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1.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064292

RESUMO

The nutraceutical interest in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds is associated with the presence of macronutrients, micronutrients, minerals, vitamins, and polyphenols. In particular, polyphenols contribute to the health-promoting effects of this food crop, and their levels are influenced by environmental conditions. Production of quinoa is recently being explored in temperate climate areas, including Italy. The aim of this research was to assess the profile of bioactive compounds in seeds of two quinoa varieties, Regalona-Baer and Titicaca, grown in northern Italy, compared to that of seeds of those varieties grown in Chile and Denmark, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis of phenolic acid and flavonoid profiles, both in their free and soluble conjugated forms, showed that the main differences between Regalona grown in Chile and Italy were for the free vanillic acid and daidzein contents, while the two Titicaca samples mainly differed in quercetin derivative levels. The total phenolic index was comparable in Titicaca and Regalona, and only a slight decrease in this parameter was found in seeds of the two varieties grown in Italy. The in vitro antioxidant activity of seed extracts, evaluated by means of three different assays, indicated that it correlated with flavonol (quercetin derivative) levels. In conclusion, the results indicate that, although environmental conditions alter the polyphenolic profile and biological activities, it is possible to grow good-quality quinoa in northern Italy.

2.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 2984613, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908631

RESUMO

Clinopodium tomentosum (Kunth) Govaerts is an endemic species in Ecuador, where it is used as an anti-inflammatory plant to treat respiratory and digestive affections. In this work, effects of a Clinopodium tomentosum ethanolic extract (CTEE), prepared from aerial parts of the plant, were investigated on vascular endothelium functions. In particularly, angiogenesis activity was evaluated, using primary cultures of porcine aortic endothelial cells (pAECs). Cells were cultured for 24 h in the presence of CTEE different concentrations (10, 25, 50, and 100 µg/ml); no viability alterations were found in the 10-50 µg/ml range, while a slight, but significant, proliferative effect was observed at the highest dose. In addition, treatment with CTEE was able to rescue LPS-induced injury in terms of cell viability. The CTEE ability to affect angiogenesis was evaluated by scratch test analysis and by an in vitro capillary-like network assay. Treatment with 25-50 µg/ml of extract caused a significant increase in pAEC's migration and tube formation capabilities compared to untreated cells, as results from the increased master junctions' number. On the other hand, CTEE at 100 µg/ml did not induce the same effects. Quantitative PCR data demonstrated that FLK-1 mRNA expression significantly increased at a CTEE dose of 25 µg/ml. The CTEE phytochemical composition was assessed through HPLC-DAD; rosmarinic acid among phenolic acids and hesperidin among flavonoids were found as major phenolic components. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content assays showed that flavonoids are the most abundant class of polyphenols. The CTEE antioxidant activity was also showed by means of the DPPH and ORAC assays. Results indicate that CTEE possesses an angiogenic capacity in a dose-dependent manner; this represents an initial step in elucidating the mechanism of the therapeutic use of the plant.


Assuntos
Aorta/citologia , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Lamiaceae/química , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Suínos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
3.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(8)2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731644

RESUMO

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) are highly appreciated fruits for their taste, color, nutritional value, and beneficial health effects. In this work, seven new cultivars of sweet cherry were investigated for their main quality traits and nutraceutical value. The phytochemical profile of three classes of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of the new cultivars were investigated through high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and spectrophotometric assays, respectively, and compared with those of commonly commercialized cultivars. Cyanidine-3-O-rutinoside was the main anthocyanin in all genotypes, and its levels in some new cultivars were about three-fold higher than in commercial ones. The ORAC-assayed antioxidant capacity was positively correlated with the total anthocyanin index. The nutraceutical value of the new cultivars was investigated in terms of antioxidant/neuroprotective capacity in neuron-like SH-SY5Y cells. Results demonstrated that the new cultivars were more effective in counteracting oxidative stress and were also able to upregulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a pro-survival neurotrophin, suggesting their potential pleiotropic role in counteracting neurodegenerations.

4.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 1018, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733518

RESUMO

In clementine, failure of fertilization can result in parthenocarpic fruit development, which has several advantages, such as seedless fruit, longer shelf-life, and greater consumer appeal. Recently, S-RNases have been identified in Citrus grandis, thus revealing that the self-incompatibility (SI) reaction relies on the S-RNase gametophytic mechanism. The fundamental role of environmental factors, mostly temperature, in determining the numbers of pollen tubes reaching the ovary is also well established in Citrus. In the present work, temperature-dependent pollen-pistil interactions in C. clementina were analyzed, focusing on several morphological aspects, as well as on polyamine (PA) content and the activity and distribution of transglutaminase (TGase), both reported to be involved in the SI response in pear and in pummelo. Results clearly indicate that temperature contributed to a different activation of the SI response, which occurs at optimal temperature of 25°C but was by-passed at 15°C. TGase activity was stimulated during the SI response, and it localized differently in the compatible and incompatible interaction: in compatible pollinated styles, TGase localized inside the style canal, while it was detected all around it in incompatible crosses. TGase localization and activity were congruent with the levels of soluble and insoluble conjugated PAs and with morphological evidences, which highlighted cell wall modification occurring as a result of SI.

5.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 9(7)2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660009

RESUMO

Extensive documentation is available on plant essential oils as a potential source of antimicrobials, including natural drugs against Candida spp. Yeasts of the genus Candida are responsible for various clinical manifestations, from mucocutaneous overgrowth to bloodstream infections, whose incidence and mortality rates are increasing because of the expanding population of immunocompromised patients. In the last decade, although C. albicans is still regarded as the most common species, epidemiological data reveal that the global distribution of Candida spp. has changed, and non-albicans species of Candida are being increasingly isolated worldwide. The present study aimed to review the anti-Candida activity of essential oils collected from 100 species of the Lamiaceae family growing in the Mediterranean area and the Middle East. An overview is given on the most promising essential oils and constituents inhibiting Candida spp. growth, with a particular focus for those natural products able to reduce the expression of virulence factors, such as yeast-hyphal transition and biofilm formation. Based on current knowledge on members of the Lamiaceae family, future recommendations to strengthen the value of these essential oils as antimicrobial agents include pathogen selection, with an extension towards the new emerging Candida spp. and toxicological screening, as it cannot be taken for granted that plant-derived products are void of potential toxic and/or carcinogenic properties.

6.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-5, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691666

RESUMO

Activity-guided fractionations of Jatropha macrantha Müll. Arg. led to the isolation of pomolic acid (1) and euscaphic acid (2). The potential for inhibition against NF-κB and HIF-1α production of these two compounds was tested in different tumour cell lines. Compounds 1 and 2 showed an inhibitory activity of HIF-1α in the SK-MEL-28 (IC50=3.01 ± 0.02 µM and 3.78 ± 0.02 µM), A549 (IC50=9.97 ± 0.01 µM and 10.25 ± 0.01 µM) and U-373 MG (IC50=6.34 ± 0.02 µM and 8.85 ± 0.02 µM) cell lines. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 showed an inhibitory activity on NF-κB in SK-MEL-28 (IC50=1.05 ± 0.02 µM and 2.71 ± 0.01 µM), A549 (IC50=3.63 ± 0.01 µM and 3.73 ± 0.02 µM) and U-373 MG (IC50=2.55 ± 0.02 µM and 3.39 ± 0.01 µM) cell lines. This is the first report that isolates these compounds from J. macrantha and tests their antitumor potential.

7.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 6829173, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210845

RESUMO

The aim of the present research was to study the effects of an ethanolic extract of Salvia sagittata Ruiz & Pav (SSEE), an endemic Ecuadorian plant traditionally used to treat inflammation and different intestinal affections, on primary cultures of porcine aortic endothelial cells (pAECs). pAECs were cultured in the presence of different concentrations (1-200 µg/mL) of SSEE for 24 h, and cytotoxicity was evaluated by the MTT assay. SSEE did not negatively affect cellular viability at any concentration tested. Cell cycle was analyzed and no significant change was observed. Then, the anti-inflammatory effects of SSEE on pAECs were analyzed using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as the inflammatory stimulus. Different markers involved in the inflammatory process, such as cytokines and protective molecules, were evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. SSEE showed the ability to restore pAEC physiological conditions reducing interleukin-6 and increasing Heme Oxygenase-1 protein levels. The phytochemical composition of SSEE was also evaluated via HPLC-DAD and spectrophotometric assays. The presence of different phenolic acids and flavonoids was revealed, with rosmarinic acid as the most abundant component. SSEE possesses an interesting antioxidant activity, as assessed through both the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. In conclusion, results suggest that SSEE is endowed with an in vitro anti-inflammatory effect. This represents the initial step in finding a possible scientific support for the traditional therapeutic use of this plant.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Aorta/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Salvia/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Aorta/patologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Etanol/química , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Cultura Primária de Células , Suínos
8.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 741, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249577

RESUMO

Pollen-stigma interaction is a highly selective process, which leads to compatible or incompatible pollination, in the latter case, affecting quantitative and qualitative aspects of productivity in species of agronomic interest. While the genes and the corresponding protein partners involved in this highly specific pollen-stigma recognition have been studied, providing important insights into pollen-stigma recognition in self-incompatible (SI), many other factors involved in the SI response are not understood yet. This work concerns the study of transglutaminase (TGase), polyamines (PAs) pattern and metabolomic profiles following the pollination of Pyrus communis L. pistils with compatible and SI pollen in order to deepen their possible involvement in the reproduction of plants. Immunolocalization, abundance and activity of TGase as well as the content of free, soluble-conjugated and insoluble-bound PAs have been investigated. 1H NMR-profiling coupled with multivariate data treatment (PCA and PLS-DA) allowed to compare, for the first time, the metabolic patterns of not-pollinated and pollinated styles. Results clearly indicate that during the SI response TGase activity increases, resulting in the accumulation of PAs conjugated to hydroxycinnamic acids and other small molecules. Metabolomic analysis showed a remarkable differences between pollinated and not-pollinated styles, where, except for glucose, all the other metabolites where less concentrated. Moreover, styles pollinated with compatible pollen showed the highest amount of sucrose than SI pollinated ones, which, in turn, contained highest amount of all the other metabolites, including aromatic compounds, such as flavonoids and a cynnamoil derivative.

9.
Food Chem ; 292: 211-216, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054667

RESUMO

Amongst the processing technologies able to improve the functional features of cereal-based foods, sourdough fermentation using Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) has been recently rediscovered for its beneficial effects. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bread doughs were prepared using LAB strains belonging to different Lactobacillus species and changes in phenolic acid, carotenoid content and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. Two L. plantarum strains out of six were able to significantly increase carotenoid content in the dough, suggesting that a higher mobilization/solubilisation of these antioxidant compounds occurs. Within different fractions (free, soluble-conjugated, insoluble-bound), the relative distribution of ferulic acid and antioxidant activity changes depending on the specific strain. Overall, results indicate that some LAB strains cause in situ changes, significantly increasing the content of functional compounds in doughs during fermentation. This, in turn, could improve the functional features of bakery foods characterised by a high content in carotenoids and other bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Pão/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Farinha/microbiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo
10.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 95-104, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136935

RESUMO

Biostimulants improve yield, quality, and stress acclimation in crops. In this work, we tested the possibility of using phenolics-rich extracts from spelt (Triticum dicoccum L.) husks to attenuate the effects of salt stress (100-200 mM NaCl) in maize. Two methanolic extracts were prepared from the soluble-conjugated (SC), and the insoluble-bound (IB) phenolic acid fractions of the spelt husk, and their effects were investigated on several stress-associated biochemical parameters, such as proline, lipid peroxidation, H2O2, GSH levels, and ion content. Results show that SC and IB fractions of husk extracts behaved very differently, no doubt due to their greatly divergent chemical composition, as revealed by both GC-MS and HPLC analyses. The efficacy of treatments in mitigating salt stress was also dose- and timing-dependent. IB, even at the lower concentration tested, was able to recover the performance of stressed plants in terms of growth, photosynthetic pigments content, and levels of salt stress markers. Recovery of shoot growth to control levels and reduction of stress-induced proline accumulation occurred regardless of whether plants were pre-treated or post-treated with IB, whereas only pre-treatment with the higher dose of IB was effective in mitigating oxidative stress. Although in some cases SC and even methanol alone exerted some positive effects, they could also be deleterious whereas IB never was. Overall, results indicate that a polyphenol-containing extract obtained from spelt by-products can behave as biostimulant in maize plants and can mitigate their response to salt stress, by acting on different biochemical targets.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Estresse Salino , Triticum/química , Zea mays/química , Antioxidantes/química , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glutationa/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Fotossíntese , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Pigmentação , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Potássio/química , Prolina/química , Tolerância ao Sal , Sódio/química
11.
New Microbiol ; 41(3): 187-194, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874387

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) cause several clinically relevant syndromes in both adults and neonates. Despite the availability of efficient anti-HSV agents, the search for new therapeutic approaches is highly encouraged due to the increasing drug resistance of virus strains. Medicinal plants represent a source of potential bioactive compounds. In this context we evaluated the anti-herpetic activity of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., a plant widely used in traditional Indian medicine. The hydroalcoholic extract prepared from roots was characterized by NMR and HPLC analysis and assayed in vitro by CPE reduction and virus infectivity assays to define its anti-viral effect. The extract's mechanism of action was investigated by virucidal and time-of-addition assays and by in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory assay. The extract exhibited a remarkable anti-herpetic activity at 100 mg/mL, at non-cytotoxic concentration, through multiple mechanisms: it reduced the infectivity of viral particles released from infected cells possibly through its anti-ER α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and it inhibited the beginning stage of HSV infection acting as a virucide agent and/or preventing virus attachment to the host cell surface.


Assuntos
Hemidesmus/química , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 2/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesvirus Humano 2/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Células Vero , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
12.
Planta Med ; 84(12-13): 941-946, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29797306

RESUMO

This paper describes the use of 1H NMR profiling and chemometrics in order to facilitate the selection of medicinal plants as potential sources of collagenase inhibitors. A total of 49 plants with reported ethnobotanical uses, such as the healing of wounds and burns, treatment of skin-related diseases, rheumatism, arthritis, and bone diseases, were initially chosen as potential candidates. The in vitro collagenase inhibitory activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants was tested. Moreover, their phytochemical profiles were analyzed by 1H NMR and combined with the inhibitory activity data by an orthogonal partial least squares model. The results showed a correlation between the bioactivity and the concentration of phenolics, including flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, and tannins, in the extracts. Considering the eventual false-positive effect on the bioactivity given by tannins, a tannin removal procedure was performed on the most active extracts. After this procedure, Alchemilla vulgaris was the most persistently active, proving to owe its activity to compounds other than tannins. Thus, this plant was selected as the most promising and further investigated through bioassay-guided fractionation, which resulted in the isolation of a flavonoid, quercetin-3-O-ß-glucuronide, as confirmed by NMR and HRMS spectra. This compound showed not only a higher activity than other flavonoids with the same aglycone moiety, but was also higher than doxycycline (positive control), the only Federal Drug Administration-approved collagenase inhibitor. The approach employed in this study, namely the integration of metabolomics and bioactivity-guided fractionation, showed great potential as a tool for plant selection and identification of bioactive compounds in natural product research.


Assuntos
Alchemilla/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/farmacologia , Metabolômica , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Colagenases , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/química , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais , Quercetina/química , Quercetina/isolamento & purificação , Quercetina/farmacologia
13.
Nutrients ; 9(11)2017 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29137113

RESUMO

Nowadays the high nutritional value of whole grains is recognized, and there is an increasing interest in the ancient varieties for producing wholegrain food products with enhanced nutritional characteristics. Among ancient crops, einkorn could represent a valid alternative. In this work, einkorn flours were analyzed for their content in carotenoids and in free and bound phenolic acids, and compared to wheat flours. The most promising flours were used to produce conventional and sourdough fermented breads. Breads were in vitro digested, and characterized before and after digestion. The four breads having the best characteristics were selected, and the product of their digestion was used to evaluate their anti-inflammatory effect using Caco-2 cells. Our results confirm the higher carotenoid levels in einkorn than in modern wheats, and the effectiveness of sourdough fermentation in maintaining these levels, despite the longer exposure to atmospheric oxygen. Moreover, in cultured cells einkorn bread evidenced an anti-inflammatory effect, although masked by the effect of digestive fluid. This study represents the first integrated evaluation of the potential health benefit of einkorn-based bakery products compared to wheat-based ones, and contributes to our knowledge of ancient grains.


Assuntos
Pão , Carotenoides/análise , Dieta Saudável , Farinha/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Triticum/química , Grãos Integrais/química , Células CACO-2 , Culinária , Citocinas/metabolismo , Digestão , Fermentação , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Fitoterapia ; 120: 184-193, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28647480

RESUMO

The phytochemical profile, antioxidant activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Hypericum scruglii Bacchetta, Brullo et Salmeri and Hypericum hircinum L. were analyzed and compared to those of the best-known Hypericum perforatum L. Samples were prepared using three different extraction methods (maceration in 70% ethanol, extraction in MeOH/phosphate buffer and decoction), the influence of which on the metabolic profile and bioactivities are discussed. H. scruglii and H. hircinum extracted in 70% ethanol strongly inhibited α-glucosidase (IC50 7.25 and 14.05µg/ml, respectively), which is a valuable enzymatic target for treating metabolic disorders, while H. perforatum was found to be less powerful than the other two species in all the performed biological tests. The phytochemical profile was analyzed by NMR, HPLC-DAD and HPLC-FLD, revealing remarkable differences among the species. In particular, H. scruglii, which is a species endemic to Sardinia Island (Italy), was particularly enriched in two phloroglucinol-derivatives identified by means of 2D NMR and LC/MS/MS experiments as 3-geranyl-1-(2'-methylbutanoyl)-phloroglucinol and 3-geranyl-1-(2'-methylpropanoyl)-phloroglucinol.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Hypericum/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Chlorocebus aethiops , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Hypericum/classificação , Itália , Floroglucinol/análogos & derivados , Floroglucinol/química , Floroglucinol/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/química , Quercetina/isolamento & purificação , Células Vero
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 195: 255-265, 2017 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27864112

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The top flowering aerial parts of the Hypericum species are traditionally used to prepare ointments to heal cuts and burns. Sometimes even the fruits are used for these purposes. Hypericum androsaemum L., commonly known as tutsan or shrubby St. John's Wort, is a Mediterranean medicinal plant which has been traditionally used to prepare an ointment for treating cuts and wounds. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the extracts obtained from H. androsaemum red berries as functional ingredients for skin care formulations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methanolic extract was obtained by Soxhlet extraction while the aqueous extract was prepared by decoction; their composition was determined by HPLC analysis. Their biological activities were measured in terms of proliferation and migration of human fibroblasts, inhibition of collagenase activity, and immunomodulatory effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In addition, we evaluated their photostability by UV spectroscopy and their protective effects against APPH-induced hemolysis in red blood cells (RBC). RESULTS: The polar extracts contained significant amounts of shikimic (108,143.7-115,901.3mg/kg) and chlorogenic acids (45,781.1-57,002.7mg/kg). The main components of these extracts made an important contribution to a significant increase in human fibroblast migration. Both extracts were also active as collagenase inhibitors, with the aqueous one showing a greater inhibitory capacity (IC50 value of 88.1µg/mL), similar to that of chlorogenic acid. The kinetic parameters determined for the enzymatic reaction revealed for both aqueous extract and chlorogenic acid an uncompetitive mechanism of inhibition. The methanolic extract showed important effects on PBMCs by modulating IL-6. Both extracts proved to be photostable in the UVA/B range and protected RBC against peroxidation at low concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: H. androsaemum red berries were proven to contain phytochemicals that improve skin regeneration, hence potentially employable in skin care formulations.


Assuntos
Fármacos Dermatológicos/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Hypericum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Higiene da Pele/métodos , Adulto , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Ácido Clorogênico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Colagenases/metabolismo , Fármacos Dermatológicos/química , Fármacos Dermatológicos/isolamento & purificação , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Cinética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/farmacologia , Metanol/química , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais , Ácido Chiquímico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Chiquímico/farmacologia , Solventes/química , Água/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Phytochem Anal ; 27(1): 41-9, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26352897

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The argan tree (Argania spinosa) is an endemic species from south-western Morocco. Argan-based preparations have been widely used in Moroccan traditional medicine for their biological properties, as well as for several cosmetic purposes. Whereas kernel, pulp of fruit and trunk have been extensively studied for their nutritional and pharmacological effects, relatively little is known about argan tree leaves. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of the present study is to investigate and characterise the bioactive phenolic fractions in both crude and aqueous extracts derived from argan tree leaves. METHODOLOGY: A qualitative profile of the antioxidant phenolic compounds in argan leaves was obtained by means of structural hypothesis based on UV spectra and mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns. Moreover, selected phenolics were quantified in argan leaves by using a fully validated method based on liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS/MS). All the extracts were purified by a fast and reliable microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) procedure, before analysing them by LC-MS/MS. RESULTS: Based on retention times, mass spectrometric fragmentation and UV spectra, 13 phenolic compounds were identified or tentatively elucidated from crude and aqueous extracts derived from Argania spinosa leaves, while seven compounds were quantified in both extracts. CONCLUSION: The obtained results could represent a first step towards a complete characterisation of the argan plant, its bioactive profiling and the valorisation of its by-products as a source of potentially beneficial bioactive molecules.


Assuntos
Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Sapotaceae/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
17.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 14: 409, 2014 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25338676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alkaloids present in plants of the Amaryllidaceae family are secondary metabolites of high biological interest, possessing a wide range of pharmacological activities. In the search for new plant-derived compounds with antimicrobial activities, two alkaloid extracts obtained from bulbs and leaves of Pancratium illyricum L., a plant of the Amarillydaceae family, were tested for their effect on bacterial and yeast growth. METHODS: The broth microdilution susceptibility test was applied to study the effect of plant extracts on the growth of reference bacterial strains and Candida albicans reference and clinical isolates strains. Extracts obtained from the different parts of the plant were tested and compared with the pure components identified in the extracts. Since matrix metalloproteinase enzymes play a role in the dissemination process of Candida albicans, the effect of the bulb extract and pure alkaloids on in vitro collagenase activity was tested. Cell viability test was carried out on human embryo lung fibroblasts (HEL 299). RESULTS: Whilst both extracts did not show any inhibitory activity against neither Gram positive nor Gram negative bacteria, a strong antifungal activity was detected, in particular for the bulb extract. All clinical isolates were susceptible to the growth inhibitory activity of the bulb extract, with endpoint IC50 values ranging from 1.22 to 78 µg/mL. The pure alkaloids lycorine and vittatine, identified as components of the extract, were also assayed for their capacity of inhibiting the yeast growth, and lycorine turned very active, with endpoint IC50 values ranging from 0.89 to 28.5 µg/mL. A potent inhibition of the in vitro collagenase activity was found in the presence of the bulb extract, and this effect was much higher than that exerted by the pure alkaloids. Viability of cell lines tested was not affected by the extract. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, results suggest that the extract of Pancratium illyricum may act as antifungal agent both directly on the yeast growth and by altering the tissue invasion process.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Candidíase/microbiologia , Liliaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Folhas de Planta/química , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Nat Prod Res ; 28(18): 1438-45, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24749692

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of three plants from Ayurveda tradition (Tinospora cordifolia, Alstonia scholaris, Crataeva nurvala) against reference microbial strains and clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. IC50 values were obtained by micro-dilution methods meeting the requirements of the NCCLS standard. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was also investigated on a mammalian cell line. Extracts displayed a variable degree of antimicrobial activity and did not interfere with mammalian cell proliferation. T. cordifolia and A. scholaris exhibited a higher inhibitory activity against clinical isolates of MRSA and carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae compared with reference strains, while C. nurvala exhibited a different behaviour. An antifungal activity towards Candida albicans was observed for A. scholaris extract. Results indicate that constituents from T. cordifolia and A. scholaris may be a potential source of new therapeutic strategies for infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Alstonia/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Tinospora/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Etanol/química , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Itália , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Ayurvédica , Resistência a Meticilina , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
19.
Nat Prod Res ; 28(10): 704-10, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24444026

RESUMO

In the search for novel antibacterial agents against multidrug-resistant bacteria, an alkaloid extract obtained from whole plants of Crinum angustum Steud., containing six different groups of alkaloids, was analysed by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and its in vitro activity against American Type Culture Collection bacterial strains and clinical isolates was evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was tested against nine standard strains of microorganisms and two drug-resistant clinical isolates, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. The extract exhibited a significant activity against six of the examined strains of microorganisms. Antibacterial activity was more pronounced on Gram-positive bacteria than on Gram-negative bacteria, and IC50 values ranged from 156 to 625 µg/mL. Mycostatic activity against Candida albicans was also found, with an IC50 of 78 µg/mL after 48 h of incubation . Promising results were also obtained from tests carried out on both clinical isolates investigated.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Crinum/química , Alcaloides/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antifúngicos/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Itália , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzimologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
20.
Fitoterapia ; 92: 163-7, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24257197

RESUMO

Plants belonging to the Amaryllidaceae contain an exclusive group of alkaloids, known as sources of important biological activities. In the present work, Pancratium illyricum L., a species belonging to this family and endemic of Sardinia (Italy), was investigated for its alkaloid content. Fresh bulbs and leaves were processed separately. Standard extraction and purification procedures were applied to obtain fractions and compounds for GC-MS and NMR analysis. In addition to eight already known alkaloids (1-8), 11α-hydroxy-O-methylleucotamine (9) was isolated for the first time and its structure completely determined by one and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. This new galanthamine-type compound exhibited a pronounced in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity (IC50=3.5±1.1 µM) in comparison to the reference standard galanthamine hydrobromide (IC50=1.5±0.2 µM).


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Liliaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta , Raízes de Plantas
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