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1.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773624

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to quantify the risk of incarceration of incisional hernias. BACKGROUND: Operative repair is the definitive treatment for incisional ventral hernias but is often deferred if the perceived risk of elective operation is elevated secondary to comorbid conditions. The risk of incarceration during nonoperative management (NOM) factors into shared decision making by patient and surgeon; however, the incidence of acute incarceration remains largely unknown. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of adult patients with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision or Tenth Revision diagnosis of incisional hernia was conducted from 2010 to 2017 in 15 hospitals of a single healthcare system. The primary outcome was incarceration necessitating emergent operation. The secondary outcome was 30-, 90-, and 365-day mortality. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine independent predictors of incarceration. RESULTS: Among 30,998 patients with an incisional hernia (mean age 58.1 ±â€Š15.9 years; 52.7% female), 23,022 (78.1%) underwent NOM of whom 540 (2.3%) experienced incarceration, yielding a 1- and 5-year cumulative incidence of 1.24% and 2.59%, respectively. Independent variables associated with incarceration included: age older than 40 years, female sex, current smoker, body mass index 30 or greater, and a hernia-related inpatient admission. All-cause mortality rates at 30, 90, and 365 days were significantly higher in the incarceration group at 7.2%, 10%, and 14% versus 1.1%, 2.3%, and 5.3% in patients undergoing successful NOM, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Incarceration is an uncommon complication of NOM but is associated with a significant risk of death. Tailored decision making for elective repair and considering the aforementioned risk factors for incarceration provides an initial step toward mitigating the excess morbidity and mortality of an incarceration event.

2.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 88(1): 141-147, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent randomized clinical trial evidence demonstrated a survival benefit with the use of prehospital plasma in patients at risk of hemorrhagic shock. We sought to characterize the survival benefit associated with prehospital plasma relative to the blood transfusion volume over the initial 24 hours. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of prehospital plasma would be most robust in those with higher severity of hemorrhage. METHODS: We performed a prespecified secondary analysis using data derived from a prospective randomized prehospital plasma trial. Blood component transfusion volumes were recorded over the initial 24 hours. Massive transfusion (MT) was defined a priori as receiving ≥10 units of red cells in 24 hours. We characterized the 30-day survival benefit of prehospital plasma and the need for MT and overall 24-hour red cell transfusion volume utilizing Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression. RESULTS: There were 501 patients included in this analysis with 230 randomized to prehospital plasma with 104 patients requiring MT. Mortality in patients who received MT were higher compared with those that did not (MT vs. NO-MT, 42% vs. 26%, p = 0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated early separation in the NO-MT subgroup (log rank p = 0.008) with no survival benefit found in the MT group (log rank p = 0.949). Cox regression analysis verified these findings. When 24-hour red cell transfusion was divided into quartiles, there was a significant independent association with 30-day survival in patients who received 4 to 7 units (hazard ratio, 0.33, 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.80, p = 0.013). CONCLUSION: The survival benefits of prehospital plasma was demonstrated only in patients with red cell requirements below the transfusion level of MT. Patients who received 4 to 7 units of red cells demonstrated the most robust independent survival benefit attributable to prehospital plasma transfusion. Prehospital plasma may be most beneficial in those patients with moderate transfusion requirements and mortality risk. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, Level I.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/métodos , Primeiros Socorros/métodos , Hemorragia/terapia , Plasma , Ressuscitação/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Primeiros Socorros/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ressuscitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
3.
Transfusion ; 59(3): 953-964, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A supervised machine learning algorithm was used to generate decision trees for the prediction of massive transfusion at a Level 1 trauma center. METHODS: Trauma patients who received at least one unit of RBCs and/or low-titer group O whole blood between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2017, were included. Massive transfusion was defined as the transfusion of 10 or more units of RBCs and/or low-titer group O whole blood in the first 24 hours of admission. A recursive partitioning algorithm was used to generate two decision trees for prediction of massive transfusion using a training data set (n = 550): the first, MTPitt, was based on demographic and clinical parameters, and the second, MTPitt+Labs, also included laboratory data. Decision tree performance was compared with the Assessment of Blood Consumption score and the Trauma Associated Severe Hemorrhage score. RESULTS: The incidence of massive transfusion in the validation data set (n = 199) was 7.5%. The MTPitt decision tree had a higher balanced accuracy (81.4%) and sensitivity (86.7%) compared to an Assessment of Blood Consumption Score of 2 or higher (77.9% and 66.7%, respectively) and a Trauma Associated Severe Hemorrhage score of 9 or higher (75.0% and 73.3%, respectively), although the 95% confidence intervals overlapped. Addition of laboratory data to the MTPitt decision tree (MTPitt+Labs) resulted in a higher specificity and balanced accuracy compared to MTPitt without an increase in sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: The MTPitt decisions trees are highly sensitive tools for identifying patients who received a massive transfusion and do not require computational resources to be implemented in the trauma setting.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos
4.
World J Emerg Surg ; 13: 30, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29997683

RESUMO

Background: Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVI) are generally associated with high-energy injury mechanisms. Less is known regarding lower-energy injuries in elderly patients. We sought to determine the incidence of BCVI and characterize current BCVI screening practices and associated complications in elderly ground-level fall patients (EGLF, ≥ 65 years). We hypothesized that BCVI in EGLF patients would be clinically significant and screening would be less common. Methods: A retrospective study was performed utilizing the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB, 2007-2014) and single institutional data. BCVI risk factors and diagnosis were determined by ICD-9 codes. Presenting patient characteristics and clinical course were obtained by chart review. The NTDB dataset was used to determine the incidence of BCVI, risk factors for BCVI, and outcomes in the EGLF cohort. Local chart review focused on screening rates and complications. Results: The incidence of BCVI in EGLF patients was 0.15% overall and 0.86% in those with at least one BCVI risk factor in the NTDB. Upper cervical spine fractures were the most common risk factor for BCVI in EGLF patients. In EGLF patients, the diagnosis of BCVI was an independent risk factor for mortality (OR1.8, 95% C.I. 1.5-2.1). The local institutional data (2007-2014) had a BCVI incidence of 0.37% (n = 6487) and 1.47% in those with at least one risk factor (n = 1429). EGLF patients with a risk factor for BCVI had a very low rate of screening (44%). Only 8% of EGLF patients not screened had documented contraindications. The incidence of renal injury was 9% irrespective of BCVI screening. Conclusions: The incidence of BCVI is clinically significant in EGLF patients and an independent predictor of mortality. Screening is less common in EGLF patients despite few contraindications. This data suggests that using age and injury mechanism to omit BCVI screening in EGLF patients may exclude an at-risk population. Trial registration: IRB approval number: PRO15020269. Retrospective trial not registered.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
5.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 83(6): 1023-1031, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28715360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclavian and axillary artery injuries are uncommon. In addition to many open vascular repairs, endovascular techniques are used for definitive repair or vascular control of these anatomically challenging injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the relative roles of endovascular and open techniques in the management of subclavian and axillary artery injuries comparing hospital outcomes, and long-term limb viability. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective review of patients with subclavian or axillary artery injuries from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2014, was completed at 11 participating Western Trauma Association institutions. Statistical analysis included χ, t-tests, and Cochran-Armitage trend tests. A p value less than 0.05 was significant. RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-three patients were included; mean age was 36 years, 84% were men. An increase in computed tomography angiography and decrease in conventional angiography was observed over time (p = 0.018). There were 120 subclavian and 119 axillary artery injuries. Procedure type was associated with injury grade (p < 0.001). Open operations were performed in 135 (61%) patients, including 93% of greater than 50% circumference lacerations and 83% of vessel transections. Endovascular repairs were performed in 38 (17%) patients; most frequently for pseudoaneurysms. Fourteen (6%) patients underwent a hybrid procedure. Use of endovascular versus open procedures did not increase over the duration of the study (p = 0.248). In-hospital mortality rate was 10%. Graft or stent thrombosis occurred in 7% and graft or stent infection occurred in 3% of patients. Mean follow-up was 1.6 ± 2.4 years (n = 150). Limb salvage was achieved in 216 (97%) patients. CONCLUSION: The management of subclavian and axillary artery injuries still requires a wide variety of open exposures and procedures, especially for the control of active hemorrhage from more than 50% vessel lacerations and transections. Endovascular repairs were used most often for pseudoaneurysms. Low early complication rates and limb salvage rates of 97% were observed after open and endovascular repairs. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic/epidemiologic, level IV.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Braço/complicações , Artéria Axilar/lesões , Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos , Artéria Subclávia/lesões , Traumatismos Torácicos/complicações , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/cirurgia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/complicações , Adulto , Traumatismos do Braço/diagnóstico , Traumatismos do Braço/mortalidade , Artéria Axilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Axilar/cirurgia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sociedades Médicas , Artéria Subclávia/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Subclávia/cirurgia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Traumatismos Torácicos/diagnóstico , Traumatismos Torácicos/mortalidade , Traumatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/diagnóstico , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/etiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/diagnóstico , Ferimentos Penetrantes/mortalidade
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