Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 13 de 13
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Science ; 373(6553): 438-443, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437117

RESUMO

A planet's crust bears witness to the history of planetary formation and evolution, but for Mars, no absolute measurement of crustal thickness has been available. Here, we determine the structure of the crust beneath the InSight landing site on Mars using both marsquake recordings and the ambient wavefield. By analyzing seismic phases that are reflected and converted at subsurface interfaces, we find that the observations are consistent with models with at least two and possibly three interfaces. If the second interface is the boundary of the crust, the thickness is 20 ± 5 kilometers, whereas if the third interface is the boundary, the thickness is 39 ± 8 kilometers. Global maps of gravity and topography allow extrapolation of this point measurement to the whole planet, showing that the average thickness of the martian crust lies between 24 and 72 kilometers. Independent bulk composition and geodynamic constraints show that the thicker model is consistent with the abundances of crustal heat-producing elements observed for the shallow surface, whereas the thinner model requires greater concentration at depth.

2.
Science ; 373(6553): 443-448, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437118

RESUMO

Clues to a planet's geologic history are contained in its interior structure, particularly its core. We detected reflections of seismic waves from the core-mantle boundary of Mars using InSight seismic data and inverted these together with geodetic data to constrain the radius of the liquid metal core to 1830 ± 40 kilometers. The large core implies a martian mantle mineralogically similar to the terrestrial upper mantle and transition zone but differing from Earth by not having a bridgmanite-dominated lower mantle. We inferred a mean core density of 5.7 to 6.3 grams per cubic centimeter, which requires a substantial complement of light elements dissolved in the iron-nickel core. The seismic core shadow as seen from InSight's location covers half the surface of Mars, including the majority of potentially active regions-e.g., Tharsis-possibly limiting the number of detectable marsquakes.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11663, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669572

RESUMO

X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a widely used technique to probe the local environment around specific atomic species. Applied to samples under extreme pressure and temperature conditions, XAS is sensitive to phase transitions, including melting, and allows gathering insights on compositional variations and electronic changes occurring during such transitions. These characteristics can be exploited for studies of prime interest in geophysics and fundamental high-pressure physics. Here, we investigated the melting curve and the eutectic composition of four geophysically relevant iron binary systems: Fe-C, Fe-O, Fe-S and Fe-Si. Our results show that all these systems present the same spectroscopic signatures upon melting, common to those observed for other pure late 3d transition metals. The presented melting criterion seems to be general for late 3d metals bearing systems. Additionally, we demonstrate the suitability of XAS to extract melt compositional information in situ, such as the evolution of the concentration of light elements with increasing temperature. Diagnostics presented in this work can be applied to studies over an even larger pressure range exploiting the upgraded synchrotron machines, and directly transferred to time-resolved extreme condition studies using dynamic compression (ns) or fast laser heating (ms).

5.
Sci Rep ; 6: 31887, 2016 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27539662

RESUMO

In spite of the simple body-centered-cubic crystal structure, the elements of group V, vanadium, niobium and tantalum, show strong interactions between the electronic properties and lattice dynamics. Further, these interactions can be tuned by external parameters, such as pressure and temperature. We used inelastic x-ray scattering to probe the phonon dispersion of single-crystalline vanadium as a function of pressure to 45 GPa. Our measurements show an anomalous high-pressure behavior of the transverse acoustic mode along the (100) direction and a softening of the elastic modulus C44 that triggers a rhombohedral lattice distortion occurring between 34 and 39 GPa. Our results provide the missing experimental confirmation of the theoretically predicted shear instability arising from the progressive intra-band nesting of the Fermi surface with increasing pressure, a scenario common to all transition metals of group V.

6.
Sci Rep ; 5: 14996, 2015 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26459927

RESUMO

The THz spectrum of density fluctuations, S(Q, ω), of vitreous GeO2 at ambient temperature was measured by inelastic x-ray scattering from ambient pressure up to pressures well beyond that of the known α-quartz to rutile polyamorphic (PA) transition. We observe significant differences in the spectral shape measured below and above the PA transition, in particular, in the 30-80 meV range. Guided by first-principle lattice dynamics calculations, we interpret the changes in the phonon dispersion as the evolution from a quartz-like to a rutile-like coordination. Notably, such a crossover is accompanied by a cusp-like behavior in the pressure dependence of the elastic response of the system. Overall, the presented results highlight the complex fingerprint of PA phenomena on the high-frequency phonon dispersion.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(13): 3916-9, 2015 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25775531

RESUMO

The physical properties of iron (Fe) at high pressure and high temperature are crucial for understanding the chemical composition, evolution, and dynamics of planetary interiors. Indeed, the inner structures of the telluric planets all share a similar layered nature: a central metallic core composed mostly of iron, surrounded by a silicate mantle, and a thin, chemically differentiated crust. To date, most studies of iron have focused on the hexagonal closed packed (hcp, or ε) phase, as ε-Fe is likely stable across the pressure and temperature conditions of Earth's core. However, at the more moderate pressures characteristic of the cores of smaller planetary bodies, such as the Moon, Mercury, or Mars, iron takes on a face-centered cubic (fcc, or γ) structure. Here we present compressional and shear wave sound velocity and density measurements of γ-Fe at high pressures and high temperatures, which are needed to develop accurate seismic models of planetary interiors. Our results indicate that the seismic velocities proposed for the Moon's inner core by a recent reanalysis of Apollo seismic data are well below those of γ-Fe. Our dataset thus provides strong constraints to seismic models of the lunar core and cores of small telluric planets. This allows us to propose a direct compositional and velocity model for the Moon's core.

8.
Science ; 339(6124): 1194-7, 2013 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23306436

RESUMO

The abundance of siderophile elements in the mantle preserves the signature of core formation. On the basis of partitioning experiments at high pressure (35 to 74 gigapascals) and high temperature (3100 to 4400 kelvin), we demonstrate that depletions of slightly siderophile elements (vanadium and chromium), as well as moderately siderophile elements (nickel and cobalt), can be produced by core formation under more oxidizing conditions than previously proposed. Enhanced solubility of oxygen in the metal perturbs the metal-silicate partitioning of vanadium and chromium, precluding extrapolation of previous results. We propose that Earth accreted from materials as oxidized as ordinary or carbonaceous chondrites. Transfer of oxygen from the mantle to the core provides a mechanism to reduce the initial magma ocean redox state to that of the present-day mantle, reconciling the observed mantle vanadium and chromium concentrations with geophysical constraints on light elements in the core.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 108(23): 9342-5, 2011 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21597000

RESUMO

Many physical and chemical properties of the light rare-earths and actinides are governed by the active role of f electrons, and despite intensive efforts the details of the mechanisms of phase stability and transformation are not fully understood. A prominent example which has attracted a lot of interest, both experimentally and theoretically over the years is the isostructural γ - α transition in cerium. We have determined by inelastic X-ray scattering, the complete phonon dispersion scheme of elemental cerium across the γ → α transition, and compared it with theoretical results using ab initio lattice dynamics. Several phonon branches show strong changes in the dispersion shape, indicating large modifications in the interactions between phonons and conduction electrons. This is reflected as well by the lattice Grüneisen parameters, particularly around the X point. We derive a vibrational entropy change ΔS(γ-α)(vib) ≈ (0.33+/-0.03)k(B), illustrating the importance of the lattice contribution to the transition. Additionally, we compare first principles calculations with the experiments to shed light on the mechanism underlying the isostructural volume collapse in cerium under pressure.


Assuntos
Cério/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Modelos Químicos , Algoritmos , Cinética , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Difração de Raios X/métodos
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 108(13): 5184-7, 2011 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21402927

RESUMO

The global geochemical carbon cycle involves exchanges between the Earth's interior and the surface. Carbon is recycled into the mantle via subduction mainly as carbonates and is released to the atmosphere via volcanism mostly as CO(2). The stability of carbonates versus decarbonation and melting is therefore of great interest for understanding the global carbon cycle. For all these reasons, the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of these minerals are needed up to core mantle boundary conditions. However, the nature of C-bearing minerals at these conditions remains unclear. Here we show the existence of a new Mg-Fe carbon-bearing compound at depths greater than 1,800 km. Its structure, based on three-membered rings of corner-sharing (CO(4))(4-) tetrahedra, is in close agreement with predictions by first principles quantum calculations [Oganov AR, et al. (2008) Novel high-pressure structures of MgCO(3), CaCO(3) and CO(2) and their role in Earth's lower mantle. Earth Planet Sci Lett 273:38-47]. This high-pressure polymorph of carbonates concentrates a large amount of Fe((III)) as a result of intracrystalline reaction between Fe((II)) and (CO(3))(2-) groups schematically written as 4FeO + CO(2) → 2Fe(2)O(3) + C. This results in an assemblage of the new high-pressure phase, magnetite and nanodiamonds.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Carbonatos/química , Planeta Terra , Minerais/química , Ferro/química , Magnésio/química , Estrutura Molecular , Pressão , Temperatura , Termodinâmica , Difração de Raios X
11.
Science ; 331(6013): 64-7, 2011 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21212352

RESUMO

Seismic discontinuities in Earth typically arise from structural, chemical, or temperature variations with increasing depth. The pressure-induced iron spin state transition in the lower mantle may influence seismic wave velocities by changing the elasticity of iron-bearing minerals, but no seismological evidence of an anomaly exists. Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements on (Mg(0.83)Fe(0.17))O-ferropericlase at pressures across the spin transition show effects limited to the only shear moduli of the elastic tensor. This explains the absence of deviation in the aggregate seismic velocities and, thus, the lack of a one-dimensional seismic signature of the spin crossover. The spin state transition does, however, influence shear anisotropy of ferropericlase and should contribute to the seismic shear wave anisotropy of the lower mantle.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 100(8): 085501, 2008 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18352634

RESUMO

We performed high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering measurements on a single crystal of hcp cobalt at simultaneous high pressure and high temperature, obtaining 4 of the 5 independent elements of the elastic tensor. Our experiments indicate that the elasticity of hcp-Co is well described within the quasiharmonic approximation and that anharmonic high-temperature effects on the elastic moduli, sound velocities, and elastic anisotropy are minimal at constant density. These results support the validity of Birch's law and represent an important benchmark for ab initio thermal lattice dynamics and molecular-dynamics simulations.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 96(11): 115502, 2006 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16605838

RESUMO

We have determined the lattice dynamics of molybdenum at high pressure to 37 GPa using high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering. Over the investigated pressure range, we find a significant decrease in the H-point phonon anomaly. We also present calculations based on density functional theory that accurately predict this pressure dependence. Based on these results, we infer that the likely explanation for the H-point anomaly in molybdenum is strong electron-phonon coupling, which decreases upon compression due to the shift of the Fermi level with respect to the relevant electronic bands.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...