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1.
JACC Heart Fail ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714745

RESUMO

Randomized clinical trials are the foundation of evidence-based medicine and central to practice guidelines and patient care decisions. Nonetheless, randomized trials in heart failure (HF) populations have become increasingly difficult to conduct and are frequently associated with slow patient enrollment, highly selected populations, extensive data collection, and high costs. The traditional model for HF trials has become particularly difficult to execute in the United States, where challenges to site-based research have frequently led to modest U.S. representation in global trials. In this context, the TRANSFORM-HF (Torsemide Comparison with Furosemide for Management of Heart Failure) trial aims to overcome traditional trial challenges and compare the effects of torsemide versus furosemide among patients with HF in the United States. Loop diuretic agents are regularly used by most patients with HF and practice guidelines recommend optimal use of diuretic agents as key to a successful treatment strategy. Long-time clinical experience has contributed to dominant use of furosemide for loop diuretic therapy, although preclinical and small clinical studies suggest potential advantages of torsemide. However, due to the lack of appropriately powered clinical outcome studies, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that torsemide should be routinely recommended over furosemide. Given this gap in knowledge and the fundamental role of loop diuretic agents in HF care, the TRANSFORM-HF trial was designed as a prospective, randomized, event-driven, pragmatic, comparative-effectiveness study to definitively compare the effect of a treatment strategy of torsemide versus furosemide on long-term mortality, hospitalization, and patient-reported outcomes among patients with HF. (TRANSFORM-HF: ToRsemide compArisoN With furoSemide FORManagement of Heart Failure [TRANSFORM-HF]; NCT03296813).

3.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(1): 14-23, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385220

RESUMO

Rationale: Decisions in medicine are made on the basis of knowledge and reasoning, often in shared conversations with patients and families in consideration of clinical practice guideline recommendations, individual preferences, and individual goals. Observational studies can provide valuable knowledge to inform guidelines, decisions, and policy.Objectives: The American Thoracic Society (ATS) created a multidisciplinary ad hoc committee to develop a research statement to clarify the role of observational studies-alongside randomized controlled trials (RCTs)-in informing clinical decisions in pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine.Methods: The committee examined the strengths of observational studies assessing causal effects, how they complement RCTs, factors that impact observational study quality, perceptions of observational research, and, finally, the practicalities of incorporating observational research into ATS clinical practice guidelines.Measurements and Main Results: There are strengths and weakness of observational studies as well as RCTs. Observational studies can provide evidence in representative and diverse patient populations. Quality observational studies should be sought in the development of ATS clinical practice guidelines, and medical decision-making in general, when 1) no RCTs are identified or RCTs are appraised as being of low- or very low-quality (replacement); 2) RCTs are of moderate quality because of indirectness, imprecision, or inconsistency, and observational studies mitigate the reason that RCT evidence was downgraded (complementary); or 3) RCTs do not provide evidence for outcomes that a guideline committee considers essential for decision-making (e.g., rare or long-term outcomes; "sequential").Conclusions: Observational studies should be considered in developing clinical practice guidelines and in making clinical decisions.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/normas , Doenças Torácicas/terapia , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
4.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185650

RESUMO

Importance: The period following heart failure hospitalization (HFH) is a vulnerable time with high rates of death or recurrent HFH. Objective: To evaluate clinical characteristics, outcomes, and treatment response to vericiguat according to prespecified index event subgroups and time from index HFH in the Vericiguat Global Study in Subjects With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction (VICTORIA) trial. Design, Setting, and Participants: Analysis of an international, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. All VICTORIA patients had recent (<6 months) worsening HF (ejection fraction <45%). Index event subgroups were less than 3 months after HFH (n = 3378), 3 to 6 months after HFH (n = 871), and those requiring outpatient intravenous diuretic therapy only for worsening HF (without HFH) in the previous 3 months (n = 801). Data were analyzed between May 2, 2020, and May 9, 2020. Intervention: Vericiguat titrated to 10 mg daily vs placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was time to a composite of HFH or cardiovascular death; secondary outcomes were time to HFH, cardiovascular death, a composite of all-cause mortality or HFH, all-cause death, and total HFH. Results: Among 5050 patients in the VICTORIA trial, mean age was 67 years, 24% were women, 64% were White, 22% were Asian, and 5% were Black. Baseline characteristics were balanced between treatment arms within each subgroup. Over a median follow-up of 10.8 months, the primary event rates were 40.9, 29.6, and 23.4 events per 100 patient-years in the HFH at less than 3 months, HFH 3 to 6 months, and outpatient worsening subgroups, respectively. Compared with the outpatient worsening subgroup, the multivariable-adjusted relative risk of the primary outcome was higher in HFH less than 3 months (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.27-1.73), with a time-dependent gradient of risk demonstrating that patients closest to their index HFH had the highest risk. Vericiguat was associated with reduced risk of the primary outcome overall and in all subgroups, without evidence of treatment heterogeneity. Similar results were evident for all-cause death and HFH. Addtionally, a continuous association between time from HFH and vericiguat treatment showed a trend toward greater benefit with longer duration since HFH. Safety events (symptomatic hypotension and syncope) were infrequent in all subgroups, with no difference between treatment arms. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with worsening chronic HF, those in closest proximity to their index HFH had the highest risk of cardiovascular death or HFH, irrespective of age or clinical risk factors. The benefit of vericiguat did not differ significantly across the spectrum of risk in worsening HF. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02861534.

6.
JAMA ; 324(15): 1512-1521, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079152

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are at high risk of mortality, hospitalizations, and reduced functional capacity and quality of life. Objective: To assess the efficacy of the oral soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator vericiguat on the physical limitation score (PLS) of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ). Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 2b randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial of 789 patients with chronic HFpEF and left ventricular ejection fraction 45% or higher with New York Heart Association class II-III symptoms, within 6 months of a recent decompensation (HF hospitalization or intravenous diuretics for HF without hospitalization), and with elevated natriuretic peptides, enrolled at 167 sites in 21 countries from June 15, 2018, through March 27, 2019; follow-up was completed on November 4, 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive vericiguat, up-titrated to 15-mg (n = 264) or 10-mg (n = 263) daily oral dosages, compared with placebo (n = 262) and randomized 1:1:1. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in the KCCQ PLS (range, 0-100; higher values indicate better functioning) after 24 weeks of treatment. The secondary outcome was 6-minute walking distance from baseline to 24 weeks. Results: Among 789 randomized patients, the mean age was 72.7 (SD, 9.4) years; 385 (49%) were female; mean EF was 56%; and median N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level was 1403 pg/mL; 761 (96.5%) completed the trial. The baseline and 24-week KCCQ PLS means for the 15-mg/d vericiguat, 10-mg/d vericiguat, and placebo groups were 60.0 and 68.3, 57.3 and 69.0, and 59.0 and 67.1, respectively, and the least-squares mean changes were 5.5, 6.4, and 6.9, respectively. The least-squares mean difference in scores between the 15-mg/d vericiguat and placebo groups was -1.5 (95% CI, -5.5 to 2.5; P = .47) and between the 10-mg/d vericiguat and placebo groups was -0.5 (95% CI, -4.6 to 3.5; P = .80). The baseline and 24-week 6-minute walking distance mean scores in the 15-mg/d vericiguat, 10-mg/d vericiguat, and placebo groups were 295.0 m and 311.8m , 292.1 m and 318.3 m, and 295.8 m and 311.4 m, and the least-squares mean changes were 5.0 m, 8.7 m, and 10.5 m, respectively. The least-squares mean difference between the 15-mg/d vericiguat and placebo groups was -5.5 m (95% CI, -19.7 m to 8.8 m; P = .45) and between the 10-mg/d vericiguat and placebo groups was -1.8 m (95% CI, -16.2 m to 12.6 m; P = .81), respectively. The proportions of patients who experienced symptomatic hypotension were 6.4% in the 15-mg/d vericiguat group, 4.2% in the 10-mg/d vericiguat group, and 3.4% in the placebo group; those with syncope were 1.5%, 0.8%, and 0.4%, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with HFpEF and recent decompensation, 24-week treatment with vericiguat at either 15-mg/d or 10-mg/d dosages compared with placebo did not improve the physical limitation score of the KCCQ. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03547583.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 2 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Administração Oral , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Guanilato Ciclase/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 2 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 2 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico , Falha de Tratamento , Teste de Caminhada
7.
Am Heart J ; 229: 1-17, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905873

RESUMO

Machine learning and artificial intelligence are generating significant attention in the scientific community and media. Such algorithms have great potential in medicine for personalizing and improving patient care, including in the diagnosis and management of heart failure. Many physicians are familiar with these terms and the excitement surrounding them, but many are unfamiliar with the basics of these algorithms and how they are applied to medicine. Within heart failure research, current applications of machine learning include creating new approaches to diagnosis, classifying patients into novel phenotypic groups, and improving prediction capabilities. In this paper, we provide an overview of machine learning targeted for the practicing clinician and evaluate current applications of machine learning in the diagnosis, classification, and prediction of heart failure.

8.
Am Heart J ; 227: 91-99, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693197

RESUMO

Vitamin K antagonists are the only approved oral anticoagulants for long-term prophylaxis against valve thrombosis and thromboembolism in patients with a mechanical heart valve. Despite the proven efficacy and safety of anticoagulation with the oral direct factor Xa inhibitor apixaban compared with warfarin in high-risk populations including subjects with atrial fibrillation or with venous thromboembolism, it remains unknown whether patients with a mechanical heart valve can be safely managed with apixaban. The On-X Aortic Heart Valve and On-X Ascending Aortic Prosthesis with the Vascutek Gelweave Valsalva Graft may have lower rates of valve thrombosis and thromboembolism than conventional bileaflet and tilting disc valves due its unique pyrolytic carbon composition and flared inlet design. DESIGN: PROACT Xa is a randomized, multicenter, open-label, active-controlled trial comparing apixaban with warfarin in patients with an On-X Aortic Heart Valve or On-X Ascending Aortic Prosthesis with the Vascutek Gelweave Valsalva Graft. The study will randomize approximately 1,000 patients from approximately 60 sites in North America who underwent aortic valve replacement at least 3 months prior. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to receiving apixaban 5 mg twice daily or warfarin with a target international normalized ratio of 2.0-3.0. The last randomized participant will be followed for at least 2 years. The primary efficacy outcome is the composite of valve thrombosis and valve-related thromboembolism, and the primary safety outcome is major bleeding. Assuming the primary outcome occurs in warfarin-anticoagulated patients at a rate of 1.75%/patient-year, the study has more than 90% power to assess noninferiority of apixaban treatment with an absolute noninferiority margin of 1.75%/patient-year. A second co-primary analysis is to compare the hazard rate for the apixaban arm to twice the objective performance criterion for thromboembolism and valve thrombosis, that is, 3.4%/patient-year. SUMMARY: PROACT Xa will determine whether patients with an On-X Aortic Heart Valve can be anticoagulated with apixaban as an alternative to warfarin.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Desenho de Prótese , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(4): 405-415, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SCD-HeFT (Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial) randomized 2,521 patients with moderate heart failure (HF) to amiodarone, placebo drug, or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy. Original trial follow-up ended October 31, 2003. Over a median 45.5-month follow-up, amiodarone, compared with placebo, did not affect survival, whereas randomization to an ICD significantly decreased all-cause mortality by 23%. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe the extended treatment group survival of the SCD-HeFT cohort. METHODS: Mortality outcomes for the 1,855 patients alive at the end of the SCD-HeFT trial were collected between 2010 and 2011. These data were combined with the 666 deaths from the original study to compare long-term outcomes overall and for key pre-specified subgroups. RESULTS: Median (25th to 75th percentiles) follow-up was 11.0 (10.0 to 12.2) years. On the basis of intention-to-treat analysis, the ICD group had overall survival benefit versus placebo drug (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76 to 0.98; p = 0.028). When treatment benefit was examined as a function of time from randomization, attenuation of the ICD benefit was observed after 6 years (p value for the interaction = 0.0015). Subgroup analysis revealed long-term ICD benefit varied according to HF etiology and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class: ischemic HF HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.69 to 0.95; p = 0.009; nonischemic HF HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.79 to 1.20; p = 0.802; NYHA functional class II HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.65 to 0.90; p = 0.001; NYHA functional class III HR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.86 to 1.31; p = 0.575. CONCLUSIONS: Follow-up of SCD-HeFT patients to 11 years demonstrated heterogenous treatment-related patterns of long-term survival with ICD benefit most evident at 11 years for ischemic HF patients and for those with NYHA functional class II symptoms at trial enrollment. (SCD-HeFT 10 Year Follow-up [SCD-HeFT10 Yr]; NCT01058837).

10.
J Diabetes Complications ; 34(8): 107616, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The NIH-funded Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT) randomized 1708 stable patients age ≥50 who were ≥6 months post myocardial infarction to 40 infusions of an edetate disodium-based regimen or placebo. In 633 patients with diabetes, edetate disodium significantly reduced the primary composite endpoint of mortality, recurrent myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for angina (hazard ratio [HR] 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44-0.79, p < 0.001). The principal secondary endpoint of a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke was also reduced (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39-0.91, p = 0.017). It is unknown if the treatment effect differs by diabetes therapy. METHODS: We grouped the subset of 633 patients with diabetes according to glucose-lowering therapy at time of randomization. The log-rank test was used to compare active therapy versus placebo. All treatment comparisons were performed using 2-sided significance tests at the significance level of 0.05 and were as randomized. Relative risks were expressed as HR with associated 95% CI, calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: There were 162 (25.7%) patients treated with insulin; 301 (47.5%) with oral hypoglycemics only; and 170 (26.8%) receiving no pharmacologic treatment for diabetes. Patients on insulin reached the primary endpoint more frequently than patients on no pharmacologic treatment [61 (38%) vs 49 (29%) (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.07-2.27, p = 0.022)] or oral hypoglycemics [61 (38%) vs 87 (29%) (HR 1.46, 1.05-2.03, p = 0.024)]. The primary endpoint occurred less frequently with edetate disodium based therapy versus placebo in patients on insulin [19 (26%) vs 42 (48%) (HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.25-0.74, log-rank p = 0.002)], marginally in patients on oral hypoglycemics [38 (25%) vs 49 (34%) (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.43-1.01, log-rank p = 0.041)], and no significant difference in patients not treated with a pharmacologic therapy [23 (25%) vs 26 (34%) (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.39-1.20, log-rank p = 0.225)]. The interaction between randomized intravenous treatment and type of diabetes therapy was not statistically significant (p = 0.203). CONCLUSIONS: Edetate disodium treatment in stable, post-myocardial infarction patients with diabetes suggests that patients on insulin therapy at baseline may accrue the greatest benefit. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00044213?term=TACT&rank=7 identifier Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT), NCT00044213.

11.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(5): e006182, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cost is frequently cited as a barrier to optimal medication use, but the extent to which copayment assistance interventions are used when available, and their impact on evidence-based medication persistence and major adverse cardiovascular events is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ARTEMIS trial (Affordability and Real-World Antiplatelet Treatment Effectiveness After Myocardial Infarction Study) randomized 301 hospitals to usual care versus the ability to provide patients with vouchers that offset copayment costs when filling P2Y12 inhibitors in the 1 year post-myocardial infarction. In the intervention group, we used multivariable logistic regression to identify patient and medication cost characteristics associated with voucher use. We then used this model to stratify both intervention and usual care patients by likelihood of voucher use, and examined the impact of the voucher intervention on 1-year P2Y12 inhibitor persistence (no gap in pharmacy supply >30 days) and major adverse cardiovascular events (all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke). Among 10 102 enrolled patients, 6135 patients were treated at hospitals randomized to the copayment intervention. Of these, 1742 (28.4%) never used the voucher, although 1729 (99.2%) voucher never-users filled at least one P2Y12 inhibitor prescription in the 1 year post-myocardial infarction. Characteristics most associated with voucher use included: discharge on ticagrelor, planned 1-year course of P2Y12 inhibitor treatment, white race, commercial insurance, and higher out-of-pocket medication costs (c-statistic 0.74). Applying this propensity model to stratify all enrolled patients by likelihood of voucher use, the intervention improved medication persistence the most in patients with high likelihood of voucher use (adjusted interaction P=0.03, odds ratio, 1.86 [95% CI, 1.48-2.33]). The intervention did not significantly reduce major adverse cardiovascular events in any voucher use likelihood group, although the odds ratio was lowest (0.86 [95% CI, 0.56-1.16]) among patients with high likelihood of voucher use (adjusted interaction P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients discharged after myocardial infarction, those with higher copayments and greater out-of-pocket medication costs were more likely to use a copayment assistance voucher, but some classes of patients were less likely to use a copayment assistance voucher. Patients at low likelihood of voucher use benefitted least from copayment assistance, and other interventions may be needed to improve medication-taking behaviors and clinical outcomes in these patients. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02406677.


Assuntos
Custo Compartilhado de Seguro/economia , Custos de Medicamentos , Gastos em Saúde , Adesão à Medicação , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/economia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/economia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/economia , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
13.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(7): 757-764, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319999

RESUMO

Importance: Despite evidence that guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) improves outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction, many patients are undertreated. The Guiding Evidence-Based Therapy Using Biomarker Intensified Treatment (GUIDE-IT) trial tested whether a strategy of using target concentrations of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) to guide optimization of GDMT could improve outcomes. Objective: To examine medical therapy for HF in GUIDE-IT and potential reasons why the intervention did not produce improvements in medical therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: GUIDE-IT, a randomized clinical trial performed at 45 sites in the United States and Canada, was conducted from January 16, 2013, to September 20, 2016. A total of 894 patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (≤40%) were randomized to NT-proBNP-guided treatment with a goal to suppress NT-proBNP concentrations to less than 1000 pg/mL vs usual care. This secondary analysis examined the medical therapy titration and reasons why the intervention did not produce improvements in care and outcomes. Data were analyzed March 27 to June 28, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: For each encounter, medication titrations were captured. A reason was requested if a modification was not made. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to assess the independent association of drug class with outcomes. Results: Among the 838 patients available for analysis (566 men [67.5%]; median age, 62.0 years), 6223 visits occurred during 24 months. Adjustments of HF medication were made during 2847 of 5218 qualified visits (54.6%) (all usual care visits and all guided care visits with NT-proBNP level ≥1000 pg/mL) in 862 patients (96.4%). Most adjustments occurred within the first 6 months, primarily within the first 6 weeks. The most common reasons for not adjusting were "clinically stable" and "already at maximally tolerated therapy." Only 130 patients (15.5%) achieved optimal GDMT (≥50% of the target dose of ß-blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers or any dose of mineralocorticoid antagonists) at 6 months, an increase from the baseline (79 of 891 [8.9%]) but not different by treatment arm. Higher doses of ß-blockers were associated with reduced risk of the composite outcome of HF hospitalization and cardiovascular death (hazard ratio [HR], 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-1.00; P = .008) and of all-cause death (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.99; P = .01). Higher doses of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.75-0.93; P < .001) and angiotensin receptor blockers (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71-0.99; P = .04) were associated with reduced risk of all-cause death. Increasing doses of mineralocorticoid antagonists did not appear to be associated with improved outcomes. Conclusions and Relevance: Despite a protocol-driven approach, many patients in GUIDE-IT did not receive medication adjustments and did not achieve optimal GDMT, including those with known elevated NT-proBNP concentrations. These results suggest that opportunities exist to titrate medications for maximal benefit in HF. GUIDE-IT may have failed to achieve treatment benefit because of therapeutic inertia in clinical practice, or current GDMT goals may be unrealistic. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01685840.

14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(8): e014975, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299284

RESUMO

Background Hospitals commonly provide a short-term supply of free P2Y12 inhibitors at discharge after myocardial infarction, but it is unclear if these programs improve medication persistence and outcomes. The ARTEMIS (Affordability and Real-World Antiplatelet Treatment Effectiveness After Myocardial Infarction Study) trial randomized hospitals to usual care versus waived P2Y12 inhibitor copayment costs for 1-year post-myocardial infarction. Whether the impact of this intervention differed between hospitals with and without pre-existing medication assistance programs is unknown. Methods and Results In this post hoc analysis of the ARTEMIS trial, we examined the associations of pre-study free medication programs and the randomized copayment voucher intervention with P2Y12 inhibitor persistence (measured by pharmacy fills and patient report) and major adverse cardiovascular events using logistic regression models including a propensity score. Among 262 hospitals, 129 (49%) offered pre-study free medication assistance. One-year P2Y12 inhibitor persistence and major adverse cardiovascular events risks were similar between patients treated at hospitals with and without free medication programs (adjusted odds ratio 0.93, 95% CI, 0.82-1.05 and hazard ratio 0.92, 95% CI, 0.80-1.07, respectively). The randomized copayment voucher intervention improved persistence, assessed by pharmacy fills, in both hospitals with (53.6% versus 44.0%, adjusted odds ratio 1.45, 95% CI, 1.20-1.75) and without (59.0% versus 48.3%, adjusted odds ratio 1.46, 95% CI, 1.25-1.70) free medication programs (Pinteraction=0.71). Differences in patient-reported persistence were not significant after adjustment. Conclusions While hospitals commonly report the ability to provide free short-term P2Y12 inhibitors, we did not find association of this with medication persistence or major adverse cardiovascular events among patients with insurance coverage for prescription medication enrolled in the ARTEMIS trial. An intervention that provided copayment assistance vouchers for 1 year was successful in improving medication persistence in hospitals with and without pre-existing short-term medication programs. Registration URL: https://www.clini​caltr​ials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT02406677.

15.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(5): 532-539, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129795

RESUMO

Importance: Pharmacy fill data are increasingly accessible to clinicians and researchers to evaluate longitudinal medication persistence beyond patient self-report. Objective: To assess the agreement and accuracy of patient-reported and pharmacy fill-based medication persistence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This post hoc analysis of the cluster randomized clinical trial ARTEMIS (Affordability and Real-world Antiplatelet Treatment Effectiveness After Myocardial Infarction Study) enrolled patients at 287 US hospitals (131 randomized to intervention and 156 to usual care) from June 5, 2015, to September 30, 2016, with 1-year follow-up and blinded adjudication of major adverse cardiovascular events. In total, 8373 patients with myocardial infarction and measurement of P2Y12 inhibitor persistence by both patient self-report and pharmacy data were included. Serum P2Y12 inhibitor drug levels were measured for 944 randomly selected patients. Data were analyzed from May 2018 to November 2019. Interventions: Patients treated at intervention-arm hospitals received study vouchers to offset copayments at each P2Y12 inhibitor fill for 1 year after myocardial infarction. Main Outcomes and Measures: Nonpersistence was defined as a gap of 30 days or more in P2Y12 inhibitor use (patient report) or supply (pharmacy fill) and as serum P2Y12 inhibitor levels below the lower limit of quantification (drug level). Among patients in the intervention arm, a "criterion standard" definition of nonpersistence was a gap of 30 days or more in P2Y12 inhibitor use by both voucher use and pharmacy fill. Major adverse cardiovascular events were defined as adjudicated death, recurrent myocardial infarction, or stroke. Results: Of 8373 patients included in this analysis, the median age was 62 years (interquartile range, 54-70 years), 5664 were men (67.7%), and 990 (11.8%) self-reported as nonwhite race/ethnicity. One-year estimates of medication nonpersistence rates were higher using pharmacy fills (4042 patients [48.3%]) compared with patient self-report (1277 patients [15.3%]). Overall, 4185 patients (50.0%) were persistent by both pharmacy fill data and patient report, 1131 patients (13.5%) were nonpersistent by both, and 3057 patients (36.5%) were discordant. By application of the criterion standard definition, the 1-year nonpersistence rate was 1184 of 3703 patients (32.0%); 892 of 3318 patients (26.9%) in the intervention arm who self-reported persistence were found to be nonpersistent, and 303 of 1487 patients (20.4%) classified as nonpersistent by pharmacy fill data were actually persistent. Agreement between serum P2Y12 inhibitor drug levels and either patient-reported (κ = 0.11-0.23) or fill-based (κ = 0.00-0.19) persistence was poor. Patients who were nonpersistent by both pharmacy fill data and self-report had the highest 1-year major adverse cardiac event rate (18.3%; 95% CI, 16.0%-20.6%) compared with that for discordant patients (9.7%; 8.7%-10.8%) or concordantly persistent patients (8.2%; 95% CI, 7.4%-9.0%). Conclusions and Relevance: Patient report overestimated medication persistence rates, and pharmacy fill data underestimated medication persistence rates. Patients who are nonpersistent by both methods have the worst clinical outcomes and should be prioritized for interventions that improve medication-taking behavior. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02406677.

16.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 68, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164673

RESUMO

Compelling data have linked disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with lung dysbiosis and the resulting dysregulated local and systemic immune response. Moreover, prior therapeutic trials have suggested improved outcomes in these patients treated with either sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim or doxycycline. These trials have been limited by methodological concerns. This trial addresses the primary hypothesis that long-term treatment with antimicrobial therapy increases the time-to-event endpoint of respiratory hospitalization or all-cause mortality compared to usual care treatment in patients with IPF. We invoke numerous innovative features to achieve this goal, including: 1) utilizing a pragmatic randomized trial design; 2) collecting targeted biological samples to allow future exploration of 'personalized' therapy; and 3) developing a strong partnership between the NHLBI, a broad range of investigators, industry, and philanthropic organizations. The trial will randomize approximately 500 individuals in a 1:1 ratio to either antimicrobial therapy or usual care. The site principal investigator will declare their preferred initial antimicrobial treatment strategy (trimethoprim 160 mg/ sulfamethoxazole 800 mg twice a day plus folic acid 5 mg daily or doxycycline 100 mg once daily if body weight is < 50 kg or 100 mg twice daily if ≥50 kg) for the participant prior to randomization. Participants randomized to antimicrobial therapy will receive a voucher to help cover the additional prescription drug costs. Additionally, those participants will have 4-5 scheduled blood draws over the initial 24 months of therapy for safety monitoring. Blood sampling for DNA sequencing and genome wide transcriptomics will be collected before therapy. Blood sampling for transcriptomics and oral and fecal swabs for determination of the microbiome communities will be collected before and after study completion. As a pragmatic study, participants in both treatment arms will have limited in-person visits with the enrolling clinical center. Visits are limited to assessments of lung function and other clinical parameters at time points prior to randomization and at months 12, 24, and 36. All participants will be followed until the study completion for the assessment of clinical endpoints related to hospitalization and mortality events. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02759120.

17.
N Engl J Med ; 382(20): 1883-1893, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of vericiguat, a novel oral soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction who had recently been hospitalized or had received intravenous diuretic therapy is unclear. METHODS: In this phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned 5050 patients with chronic heart failure (New York Heart Association class II, III, or IV) and an ejection fraction of less than 45% to receive vericiguat (target dose, 10 mg once daily) or placebo, in addition to guideline-based medical therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes or first hospitalization for heart failure. RESULTS: Over a median of 10.8 months, a primary-outcome event occurred in 897 of 2526 patients (35.5%) in the vericiguat group and in 972 of 2524 patients (38.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82 to 0.98; P = 0.02). A total of 691 patients (27.4%) in the vericiguat group and 747 patients (29.6%) in the placebo group were hospitalized for heart failure (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.00). Death from cardiovascular causes occurred in 414 patients (16.4%) in the vericiguat group and in 441 patients (17.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.06). The composite of death from any cause or hospitalization for heart failure occurred in 957 patients (37.9%) in the vericiguat group and in 1032 patients (40.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.98; P = 0.02). Symptomatic hypotension occurred in 9.1% of the patients in the vericiguat group and in 7.9% of the patients in the placebo group (P = 0.12), and syncope occurred in 4.0% of the patients in the vericiguat group and in 3.5% of the patients in the placebo group (P = 0.30). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with high-risk heart failure, the incidence of death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for heart failure was lower among those who received vericiguat than among those who received placebo. (Funded by Merck Sharp & Dohme [a subsidiary of Merck] and Bayer; VICTORIA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02861534.).


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 2 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doença Crônica , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 2 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Guanilil Ciclase Solúvel/metabolismo , Volume Sistólico , Síncope/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Am Heart J ; 220: 97-107, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is closely linked to health status and clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF) patients. We aimed to test whether biomarkers can reflect CRF and its change over time. METHODS: This post hoc analysis used data from ambulatory cohorts of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) (IRONOUT) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) (RELAX). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), and serum biomarkers were measured at baseline and 16- or 24-week follow-up (for IRONOUT and RELAX respectively). Biomarkers included N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), soluble ST2, growth differentiation factor-15, and Galectin-3. RESULTS: Analysis included 225 patients with HFrEF and 216 with HFpEF. Baseline peak VO2, VE/VCO2 slope, and 6MWD showed a mild correlation with the doubling of all 4 tested biomarkers in HFrEF and HFpEF. Following multivariable adjustment (including all biomarkers), the only significant association between change in biomarker and functional parameter in HFrEF was change in NT-proBNP and change in VE/VCO2 slope (3.596% increase per doubling, 95% CI 0.779-6.492, P = .012). In HFpEF, a decrease in peak VO2 was associated with an increase in NT-proBNP (-0.726 mL/min/kg per doubling, 95% CI -1.100 to -0.353, P < .001), and a decrease in 6MWD was associated with an increase in growth differentiation factor-15 (-31.606 m per doubling, 95% CI -61.404 to -1.809, P = .038). CONCLUSIONS: In these ambulatory trial cohorts, NT-proBNP was associated with baseline and change in CRF in HFrEF and HFpEF. In contrast, novel biomarkers do not appear suitable as a reliable surrogate for serial assessment of exercise capacity in HF patients given lack of consistent independent association with CRF beyond traditional risk factors and NT-proBNP.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Galectina 3/sangue , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Teste de Caminhada
19.
Clin Cardiol ; 43(1): 43-49, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients hospitalized with acute heart failure (AHF), low urine sodium concentration (UNa ) after diuretic treatment may identify patients at risk for longer length of stay (LOS) and adverse events. We investigated the prognostic significance of 24-hour cumulative postdiuretic urine sodium concentration in a multicenter clinical trial population. METHODS: The Renal Optimization Strategies Evaluation AHF (ROSE AHF) trial randomized 360 patients with AHF and renal dysfunction receiving intravenous diuretic to dopamine, nesiritide, or placebo. Sodium concentration was measured in cumulative urine sample collected during the first 24 hours after randomization in 298 patients. Based on prior studies, lower UNa was defined as ≤60 mmol/L. RESULTS: Lower UNa was present in 142 (48%) patients, who had longer LOS (7 days vs 5 days, P < .001) and less 72-hour weight loss (5.7 lb vs 9.0 lb, P < .001). These associations persisted after controlling for baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate and outpatient furosemide dose. Lower UNa did not modify the null effects of dopamine or nesiritide on clinical outcomes. Results were similar for spot rather than cumulative 24-hour UNa concentration. CONCLUSION: In patients hospitalized for AHF and renal dysfunction, UNa ≤ 60 mmol/L during the first 24 hours of diuresis identifies patients at risk for prolonged hospitalization but does not provide an indication for adjunctive dopamine or nesiritide.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/urina , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Renal/tratamento farmacológico , Sódio/urina , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(1): 38-46, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721978

RESUMO

Importance: The Affordability and Real-World Antiplatelet Treatment Effectiveness After Myocardial Infarction Study (ARTEMIS) cluster-randomized trial found that copayment reduction for P2Y12 inhibitors improved 1-year patient persistence in taking that medication. Objective: To assess whether providing copayment reduction for P2Y12 inhibitors increases patient persistence in taking other secondary prevention cardiovascular medications. Design, Setting, and Participants: This post hoc analysis of the ARTEMIS trial includes data from 287 hospitals that enrolled patients between June 2015 and September 2016. Patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction were included. Data analysis occurred from May 2018 through August 2019. Interventions: Hospitals randomized to the intervention provided patients vouchers that waived copayments for P2Y12 inhibitors fills for 1 year. Hospitals randomized to usual care did not provide study vouchers. Main Outcomes and Measures: Persistence in taking ß-blocker, statin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker medications at 1 year, defined as the absence of a gap in medication supply of 30 or more days by pharmacy fill data in the intervention-arm (intent-to-treat) population. Results: A total of 131 hospitals (with 5109 patients) were randomized to the intervention, and 156 hospitals (with 3264 patients) randomized to the control group. Patients discharged from intervention hospitals had higher persistence in taking statins (2247 [46.1%] vs 1300 [41.9%]; adjusted odds ratio, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.00-1.24]), and ß-blockers (2235 [47.6%] vs 1277 [42.5%]; odds ratio, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.10-1.38]), although the association was smaller than that seen for P2Y12 inhibitors (odds ratio, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.29-1.66]). Persistence in taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II-receptor blockers were also numerically higher among patients in the intervention arm than in the usual-care arm, but this was not significant after risk adjustment (1520 [43.9%] vs 847 [40.5%]; adjusted odds ratio, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.97-1.24]). Patients in the intervention arm reported greater financial burden associated with medication cost than the patients in the usual-care arm at baseline, but these differences were no longer significant at 1 year. Conclusions and Relevance: Reducing patient copayments for 1 medication class increased persistence not only to that therapy class but may also have modestly increased persistence to other post-myocardial infarction secondary prevention medications. These findings have important implications for the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of medication cost-assistance programs. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02406677.

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