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1.
Circulation ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185476

RESUMO

Background: Genome-wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with an increased risk of stroke. We sought to determine whether a genetic risk score (GRS) could identify subjects at higher risk for ischemic stroke after accounting for traditional clinical risk factors in five trials across the spectrum of cardiometabolic disease. Methods: Subjects who had consented for genetic testing and who were of European ancestry from the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48, SOLID-TIMI 52, SAVOR-TIMI 53, PEGASUS-TIMI 54, and FOURIER trials were included in this analysis. A set of 32 SNPs associated with ischemic stroke was used to calculate a GRS in each patient and identify tertiles of genetic risk. A Cox model was used to calculate hazard ratios for ischemic stroke across genetic risk groups, adjusted for clinical risk factors. Results: In 51,288 subjects across the five trials, a total of 960 subjects had an ischemic stroke over a median follow-up period of 2.5 years. After adjusting for clinical risk factors, increasing genetic risk was strongly and independently associated with increased risk for ischemic stroke (p-trend=0.009). When compared to individuals in the lowest third of genetic risk, individuals in the middle and top tertiles of genetic risk had adjusted hazard ratios of 1.15 (95% CI 0.98-1.36) and 1.24 (95% CI 1.05-1.45) for ischemic stroke, respectively. Stratification into subgroups revealed the performance of the GRS appeared stronger in the primary prevention cohort with an adjusted HR for the top versus lowest tertile of 1.27 (95% CI 1.04-1.53), compared with an adjusted HR of 1.06 (95% CI 0.81-1.41) in subjects with prior stroke. In an exploratory analysis of patients with atrial fibrillation and CHA2DS2-VASc of 2, high genetic risk conferred a 4-fold higher risk of stroke and an absolute risk equivalent to those with CHA2DS2-VASc of 3. Conclusions: Across a broad spectrum of subjects with cardiometabolic disease, a 32-SNP GRS was a strong, independent predictor of ischemic stroke. In patients with atrial fibrillation but lower CHA2DS2-VASc scores, the GRS identified patients with risk comparable to those with higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores.

2.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(11): e006511, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148013

RESUMO

Background The ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial (Effective Anticoagulation With Factor Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 48) demonstrated noninferiority of once-daily 60 mg (30 mg dose-reduced) edoxaban compared with warfarin for prevention of stroke/systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation. No previous analysis has explored the impact of treatment with edoxaban versus warfarin on rates of hospitalizations. Methods Detailed healthcare resource utilization data from ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 for the 14 024 randomized patients who received at least one dose of study drug were used to compare the rates of bleeding- and cardiovascular-related hospitalizations for edoxaban versus warfarin. Hospitalization rates were calculated for each treatment group, and relative rates were estimated using Poisson regression. The influence of patient characteristics on the impact of edoxaban versus warfarin was evaluated through the inclusion of interaction terms. Results The overall rate of cardiovascular- or bleeding-related hospitalization was significantly lower for edoxaban than warfarin (relative rate [RR], 0.91 [95% CI, 0.85-0.97], P=0.003). Rates of hospitalizations for cardiovascular reasons (RR, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.85-0.97], P=0.004), stroke (RR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.72-0.88], P<0.0001), and for each stroke subtype (ischemic: RR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.81-0.99], P=0.03; hemorrhagic: RR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.54-0.68], P<0.0001) were also lower for edoxaban. Notably, significantly greater reductions with edoxaban versus warfarin were seen for ischemic stroke-related hospitalizations in vitamin K antagonist naive patients and patients with CHADS2 scores 4 to 6, previous stroke or transient ischemic attack, age ≥75, and no previous coronary artery disease. For nonstroke bleeding-related hospitalizations, greater reductions with edoxaban were seen in vitamin K antagonist naive patients, patients with CHADS2 scores 4 to 6, and patients with moderate renal dysfunction. Conclusions Edoxaban 60 mg (30 mg dose-reduced) was associated with a significantly lower overall rate of cardiovascular- or bleeding-related hospitalization and significant reductions in the subcategories of cardiovascular-related, stroke-related, bleed-related, and nonstroke cardiovascular-related hospitalizations, when compared with warfarin. These results suggest the potential for cost offsets with edoxaban, with even greater reductions in higher-risk patients. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00781391.

3.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115823

RESUMO

Faced with the health and economic consequences of the global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the biomedical community came together to identify, diagnose, prevent, and treat the novel disease at breathtaking speeds. The field advanced from a publicly available viral genome to a commercialized globally scalable diagnostic biomarker test in less than 2 months, while first-in-human dosing with vaccines and repurposed antivirals followed shortly thereafter. This unprecedented efficiency was driven by three key factors: (i) international multi-stakeholder collaborations, (ii) widespread data sharing, and (iii) flexible regulatory standards tailored to meet the urgency of the situation. Learning from the remarkable success achieved during this public health crisis, we are proposing a biomarker-centric approach throughout the drug development pipeline. Although all therapeutic areas would benefit from end-to-end biomarker science, efforts should be prioritized to areas with the greatest unmet medical needs including neurodegenerative diseases, chronic lower respiratory diseases, metabolic disorders, and malignant neoplasms. Significance Statement Faced with the unprecedented threat of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the biomedical community collaborated to develop a globally scalable diagnostic biomarker (viral DNA) which catalyzed therapeutic development at breathtaking speeds. Learning from this remarkable efficiency, we propose a multi-stakeholder biomarker-centric approach to drug development across therapeutic areas with unmet medical needs.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063112

RESUMO

AIMS: Concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF) and diabetes mellitus (DM) increases risk of stroke and systemic embolic events. This meta-analysis assessed the benefit/risk balance of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) vs warfarin, and explored whether there was effect modification by DM or heterogeneity in outcomes between NOACs in patients with and without DM. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of 58,634 patients from four phase 3 trials of NOAC vs warfarin in patients with AF, comparing the primary outcomes of efficacy and safety and 6 other secondary outcomes in patients stratified by the presence of DM. Interaction testing was used to assess for heterogeneity of treatment effects. A meta-regression was performed to evaluate the influence of baseline characteristics. RESULTS: NOACs reduced the risk of stroke/SEE in 18,134 patients with DM [hazard ratio (HR) 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.69-0.93), I2 3.90] to a similar degree as in 40,500 patients without DM [HR 0.82; 95% CI (0.74-0.91)], I2 16.33 p-int 0.81). There was no effect modification of DM on the relative reduction with NOACs vs warfarin in major bleeding (DM : 0.95, 95% CI 0.75-1.20, I2 43.83; no DM: 0.83, 95% CI 0.55-1.24; I2 87.90; p-int 0.37). Intracranial Haemorrhage (HRs 0.51 and 0.47, p-int 0.70) and cardiovascular death (HRs 0.87 and 0.90, p-int 0.70) were significantly reduced by NOACs in the presence or absence of DM. CONCLUSION: NOACs are more effective and safer than warfarin in AF patients with or without DM and absent contraindications, NOACs should be the anticoagulation treatment choice in diabetics.

5.
Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of anticoagulants at extremes of body weight (BW) are not well described. The aim of this study was to analyze the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics and clinical outcomes in patients randomized to warfarin, higher dose edoxaban (HDER), and lower dose edoxaban (LDER) regimens at extremes of BW in ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed three BW groups: low BW (LBW: <5th percentile, ≤55 kg, N = 1,082), middle BW (MBW: 45th-55th percentile, 79.8-84 kg, N = 2,153), and high BW (HBW: >95th percentile, ≥120 kg, N = 1,093). In the warfarin arm, LBW patients had higher rates of stroke/systemic embolism (SSE: 6.5 vs. 4.7 in MBW vs. 1.6% in HBW, P trend < 0.001), major bleeding (MB: 9.3 vs. 7.7 vs. 6.5%, P trend = 0.08), and worse net clinical outcome of systemic embolic event, MB, or death (31.5 vs. 19.1 vs. 16.0%, P trend < 0.0001). The time-in-therapeutic range with warfarin was lowest in LBW patients (63.0 vs. 69.3 vs. 70.1% patients, P trend < 0.001). The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile of edoxaban was consistent across BW groups. The risk of SSE was similar between HDER and warfarin for each of the three weight groups (P int = 0.52, P int-trend = 0.86). MB was reduced by LDER versus warfarin (P int = 0.061, P int-trend = 0.023), especially in LBW patients. Net clinical outcomes were improved by HDER versus warfarin (P int = 0.087, P int-trend = 0.027), especially in LBW patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with LBW in ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 had in general a more fragile clinical status and poorer international normalized ratio control. The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile of edoxaban was consistent across extremes of BW, resulting in similar efficacy compared with warfarin, while major or clinically relevant non-MB and net outcomes were most favorable with edoxaban as compared to warfarin in LBW patients.

8.
Int J Cardiol ; 317: 159-166, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Safe administration of warfarin presents challenges due to a narrow therapeutic INR range and significant variability in inter-individual dose response. Bleeding secondary to warfarin use is a leading cause of hospitalization. METHODS: Five warfarin dosing algorithms were assessed for accuracy of predicted compared to the INR target dose for patients with a HAS-BLED score ≥3 participating in the ENGAGE-AF TIMI 48 trial. Three warfarin metabolism subgroups (normal, sensitive, and highly sensitive responders) were established based on genotype. Mean differences between calculated and prescribed dose were determined for each algorithm across groups. RESULTS: A total of 7036 patients were analyzed and 1846 participants with HAS-BLED ≥3 were genotyped. The mean absolute error of predicted versus INR target dose for warfarin ranged from 8.1 mg/week on the pharmacogenetic-guided International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) and Gage algorithms to 11.3 mg/week on fixed dose. Overestimation of INR target dose occurred in 98% of highly sensitive responders by 21 mg/week for subjects on fixed dose. Pharmacogenetic-guided IWPC saw 89% overestimation with mean difference of 8.3 mg/week for highly sensitive responders. Major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding in the first 90 days of beginning warfarin was 3.27 times more likely for highly sensitive than normal responders. CONCLUSIONS: Initial doses were higher than INR target doses in high-risk bleeding subpopulations as defined by the modified HAS-BLED and genotype sensitivity analysis when compared to established algorithms. Clinical and pharmacogenetic-guided algorithms improved dosing in highly sensitive responders with HAS-BLED ≥3 compared to fixed dosing.

9.
N Engl J Med ; 382(15): 1468-1470, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227752
10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(10): 1095-1106, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent emphasis on reduced duration and/or intensity of antiplatelet therapy following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) irrespective of indication for PCI may fail to account for the substantial risk of subsequent nontarget lesion events in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to examine the effect of more potent antiplatelet therapy on the basis of the timing and etiology of recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) or cardiovascular death following PCI for ACS. METHODS: In the TRITON-TIMI 38 study (Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition With Prasugrel-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 38), which randomized patients to prasugrel or clopidogrel, 12,844 patients with ACS received at least 1 stent. MI and cardiovascular death were categorized as: 1) procedural (related to revascularization); 2) definite or probable stent thrombosis (ST); or 3) spontaneous (non-ST or non-procedure-related). Median follow-up was 14.5 months. RESULTS: Among the first events occurring within 30 days, 584 (69.0%) were procedural, 126 (14.9%) ST-related, and 136 (16.1%) spontaneous. After 30 days, 22 (4.7%) were procedural, 63 (13.5%) were ST-related, and 383 (81.8%) spontaneous. Prasugrel significantly reduced the incidence of MI or cardiovascular death for ST-related (1.0% vs. 2.1%; p < 0.001) and spontaneous events (3.9% vs. 4.8%; p = 0.012), with a directionally consistent numerical reduction for procedural events (4.4% vs. 5.1%; p = 0.078). Prasugrel increased spontaneous, but not procedural, major bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term potent antithrombotic therapy reduces de novo (spontaneous) atherothrombotic events in addition to preventing complications associated with stenting of the culprit lesion following ACS. In patients undergoing PCI for ACS, spontaneous events predominate after 30 days, with the later-phase cardiovascular benefit of potent dual antiplatelet therapy driven largely by reducing de novo atherothrombotic ischemic events. (Comparison of Prasugrel [CS-747] and Clopidogrel in Acute Coronary Syndrome Subjects Who Are to Undergo Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; NCT00097591).

11.
Int J Cardiol ; 304: 185-191, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for stroke and atrial fibrillation. Therefore, the risk/benefit profile of the oral factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban stratified by diabetes is of clinical interest. METHODS: 21,105 patients enrolled in ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 were stratified into 2 pre-specified groups: without (N = 13,481) and with diabetes (N = 7,624). RESULTS: On average, patients with diabetes were younger, and had a higher body mass index, CHA2DS2-VASc score and baseline endogenous Factor Xa activity. After multivariate adjustments, patients with diabetes had a similar rate of stroke and systemic embolism compared to those without diabetes (adjusted hazard ratio (HRadj) 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-1.24; p = 0.28). However, the risk of major bleeding was significantly higher in patients with diabetes (HRadj 1.28; 95% CI 1.14-1.44; p < 0.001). The treatment effect of edoxaban (vs warfarin) was not modified by diabetes (all p-interactions > 0.05), a finding supported by the preserved edoxaban concentrations and inhibition of Factor Xa regardless of diabetes. The HRs of stroke and systemic embolism in patients receiving the higher-dose edoxaban regimen vs warfarin were 0.93 and 0.84 (p-interaction = 0.54) in those with and without diabetes respectively. The higher-dose edoxaban regimen reduced major bleeding (by 19-21%) and cardiovascular death (by 7-17%) regardless of diabetes (p-interactions = 0.81 and 0.33 respectively). CONCLUSION: Patients with diabetes in ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 had higher bleeding risk, but after adjustment similar stroke risk, compared to those without diabetes. The higher-dose edoxaban regimen had similar efficacy compared to warfarin, while reducing bleeding and cardiovascular mortality, irrespective of diabetes.

12.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 6(3): 167-175, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687762

RESUMO

AIMS: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants represent a new option for prevention of embolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, little is known about the impact of non-cardiac comorbidities on the efficacy and safety profile of these drugs. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a post hoc analysis of the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial, we analysed 21 105 patients with AF followed for an average of 2.8 years and randomized to either a higher-dose edoxaban regimen (HDER), a lower-dose edoxaban regimen, or warfarin. We used the updated Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) to stratify the patients according to the burden of concomitant disease (CCI = 0, 1, 2, 3, and ≥4). The treatment groups were then compared for safety, efficacy, and net clinical outcomes across CCI categories. There were 32.0%, 7.3%, 42.1%, 12.7%, and 6.0% of patients with CCI scores of 0, 1, 2, 3, and ≥4, respectively. A CCI score ≥4 was associated with significantly higher rates of thromboembolic events, bleeding, and death compared to CCI = 0 (P < 0.05 for each). The annualized rates of the primary net clinical outcome (stroke/systemic embolism, major bleeding, or death) for CCI = 0, 1, 2, 3, or ≥4 were 5.9%, 8.7%, 6.6%, 10.3%, and 13.6% (Ptrend < 0.001). There were no significant interactions between treatment with HDER vs. warfarin and efficacy, safety, and net outcomes across the CCI groups (P-interaction > 0.10 for each). CONCLUSION : Although increasing CCI scores are associated with worse outcomes, the efficacy, safety, and net clinical outcomes of edoxaban vs. warfarin were independent of the degree of comorbidity present.

13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(24): 3013-3022, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains disputed whether women are at excess risk of adverse outcomes versus men after non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTEACS) or whether differences are explained by discordant risk factors. OBJECTIVES: A sex-specific analysis of cardiovascular outcomes after NSTEACS across trials conducted by the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Study Group was performed to determine the impact of sex on cardiovascular outcomes in this dataset. METHODS: Ten TIMI trials were identified that enrolled >2,500 patients with NSTEACS within 30 days of hospitalization. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association of sex with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) after adjusting for relevant risk factors in individual trials; point estimates were then combined by using random effects models. Individual components of the composite outcome and all-cause mortality were also analyzed. RESULTS: Among 68,730 patients with NSTEACS, 19,827 (29%) were women. Women were older and more frequently had hypertension, diabetes, prior heart failure, and renal impairment than men. Before considering relevant confounders, women were at similar risk of MACE compared with men (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99 to 1.09; p = 0.16) but at higher risk of all-cause death (HR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.24; p = 0.03). After adjustment for baseline differences, risks of MACE (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.98; p < 0.01) and all-cause death (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.78 to 0.90; p < 0.0001) were lower among women compared with men. CONCLUSIONS: After accounting for cardiovascular risk factors, women enrolled in clinical trials were at lower risk of MACE than men after NSTEACS. Women, however, remain undertreated with many evidence-based therapies.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Caracteres Sexuais , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(12): 1571-1579, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777160

RESUMO

AIMS: The present study aimed to assess the association between left atrial (LA) structure and function and the risk for cardiovascular (CV) death or heart failure (HF) hospitalization in a population with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective echocardiographic substudy of the Effective Anticoagulation with Factor Xa Next Generation in AF-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 48 (ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48) study, 971 patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography. The associations between LA structure (LA volume index [LAVi]) and function (LA emptying fraction [LAEF] and LA expansion index [LAEi]) and risk for the composite endpoint of CV death or HF hospitalization, and its components, were assessed. Over a median follow-up of 2.5 years, 142 patients (14.6%) experienced CV death or HF hospitalization. Higher LAVi and lower LAEF and LAEi were each associated with a higher unadjusted risk for the composite outcome and its components. After adjustment for clinical and echocardiographic confounders, only measures of impaired LA function were predictive of the composite outcome (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 standard deviation [SD] decrease in LAEF: 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.67 [P = 0.005]; HR per 1 SD decrease in LAEi: 1.34; 95% CI 1.06-1.69 [P = 0.012]). These findings were similar regardless of left ventricular ejection fraction, history of HF or whether patients were in AF or sinus rhythm at the time of the echocardiographic examination. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AF, LA dysfunction was significantly associated with an increased risk for CV death or HF hospitalization and was more predictive of these outcomes than LA size. These parameters may help to identify AF patients at greatest risk for the development of HF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00781391.

16.
Circulation ; 140(22): 1792-1801, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous scales exist for the classification of major bleeding events. Limited data compare the most commonly used bleeding scales within a single at-risk cohort of patients with atrial fibrillation. Here, we analyze bleeding outcomes according to the ISTH (International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis), TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction), GUSTO (Global Usage of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries), and BARC (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium) bleeding scales in the ENGAGE AF (Effective Anticoagulation With Factor Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation)-TIMI 48 trial (NCT00781391) of edoxaban versus warfarin. METHODS: A total of 21 105 patients with atrial fibrillation at risk for stroke (CHADS2 score ≥2) were enrolled in the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial comparing warfarin with a higher- (60/30 mg daily) or lower- (30/15 mg daily) dose edoxaban regimen. Median follow-up was 2.8 years. Bleeding events occurring among on-treatment patients were examined. Annualized event rates were calculated by the ISTH, TIMI, GUSTO, and BARC scales and compared across treatment arms. Cox proportional hazards for a first bleeding event of each type were calculated for higher-dose edoxaban regimen vs warfarin and lower-dose edoxaban regimen versus warfarin. RESULTS: A total of 10 311 bleeding events were reported. In a comparison of the most severe events in each scale, ISTH major bleeding was the most common (n=1289), followed by TIMI major (n=548), GUSTO severe/life-threatening (n=347), and BARC 3c+5 (n=276) bleeding. Lower bleeding risk with edoxaban compared with warfarin was seen regardless of bleeding scale (higher-dose edoxaban regimen range: hazard ratio [HR], 0.47 [95% CI, 0.35-0.62] for BARC 3c+5 versus HR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.71-0.91] for ISTH major; lower-dose edoxaban regimen range: HR, 0.32 [95% CI, 0.23-0.45] for BARC 3c+5 versus HR, 0.47 [95% CI, 0.41-0.55] for ISTH major). Furthermore, a gradient of more pronounced risk reduction with edoxaban was observed with greater severity of first bleeding event (higher-dose edoxaban regimen: HR, 0.47 [95% CI, 0.35-0.62] for BARC 3c+5 bleeds versus HR, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.81-0.91] for any BARC bleed; lower-dose edoxaban regimen: HR, 0.32 [95% CI, 0.23-0.45] for BARC 3c+5 bleeds versus HR, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.63-0.72] for any BARC bleed). The direction of this trend was consistent for both gastrointestinal bleeding and nongastrointestinal bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with atrial fibrillation at risk for stroke, there was a >4-fold difference in the frequency of the most severe bleeding events across commonly used bleeding scales. Furthermore, the relative safety of edoxaban compared with warfarin tended to increase with greater severity of bleeding. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00781391.

17.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222061, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The double-blind OMEGA-REMODEL placebo-controlled randomized trial of high-dose omega-3 fatty acids (O-3FA) post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) reported improved cardiac remodeling and attenuation of non-infarct myocardial fibrosis. Fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) gene cluster encodes key enzymes in the conversion of essential omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids into active arachidonic (ArA) and eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA), which influence cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested the hypothesis that the genotypic status of FADS2 (rs1535) modifies therapeutic response of O-3FA in post-AMI cardiac remodeling in 312 patients. Consistent with known genetic polymorphism of FADS2, patients in our cohort with the guanine-guanine (GG) genotype had the lowest FADS2 activity assessed by arachidonic acid/linoleic acid (ArA/LA) ratio, compared with patients with the adenine-adenine (AA) and adenine-guanine (AG) genotypes (GG:1.62±0.35 vs. AA: 2.01±0.36, p<0.0001; vs. AG: 1.76±0.35, p = 0.03). When randomized to 6-months of O-3FA treatment, GG patients demonstrated significant lowering of LV end-systolic volume index (LVESVi), N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and galectin-3 levels compared to placebo (-4.4 vs. 1.2 ml/m2, -733 vs. -181 pg/mL, and -2.0 vs. 0.5 ng/mL; p = 0.006, 0.006, and 0.03, respectively). In contrast, patients with either AA or AG genotype did not demonstrate significant lowering of LVESVi, NT-proBNP, or galectin-3 levels from O-3FA treatment, compared to placebo. The odds ratios for improving LVESVi by 10% with O-3FA treatment was 7.2, 1.6, and 1.2 in patients with GG, AG, and AA genotypes, respectively. CONCLUSION: Genetic profiling using FADS2 genotype can predict the therapeutic benefits of O-3FA treatment against adverse cardiac remodeling during the convalescent phase of AMI. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00729430.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Ácido Araquidônico/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Linoleico/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Hypertension ; 74(3): 597-605, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352829

RESUMO

Hypertension is a risk factor for both stroke and bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation. Data are sparse regarding the interaction between blood pressure and the efficacy and safety of direct oral anticoagulants. In the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial (Effective Anticoagulation With Factor Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 48), 19,679 patients with atrial fibrillation and hypertension were categorized according to average systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The primary efficacy and safety end points were the time to the first stroke or systemic embolic event and the time to the first International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis major bleeding event, respectively. Risk was calculated using Cox proportional hazards models based on average SBP and DBP and adjusting for 18 clinical characteristics. The efficacy and safety of a higher dose edoxaban regimen (60/30 mg) versus warfarin were evaluated with stratification by average SBP and DBP. Stroke/systemic embolic event occurred significantly more frequently in patients with elevated average SBP (hazard ratio, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.50-2.70 for SBP ≥150 mm Hg relative to 130-139 mm Hg) or DBP (hazard ratio, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.76-3.16 for DBP ≥90 mm Hg relative to 75-<85 mm Hg). The higher dose edoxaban regimen reduced stroke/systemic embolic event across the full range of SBP (Pinteraction=0.55) and DBP (Pinteraction=0.44) compared with warfarin. The higher dose edoxaban regimen reduced the risk of major bleeding events, including intracranial hemorrhage, without modification by average SBP (Pinteraction=0.29). The relative safety of edoxaban was most pronounced in patients with elevated DBP (Pinteraction=0.007). The efficacy and safety of edoxaban were consistent across the full range of SBP, while the superior safety of edoxaban was most pronounced among patients with elevated DBP.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Segurança do Paciente , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(2): 179-189, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with liver disease have increased risk of thrombosis and bleeding but are typically excluded from trials of direct oral anticoagulant agents. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), clinical efficacy and safety of edoxaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and history of liver disease. METHODS: ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 (Effective Anticoagulation With Factor Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction Study 48) was a randomized, double-blind trial comparing edoxaban with warfarin in patients with AF followed for 2.8 years. History of liver disease was defined as investigator-reported liver disease or >2-fold transaminase elevation at randomization. The primary efficacy and safety endpoints of stroke or systemic embolic event (SSEE) and major bleeding were assessed stratified by history of liver disease. PK/PD assessments of edoxaban included endogenous and extrinsic factor Xa activity and edoxaban concentration. RESULTS: Among 21,105 patients, 1,083 (5.1%) had a history of liver disease; they had a higher prevalence of many comorbidities. The adjusted risks of SSEE were similar (adjusted hazard ratio [HRadj]: 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67 to 1.22; p = 0.50), but major bleeding was more common in patients with liver disease (HRadj: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.74; p = 0.005). There were no significant differences in PK/PD assessment of edoxaban in patients with versus without liver disease. The HRs for higher-dose edoxaban versus warfarin for SSEE were 0.86 (95% CI: 0.73 to 1.01) in patients without and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.54 to 2.30) with liver disease (p for interaction [pint] = 0.47), major bleeding 0.80 (95% CI: 0.70 to 0.91) in patients without and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.56 to 1.47) with liver disease (pint = 0.63). There were no significant differences in hepatic adverse events between the 2 treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with AF receiving oral anticoagulation, bleeding, but not thromboembolic events, was increased in patients with liver disease. A history of liver disease did not alter the relative efficacy and safety of edoxaban compared with warfarin. Hepatic adverse events were similar between edoxaban and warfarin.

20.
Eur Heart J ; 40(19): 1541-1550, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624719

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: In the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial, patients with AF were randomized to warfarin (international normalized ratio 2.0-3.0) or edoxaban. The cohort (N = 21 028) included patients across BMI categories (kg/m2): underweight (<18.5) in 0.8%, normal (18.5 to <25) in 21.4%, overweight (25 to <30) in 37.6%, moderately obese (30 to <35) in 24.8%, severely obese (35 to <40) in 10.0%, and very severely obese (≥40) in 5.5%. In an adjusted analysis, higher BMI (continuous, per 5 kg/m2 increase) was significantly and independently associated with lower risks of stroke/systemic embolic event (SEE) [hazard ratio (HR) 0.88, P = 0.0001], ischaemic stroke/SEE (HR 0.87, P < 0.0001), and death (HR 0.91, P < 0.0001), but with increased risks of major (HR 1.06, P = 0.025) and major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding (HR 1.05, P = 0.0007). There was a significant interaction between sex and increasing BMI category, with lower risk of ischaemic stroke/SEE in males and increased risk of bleeding in women. Trough edoxaban concentration and anti-Factor Xa activity were similar across BMI groups >18.5 kg/m2, while time in therapeutic range for warfarin improved significantly as BMI increased (P < 0.0001). The effects of edoxaban vs. warfarin on stroke/SEE, major bleeding, and net clinical outcome were similar across BMI groups. CONCLUSION: An increased BMI was independently associated with a lower risk of stroke/SEE, better survival, but increased risk of bleeding. The efficacy and safety profiles of edoxaban were similar across BMI categories ranging from 18.5 to >40.

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