fever. This trial primarily aimed to determine if a limit of 39·0°C ear temperature is non-inferior to 38·5°C regarding safety. METHODS: This cluster-randomised, multiple crossover, non-blinded, non-inferiority trial was done in six Swiss Paediatric Oncology Group centres (clusters) in Switzerland. Patients (aged 1 to <18 years) with any malignancy and treated with myelosuppressive chemotherapy expected to last 2 months or more were repeatedly randomly assigned (1:1), at the cluster level, to either monthly 39·0°C or 38·5°C ear temperature limits for diagnosis of fever in neutropenia. Diagnosis below the randomised limit was allowed for clinical reasons. Such a diagnosis implied emergency hospitalisation, examinations (including blood culture), as-needed antipyretics, and empirical intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics. The primary outcome was the rate of fever in neutropenia with safety relevant events (SRE) per chemotherapy year; we also assessed efficacy in terms of rate of fever in neutropenia. The non-inferiority margin was 1·33 for safety, and for effiacy, the superiority margin was 1·00. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02324231. FINDINGS: 269 patients were recruited between April 28, 2016, to Aug 27, 2018, until the trial was stopped for success after the second interim analysis. Patients were repeatedly randomly assigned, with 1210 (48%) of 2547 randomisation periods and 92 (47%) of 195 chemotherapy years randomised to 39·0°C. SREs were diagnosed in 72 (20%) of 360 fever in neutropenia episodes (zero deaths, 16 intensive care unit admissions, 22 cases of severe sepsis, and 56 cases of bacteraemia). In 92 chemotherapy years randomised to the 39·0°C fever limit, 151 episodes of fever with neutropenia were diagnosed (1·64 per year), including 22 (15%) with SRE (0·24 per year). In 103 chemotherapy years randomised to 38·5°C, 209 episodes were diagnosed (2·03 per year), including 50 (24%) with SRE (0·49 per year). The mixed Poisson regression rate ratio (RR) of fever in neutropenia with SRE in 39·0°C versus 38·5°C was 0·56 (95% upper confidence bound 0·72). The corresponding RR of fever in neutropenia was 0·83 (95% upper confidence bound 0·98). INTERPRETATION: In children with neutropenia and chemotherapy for cancer, 39·0°C ear temperature was safe and seemed efficacious. For Switzerland and comparable settings, 39·0°C can be recommended as new evidence-based standard fever limit except for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. FUNDING: Swiss Cancer League (KLS-3645-02-2015).


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Orelha , Neutropenia Febril/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia , Adolescente , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Masculino , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/epidemiologia
20.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(8): e28350, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383794

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Treatment outcomes for hepatoblastoma have improved markedly in the contemporary treatment era, principally due to therapy intensification, with overall survival increasing from 35% in the 1970s to 90% at present. Unfortunately, these advancements are accompanied by an increased incidence of toxicities. A detailed analysis of age as a prognostic factor may support individualized risk-based therapy stratification. METHODS: We evaluated 1605 patients with hepatoblastoma included in the CHIC database to assess the relationship between event-free survival (EFS) and age at diagnosis. Further analysis included the age distribution of additional risk factors and the interaction of age with other known prognostic factors. RESULTS: Risk for an event increases progressively with increasing age at diagnosis. This pattern could not be attributed to the differential distribution of other known risk factors across age. Newborns and infants are not at increased risk of treatment failure. The interaction between age and other adverse risk factors demonstrates an attenuation of prognostic relevance with increasing age in the following categories: metastatic disease, AFP < 100 ng/mL, and tumor rupture. CONCLUSION: Risk for an event increased with advancing age at diagnosis. Increased age attenuates the prognostic influence of metastatic disease, low AFP, and tumor rupture. Age could be used to modify recommended chemotherapy intensity.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Hepatoblastoma , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Hepatoblastoma/diagnóstico , Hepatoblastoma/mortalidade , Hepatoblastoma/patologia , Hepatoblastoma/terapia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
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