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1.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 374(1782): 20190019, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401956

RESUMO

Early detection of zoonotic diseases allows for the implementation of early response measures, reducing loss of human life and economic disruption. We implemented a surveillance system in hospitals in Bangladesh to screen acutely ill hospitalized patients with severe respiratory infection and meningoencephalitis for zoonotic exposures. Patients were screened for the risk of zoonotic exposures with five questions covering vocational exposures, sick domestic animal and wild animal contact, and date palm sap consumption in the three weeks preceding illness onset. Patients giving at least one positive response were considered a potential zoonotic exposure. From September 2013 to March 2017, a total of 11 429 hospitalized patients across 14 participating hospitals were screened for exposures. Overall, 2% of patients reported a potential zoonotic exposure in the three-week period prior to becoming ill. Sixteen per cent of hospitalized patients with reported exposures died. After routine surveillance diagnostic testing, 88% of patients admitted to the hospital after a potential zoonotic exposure did not have a laboratory diagnosed aetiology for their illness. Hospital-based surveillance systems such as the Bangladeshi example presented here could play an important future role in the early detection of zoonotic spillover diseases. This article is part of the theme issue 'Dynamic and integrative approaches to understanding pathogen spillover'.

3.
Cell Host Microbe ; 25(1): 39-48.e5, 2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629917

RESUMO

Passive administration of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is a promising therapeutic approach for Ebola virus disease (EVD). However, all mAbs and mAb cocktails that have entered clinical development are specific for a single member of the Ebolavirus genus, Ebola virus (EBOV), and ineffective against outbreak-causing Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) and Sudan virus (SUDV). Here, we advance MBP134, a cocktail of two broadly neutralizing human mAbs, ADI-15878 from an EVD survivor and ADI-23774 from the same survivor but specificity-matured for SUDV GP binding affinity, as a candidate pan-ebolavirus therapeutic. MBP134 potently neutralized all ebolaviruses and demonstrated greater protective efficacy than ADI-15878 alone in EBOV-challenged guinea pigs. A second-generation cocktail, MBP134AF, engineered to effectively harness natural killer (NK) cells afforded additional improvement relative to its precursor in protective efficacy against EBOV and SUDV in guinea pigs. MBP134AF is an optimized mAb cocktail suitable for evaluation as a pan-ebolavirus therapeutic in nonhuman primates.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Filoviridae/imunologia , Cobaias , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Nat Microbiol ; 3(12): 1486, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410089

RESUMO

In the version of this Article originally published, the bat species for 12 individuals were incorrectly identified in Supplementary Table 1 and 2. After resequencing the MT-CytB and MT-CO1 segments and reviewing the data, the authors have corrected the errors for these 12 animals. In the amended version of the Supplementary Information, Supplementary Tables 1 and 2 have been replaced to include the corrected host species information. None of the 12 bats affected were positive for the Bombali virus, and the conclusions of the study are therefore unchanged.

5.
Nat Microbiol ; 3(10): 1084-1089, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150734

RESUMO

Here we describe the complete genome of a new ebolavirus, Bombali virus (BOMV) detected in free-tailed bats in Sierra Leone (little free-tailed (Chaerephon pumilus) and Angolan free-tailed (Mops condylurus)). The bats were found roosting inside houses, indicating the potential for human transmission. We show that the viral glycoprotein can mediate entry into human cells. However, further studies are required to investigate whether exposure has actually occurred or if BOMV is pathogenic in humans.

6.
Virus Evol ; 3(1): vex012, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28630747

RESUMO

Since the emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrom Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) it has become increasingly clear that bats are important reservoirs of CoVs. Despite this, only 6% of all CoV sequences in GenBank are from bats. The remaining 94% largely consist of known pathogens of public health or agricultural significance, indicating that current research effort is heavily biased towards describing known diseases rather than the 'pre-emergent' diversity in bats. Our study addresses this critical gap, and focuses on resource poor countries where the risk of zoonotic emergence is believed to be highest. We surveyed the diversity of CoVs in multiple host taxa from twenty countries to explore the factors driving viral diversity at a global scale. We identified sequences representing 100 discrete phylogenetic clusters, ninety-one of which were found in bats, and used ecological and epidemiologic analyses to show that patterns of CoV diversity correlate with those of bat diversity. This cements bats as the major evolutionary reservoirs and ecological drivers of CoV diversity. Co-phylogenetic reconciliation analysis was also used to show that host switching has contributed to CoV evolution, and a preliminary analysis suggests that regional variation exists in the dynamics of this process. Overall our study represents a model for exploring global viral diversity and advances our fundamental understanding of CoV biodiversity and the potential risk factors associated with zoonotic emergence.

7.
Prev Vet Med ; 137(Pt B): 112-118, 2017 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28034593

RESUMO

As the world continues to react and respond inefficiently to emerging infectious diseases, such as Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome and the Ebola and Zika viruses, a growing transdisciplinary community has called for a more proactive and holistic approach to prevention and preparedness - One Health. Such an approach presents important opportunities to reduce the impact of disease emergence events and also to mitigate future emergence through improved cross-sectoral coordination. In an attempt to provide proof of concept of the utility of the One Health approach, the US Agency for International Development's PREDICT project consortium designed and implemented a targeted, risk-based surveillance strategy based not on humans as sentinels of disease but on detecting viruses early, at their source, where intervention strategies can be implemented before there is opportunity for spillover and spread in people or food animals. Here, we share One Health approaches used by consortium members to illustrate the potential for successful One Health outcomes that can be achieved through collaborative, transdisciplinary partnerships. PREDICT's collaboration with partners around the world on strengthening local capacity to detect hundreds of viruses in wild animals, coupled with a series of cutting-edge virological and analytical activities, have significantly improved our baseline knowledge on the zoonotic pool of viruses and the risk of exposure to people. Further testament to the success of the project's One Health approach and the work of its team of dedicated One Health professionals are the resulting 90 peer-reviewed, scientific publications in under 5 years that improve our understanding of zoonoses and the factors influencing their emergence. The findings are assisting in global health improvements, including surveillance science, diagnostic technologies, understanding of viral evolution, and ecological driver identification. Through its One Health leadership and multi-disciplinary partnerships, PREDICT has forged new networks of professionals from the human, animal, and environmental health sectors to promote global health, improving our understanding of viral disease spillover from wildlife and implementing strategies for preventing and controlling emerging disease threats.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Saúde Global , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/etiologia , Humanos , Zoonoses/etiologia
8.
Ecohealth ; 13(4): 761-774, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27660213

RESUMO

Certain bat species serve as natural reservoirs for pathogens in several key viral families including henipa-, lyssa-, corona-, and filoviruses, which may pose serious threats to human health. The Common Vampire Bat (Desmodus rotundus), due to its abundance, sanguivorous feeding habit involving humans and domestic animals, and highly social behavioral ecology, may have an unusually high potential for interspecies disease transmission. Previous studies have investigated rabies dynamics in D. rotundus, yet the diversity of other viruses, bacteria, and other microbes that these bats may carry remains largely unknown. We screened 396 blood, urine, saliva, and fecal samples from D. rotundus captured in Guatemala for 13 viral families and genera. Positive results were found for rhabdovirus, adenovirus, and herpesvirus assays. We also screened these samples for Bartonella spp. and found that 38% of individuals tested positive. To characterize potential for interspecies transmission associated with feeding behavior, we also analyzed cytochrome B sequences from fecal samples to identify prey species and found that domestic cattle (Bos taurus) made up the majority of blood meals. Our findings suggest that the risk of pathogen spillover from Desmodus rotundus, including between domestic animal species, is possible and warrants further investigation to characterize this microbial diversity and expand our understanding of foraging ecology in their populations.


Assuntos
Bartonella/patogenicidade , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/transmissão
10.
Nat Commun ; 6: 8147, 2015 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26391192

RESUMO

It is currently unclear whether changes in viral communities will ever be predictable. Here we investigate whether viral communities in wildlife are inherently structured (inferring predictability) by looking at whether communities are assembled through deterministic (often predictable) or stochastic (not predictable) processes. We sample macaque faeces across nine sites in Bangladesh and use consensus PCR and sequencing to discover 184 viruses from 14 viral families. We then use network modelling and statistical null-hypothesis testing to show the presence of non-random deterministic patterns at different scales, between sites and within individuals. We show that the effects of determinism are not absolute however, as stochastic patterns are also observed. In showing that determinism is an important process in viral community assembly we conclude that it should be possible to forecast changes to some portion of a viral community, however there will always be some portion for which prediction will be unlikely.


Assuntos
Fezes/virologia , Variação Genética , Macaca mulatta , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Viroses/veterinária , Vírus/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia
11.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0118543, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25781992

RESUMO

Infectious diseases have caused die-offs in both free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees. Understanding pathogen diversity and disease ecology is therefore critical for conserving these endangered animals. To determine viral diversity in free-ranging, non-habituated gorillas and chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo, genetic testing was performed on great-ape fecal samples collected near Odzala-Kokoua National Park. Samples were analyzed to determine ape species, identify individuals in the population, and to test for the presence of herpesviruses, adenoviruses, poxviruses, bocaviruses, flaviviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses, filoviruses, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We identified 19 DNA viruses representing two viral families, Herpesviridae and Adenoviridae, of which three herpesviruses had not been previously described. Co-detections of multiple herpesviruses and/or adenoviruses were present in both gorillas and chimpanzees. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and lymphocryptovirus (LCV) were found primarily in the context of co-association with each other and adenoviruses. Using viral discovery curves for herpesviruses and adenoviruses, the total viral richness in the sample population of gorillas and chimpanzees was estimated to be a minimum of 23 viruses, corresponding to a detection rate of 83%. These findings represent the first description of DNA viral diversity in feces from free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in or near the Odzala-Kokoua National Park and form a basis for understanding the types of viruses circulating among great apes in this region.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/classificação , Adenoviridae/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Gorilla gorilla/virologia , Herpesviridae/classificação , Herpesviridae/fisiologia , Pan troglodytes/virologia , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Congo , Fezes/virologia , Gorilla gorilla/fisiologia , Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Movimento , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia
12.
Virology ; 479-480: 194-9, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25731958

RESUMO

Viral diagnosis and discovery are receiving increasing emphasis with the recognition of their importance in addressing the challenges of emerging infectious and chronic diseases, and the advent of antiviral drugs with which to reduce the morbidity and mortality of viral infections. Here we review the status of the field including the use of molecular, proteomic and immunological assays for viral detection, social media platforms for surveillance, and public health investments that may enable enhanced situational awareness and insights into the origins of zoonotic viral diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Viroses/diagnóstico , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Humanos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Virologia/métodos
13.
MBio ; 4(5): e00598-13, 2013 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24003179

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The majority of emerging zoonoses originate in wildlife, and many are caused by viruses. However, there are no rigorous estimates of total viral diversity (here termed "virodiversity") for any wildlife species, despite the utility of this to future surveillance and control of emerging zoonoses. In this case study, we repeatedly sampled a mammalian wildlife host known to harbor emerging zoonotic pathogens (the Indian Flying Fox, Pteropus giganteus) and used PCR with degenerate viral family-level primers to discover and analyze the occurrence patterns of 55 viruses from nine viral families. We then adapted statistical techniques used to estimate biodiversity in vertebrates and plants and estimated the total viral richness of these nine families in P. giganteus to be 58 viruses. Our analyses demonstrate proof-of-concept of a strategy for estimating viral richness and provide the first statistically supported estimate of the number of undiscovered viruses in a mammalian host. We used a simple extrapolation to estimate that there are a minimum of 320,000 mammalian viruses awaiting discovery within these nine families, assuming all species harbor a similar number of viruses, with minimal turnover between host species. We estimate the cost of discovering these viruses to be ~$6.3 billion (or ~$1.4 billion for 85% of the total diversity), which if annualized over a 10-year study time frame would represent a small fraction of the cost of many pandemic zoonoses. IMPORTANCE: Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in viral discovery efforts. However, most lack rigorous systematic design, which limits our ability to understand viral diversity and its ecological drivers and reduces their value to public health intervention. Here, we present a new framework for the discovery of novel viruses in wildlife and use it to make the first-ever estimate of the number of viruses that exist in a mammalian host. As pathogens continue to emerge from wildlife, this estimate allows us to put preliminary bounds around the potential size of the total zoonotic pool and facilitates a better understanding of where best to allocate resources for the subsequent discovery of global viral diversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Quirópteros/virologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/economia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Vírus/genética , Zoonoses/virologia
14.
PLoS One ; 8(7): e68239, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23874559

RESUMO

A female short-beaked common dolphin calf was found stranded in San Diego, California in October 2010, presenting with multifocal ulcerative lesions in the trachea and bronchi. Viral particles suggestive of polyomavirus were detected by EM, and subsequently confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Full genome sequencing (Ion Torrent) revealed a circular dsDNA genome of 5,159 bp that was shown to form a distinct lineage within the genus Polyomavirus based on phylogenetic analysis of the early and late transcriptomes. Viral infection and distribution in laryngeal mucosa was characterised using in-situ hybridisation, and apoptosis observed in the virus-infected region. These results demonstrate that polyomaviruses can be associated with respiratory disease in cetaceans, and expand our knowledge of their diversity and clinical significance in marine mammals.


Assuntos
Golfinhos Comuns/virologia , Polyomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Animais , Bronquite/diagnóstico , Bronquite/etiologia , Bronquite/veterinária , Bronquite/virologia , California , Cetáceos/virologia , Feminino , Filogenia , Polyomaviridae/fisiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Traqueia/patologia , Traqueia/virologia
15.
Vet Microbiol ; 166(3-4): 327-36, 2013 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23830774

RESUMO

Wild birds are considered to be the natural reservoirs for avian influenza A viruses (AIV). During active influenza surveillance in Poyang Lake of southeast China, we isolated and characterized 11 H9N2 viruses from two species of wild ducks. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 11 isolates were almost identical with 99.3-100% nucleotide homology in their entire genome, and they all closely related in whole eight genes (95.6-99.4% homology) to human H9N2 isolates (HK/33982/2009) and clustered in the same sublineage. The isolates belonged to triple reassortant H9N2 genotype viruses containing Ck/Bei-like NA genes, Y439-like PA genes and six other G1-like genes. We also found that the subtype of virus replicated efficiently in the lungs and tracheas of BALB/c mice and caused mortality in 20-40% of infected groups after 3-6 days, which indicates that the subtype of virus is capable of establishing lethal mammalian infections. However, whether or not the virus has features transmittable from wild ducks to humans is not known. This study showed H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus for the first time in wild birds, and suggests that wild birds may carry the virus along migratory routes, highlighting the need for continued surveillance of wild birds.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/virologia , Patos/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Sequência de Bases , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/classificação , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Filogenia , Recombinação Genética
16.
PLoS One ; 8(5): e62259, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23690933

RESUMO

Interspecies transmission of influenza A is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of influenza viruses. Marine mammals are in contact with a number of influenza reservoirs, including aquatic birds and humans, and this may facilitate transmission among avian and mammalian hosts. Virus isolation, whole genome sequencing, and hemagluttination inhibition assay confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 influenza virus occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in 2010. Nasal swabs were collected from 42 adult female seals in April 2010, just after the animals had returned to the central California coast from their short post-breeding migration in the northeast Pacific. Swabs from two seals tested positive by RT-PCR for the matrix gene, and virus was isolated from each by inoculation into embryonic chicken eggs. Whole genome sequencing revealed greater than 99% homology with A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) that emerged in humans from swine in 2009. Analysis of more than 300 serum samples showed that samples collected early in 2010 (n = 100) were negative and by April animals began to test positive for antibodies against the pH1N1 virus (HI titer of ≥1∶40), supporting the molecular findings. In vitro characterizations studies revealed that viral replication was indistinguishable from that of reference strains of pH1N1 in canine kidney cells, but replication was inefficient in human epithelial respiratory cells, indicating these isolates may be elephant seal adapted viruses. Thus findings confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 that was circulating in people in 2009 occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the central California coast. This is the first report of pH1N1 (A/Elephant seal/California/1/2010) in any marine mammal and provides evidence for cross species transmission of influenza viruses in free-ranging wildlife and movement of influenza viruses between humans and wildlife.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Animais , California , Células Cultivadas , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Focas Verdadeiras
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(20): 8194-9, 2013 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23610427

RESUMO

Although there are over 1,150 bat species worldwide, the diversity of viruses harbored by bats has only recently come into focus as a result of expanded wildlife surveillance. Such surveys are of importance in determining the potential for novel viruses to emerge in humans, and for optimal management of bats and their habitats. To enhance our knowledge of the viral diversity present in bats, we initially surveyed 415 sera from African and Central American bats. Unbiased high-throughput sequencing revealed the presence of a highly diverse group of bat-derived viruses related to hepaciviruses and pegiviruses within the family Flaviridae. Subsequent PCR screening of 1,258 bat specimens collected worldwide indicated the presence of these viruses also in North America and Asia. A total of 83 bat-derived viruses were identified, representing an infection rate of nearly 5%. Evolutionary analyses revealed that all known hepaciviruses and pegiviruses, including those previously documented in humans and other primates, fall within the phylogenetic diversity of the bat-derived viruses described here. The prevalence, unprecedented viral biodiversity, phylogenetic divergence, and worldwide distribution of the bat-derived viruses suggest that bats are a major and ancient natural reservoir for both hepaciviruses and pegiviruses and provide insights into the evolutionary history of hepatitis C virus and the human GB viruses.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Flaviviridae/genética , Hepacivirus/genética , Viroses/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Códon , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Geografia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Viroses/veterinária
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 19(2): 270-3, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23343532

RESUMO

To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia.


Assuntos
Ebolavirus/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Quirópteros/imunologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Feminino , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Masculino
19.
Vet Res ; 43: 40, 2012 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22546071

RESUMO

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a double stranded (ds) RNA virus (genus Orbivirus; family Reoviridae), which is considered capable of infecting all species of domestic and wild ruminants, although clinical signs are seen mostly in sheep. BTV is arthropod-borne ("arbovirus") and able to productively infect and replicate in many different cell types of both insects and mammalian hosts. Although the organ and cellular tropism of BTV in ruminants has been the subject of several studies, many aspects of its pathogenesis are still poorly understood, partly because of inherent problems in distinguishing between "virus replication" and "virus presence".BTV replication and organ tropism were studied in a wide range of infected sheep tissues, by immuno-fluorescence-labeling of non-structural or structural proteins (NS2 or VP7 and core proteins, respectively) using confocal microscopy to distinguish between virus presence and replication. These results are compared to gross and microscopic pathological findings in selected organs from infected sheep. Replication was demonstrated in two major cell types: vascular endothelial cells, and agranular leukocytes which morphologically resemble lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages and/or dendritic cells. Two organs (the skin and tonsils) were shown to support relatively high levels of BTV replication, although they have not previously been proposed as important replication sites during BTV infection. The high level of BTV replication in the skin is thought to be of major significance for the pathogenesis and transmission of BTV (via biting insects) and a refinement of our current model of BTV pathogenesis is discussed.


Assuntos
Vírus Bluetongue/fisiologia , Bluetongue/virologia , Ceratopogonidae/fisiologia , Pele/virologia , Animais , Vírus Bluetongue/genética , Vírus Bluetongue/isolamento & purificação , Comportamento Alimentar , Cadeia Alimentar , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Inflamação/veterinária , Inflamação/virologia , Microscopia Confocal/veterinária , Especificidade de Órgãos , Ovinos , Proteínas do Core Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 7(1): e29505, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22253731

RESUMO

The global trade in wildlife has historically contributed to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. The United States is the world's largest importer of wildlife and wildlife products, yet minimal pathogen surveillance has precluded assessment of the health risks posed by this practice. This report details the findings of a pilot project to establish surveillance methodology for zoonotic agents in confiscated wildlife products. Initial findings from samples collected at several international airports identified parts originating from nonhuman primate (NHP) and rodent species, including baboon, chimpanzee, mangabey, guenon, green monkey, cane rat and rat. Pathogen screening identified retroviruses (simian foamy virus) and/or herpesviruses (cytomegalovirus and lymphocryptovirus) in the NHP samples. These results are the first demonstration that illegal bushmeat importation into the United States could act as a conduit for pathogen spread, and suggest that implementation of disease surveillance of the wildlife trade will help facilitate prevention of disease emergence.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Carne/virologia , Zoonoses/virologia , Aeroportos/legislação & jurisprudência , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Coinfecção/genética , Coinfecção/virologia , Herpesviridae/genética , Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Primatas/virologia , Ratos , Vírus Espumoso dos Símios/genética , Vírus Espumoso dos Símios/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade da Espécie , Estados Unidos
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