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1.
Lancet Oncol ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515155
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419509

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The use of radiotherapy (RT) in consolidating oligometastatic prostate cancer (OPCa) is a rapidly evolving treatment paradigm. Here we review our institutional experience using metastasis directed therapy (MDT) in the definitive management of men with OPCa. MATERIALS/METHODS: OPCa treated with definitive RT were included. The Kaplan-Meier method and multivariable Cox regression analysis were performed to assess biochemical progression free survival (bPFS) and time to next intervention (TTNI). Cumulative incidence (CI) functions were used to calculate rates of local failure. Toxicity was assessed using CTCAE v4 criteria. RESULTS: This study analyzed 156 OPCa patients and 354 metastatic lesions with median follow-up (fup) of 24.6 months. Of 150 patients with toxicity data, 53 (35%) experienced acute grade 1 toxicity, 8 (5%) had grade 2, and none had grade 3 toxicity. Only 13 (9%) had late toxicities. At 24 months the CI of local failure was 7.4%. Median bPFS for the entire cohort was 12.9 months and 52% at one year. On multivariable analysis, factors associated with prolonged bPFS were peri-RT androgen deprivation (ADT), lower GTV, and hormone sensitive (HS) OPCa. Median TTNI, including repeat RT, was 21.6 months. Median bPFS for men with HSPC was 17.2 months compared to 7.2 months in men with castrate-resistant OPCa (CROPCa) (p <0.0001) and cumulative incidence of local failure at 24 months was lower with HSOPCa (4.8% vs 12.1%; p=0.034). We analyzed 28 men with HSOPCa treated with a course of peri-RT ADT (median 4.3 months) with recovery of testosterone. At median 33.5 month fup, 20 have not developed bPFS, median bPFS has not yet been reached, and 24 month bPFS was 77%. CONCLUSIONS: MDT can be effective across a wide ranges of OPCa subtypes, however with differential efficacy. Continued studies investigating the use of RT over the wide range of OPCa patients is warranted.

4.
Prostate ; 79(13): 1572-1579, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isolated pulmonary involvement is uncommon in metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC). To characterize outcomes and molecular alterations of this unique patient subset, we conducted a retrospective review of patients with hormone-naïve prostate cancer presenting with lung-only metastases. METHODS: This was a retrospective single-institution study. Medical records of 25 patients presenting with pulmonary-only metastases before receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were analyzed. Germline and/or somatic genomic results, where available (n = 16), were documented. Tumor tissue was analyzed using clinical-grade next-generation DNA sequencing assays. Clinical endpoints included complete prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response to ADT (<0.1 ng/mL), median overall survival (OS) from time of ADT initiation, median PSA progression-free survival (PSA-PFS), and failure-free survival (FFS) at 4 years. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were notable for 48% of men (12 of 25) having first or second-degree relatives with prostate cancer, compared with 20% expected. Complete PSA responses to ADT were noted in 52% of men, with a median PSA-PFS of 66 months, a 4-year FFS rate of 72%, and a median OS that was not reached after 190 months. In evaluable patients, molecular drivers were enriched for mismatch repair mutations (4 of 16, 25%) and homologous-recombination deficiency mutations (4 of 16, 25%). These results are limited by the small sample size and retrospective nature of this analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This exploratory study represents one of the largest cohorts of lung-only mHSPC patients to-date. The prevalence of actionable DNA-repair gene alterations was higher than anticipated (any DNA-repair mutation: 8 of 16, 50%). Compared to historical data, these patients appear to have exceptional and durable responses to first-line ADT. This study suggests that pulmonary-tropic mHSPC biology may be fundamentally different from nonpulmonary mHSPC.

5.
Prostate ; 79(14): 1597-1603, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a rational target for noninvasive detection of recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) and for therapy of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) with PSMA-targeted agents. Here we conducted serial measurements of PSMA expression on circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to evaluate patterns of longitudinal PSMA dynamics over the course of multiple sequential therapies. METHODS: A retrospective investigation of men with mCRPC undergoing evaluation at medical oncology clinics at our institution assessed the dynamics of PSMA expression in the context of different systemic treatments administered sequentially. Eligibility included patients who began systemic therapies with androgen receptor (AR)-directed agents or taxane agents for whom peripheral blood samples were tested for CTC mRNA of AR splice variant-7 (AR-V7), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and PSMA (with >2 CTC + results) in a CLIA-accredited laboratory. RESULTS: From August 2015 to November 2017, we identified 96 eligible men. Fifteen had greater than or equal to 2 sequential therapies and evaluable CTC samples, greater than or equal to 1 expressing PSMA (PSMA+). Among the 15 patients included in this analysis, a total of 54 PSMA status evaluations were performed in the context of 48 therapies during a median follow-up of 18 months. At baseline, PSMA signal was detected ("positive") in 11 of 15 (73.3%) patients, while for 4 of 15 (26.7%) patients PSMA signal was undetectable ("negative"). In all but two patients, the baseline collection corresponded with a change in treatment. On the second assessment, PSMA increases were detected in all 4/4 (100%) PSMA-negative patients and 8 of 11 (72.7%) PSMA-positive patients. PSMA significantly decreased in a patient treated with 177 Lu-PSMA-617. Serum PSA declines were seen in 7 of 8 (88%) of the treatment periods where PSMA decreased. CONCLUSIONS: PSMA expression in CTCs is a dynamic marker. PSMA transcript declines appear to be associated with concurrent decreases in serum PSA. Sequential CTC sampling could provide a noninvasive response assessment to systemic treatment for mCRPC.

6.
J Clin Invest ; 1302019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310591

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PC) is initially dependent on androgen receptor (AR) signaling for survival and growth. Therapeutics designed to suppress AR activity serve as the primary intervention for advanced disease. However, supraphysiological androgen (SPA) concentrations can produce paradoxical responses leading to PC growth inhibition. We sought to discern the mechanisms by which SPA inhibits PC and to determine if molecular context associates with anti-tumor activity. SPA produced an AR-mediated, dose-dependent induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and cellular senescence. SPA repressed genes involved in DNA repair and delayed the restoration of damaged DNA which was augmented by PARP1 inhibition. SPA-induced DSBs were accentuated in BRCA2-deficient PCs, and combining SPA with PARP or DNA-PKcs inhibition further repressed growth. Next-generation sequencing was performed on biospecimens from PC patients receiving SPA as part of ongoing Phase II clinical trials. Patients with mutations in genes mediating homology-directed DNA repair were more likely to exhibit clinical responses to SPA. These results provide a mechanistic rationale for directing SPA therapy to PCs with AR amplification or DNA repair deficiency, and for combining SPA therapy with PARP inhibition.

8.
Oncologist ; 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CDK12 loss-of-function (LOF) genomic alterations are associated with focal tandem duplications (FTDs) in ovarian and prostate cancers. Because these FTDs may produce fusion-induced neoantigens (FINAs), CDK12 alteration is a candidate biomarker for immune checkpoint inhibitor sensitivity. Here we determine the prevalence of CDK12-LOF alterations and their association with FTDs across diverse tumor types. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 142,133 tumor samples comprising 379 cancer types were sequenced (August 2014 to April 2018) by hybrid capture-based comprehensive genomic profiling (Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, MA) as part of routine clinical care. Results were analyzed for base substitutions, short insertions/deletions, rearrangements, and copy number alterations. CDK12-LOF genomic alterations were assessed for zygosity status and association with FTDs/focal copy number gain. RESULTS: CDK12 genomic alterations were detected in 1.1% of all cases, most frequently in prostate cancer (5.6%), but were also observed at >1% frequency in 11 cancer types. Across multiple cancer types, including prostate, gastric/esophageal, ovarian, breast, and endometrial cancer, the number of FTDs was significantly increased in CDK12-LOF versus CDK12 wild-type cases. Notably, CDK12-LOF was not consistently associated with a homologous recombination deficiency genomic signature. Quantitative assessment of CDK12-associated FTDs by measurement of single copy number gains identified novel likely deleterious CDK12 kinase-domain mutations in prostate and ovarian cancers. CONCLUSION: Detection of CDK12-LOF genomic alterations and their association with FTDs in a diverse spectrum of malignancies suggests that immunotherapy approaches targeting FINAs derived from CDK12-associated FTDs may be a broadly applicable strategy that could be explored across cancer types in a tumor-agnostic manner. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: CDK12 inactivation in ovarian and prostate cancer results in the generation of focal tandem duplications, which can cause fusion-induced neoantigens. In prostate cancer, CDK12 alterations have demonstrated promise as a potential predictive biomarker for response to immune checkpoint blockade. This study evaluated genomic profiling data from >142,000 tumors to determine the prevalence of CDK12 loss-of-function genomic alterations across tumor types and demonstrated that CDK12 alterations are associated with the tandem-duplicator phenotype in cancer types other than ovarian and prostate cancer. The association of CDK12 alterations with focal tandem duplications across broad cancer types suggests that CDK12 inactivation warrants further investigation as a pan-cancer biomarker for immunotherapy benefit.

9.
J Med Econ ; 22(10): 1080-1087, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352849

RESUMO

Background: Prostate cancer (PC) is a clinically heterogenous disease, and genetic mutations may be useful for patient risk stratification. This retrospective cohort study compared clinical outcomes, pharmacy use, and outpatient resource use in PC patients with and without pathogenic genomic instability mutations, including DNA repair deficiency (DRD) mutations and those in TP53, PTEN, and RB1. Methods: Patients ≥18 years newly-diagnosed with PC between June 2011-March 2016 were identified in medical and prescription claims databases linked to a genomic dataset. All-cause and PC-specific pharmacy use and outpatient resource use (office visits, laboratory tests, radiology examinations, and radiation therapies) over 1, 2, and 3 years and time to evidence of disease progression after PC diagnosis, based on secondary cancer diagnosis codes and treatments received, were evaluated in mutation carriers with ≥1 of 24 gene mutations and in a sub-set of DRD gene mutation carriers, with each compared to non-mutation carriers. Results: Mutation carriers (n = 274) and non-mutation carriers (n = 74) had similar demographic and clinical features. Non-mutation carriers had lower risks of developing metastasis and castration-resistant PC than mutation carriers (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5-0.9; HR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3-0.9, respectively) and DRD mutation carriers (HR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3-0.7; HR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2-0.7, respectively). Compared to non-mutation carriers, mutation carriers had more all-cause pharmacy claims over 2 years of follow-up (74.4 vs 59.1, p = 0.04) and more PC-specific pharmacy claims over 2 years (11.1 vs 6.5, p = 0.01) and 3 years (17.9 vs 9.8, p = 0.01) of follow-up. No differences were observed in outpatient resource use during the follow-up period by mutation status. Conclusion: PC patients carrying ≥1 pathogenic DNA instability mutation, and DRD mutation carriers specifically, had higher clinical burden than non-mutation carriers. Targeted therapies for these patients are needed to reduce clinical burden and associated healthcare resource utilization.

10.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 572, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In men with a rising PSA following radical prostatectomy, salvage radiation therapy (SRT) offers a second chance for cure. Hormonal therapy can be combined with SRT in order to increase prostate tumor control, albeit with associated higher rates of treatment side effects. This trial studies the effectiveness of SRT combined with hormonal therapy using a more potent anti-androgen with a favorable side effect profile. Enzalutamide, a next generation selective androgen receptor antagonist, is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) where it has been shown to improve overall survival in combination with androgen deprivation therapy. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of combination SRT and enzalutamide for freedom-from-PSA-progression. Secondary objectives include time to local recurrence within the radiation field, metastasis-free survival and safety as determined by frequency and severity of adverse events. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a randomized, double-blind, phase II, prospective, multicenter study in adult males with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy. Following registration, enzalutamide 160 mg or placebo by mouth (PO) once daily will be administered for 6 months. Following two months of study drug, external beam radiotherapy to 66.6-70.2 Gray (Gy) will be administered to the prostate bed over 7-8 weeks while continuing daily placebo/enzalutamide. This is followed by two additional months of placebo/enzalutamide. DISCUSSION: The SALV-ENZA trial is the first phase II placebo-controlled double-blinded randomized study to test SRT in combination with a next generation androgen receptor antagonist in men with high-risk recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. The primary hypothesis of this study is that clinical outcomes will be improved by the addition of enzalutamide compared to standard-of-care SRT alone and pave the path for phase III evaluation of this combination. TRIAL REGISTRATIONS: ClinicaltTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02203695 Date of Registration: 06/16/2014. Date of First Participant Enrollment: 04/16/2015.

11.
Eur Urol ; 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wnt signaling is a cellular pathway involved in embryogenesis, development, and neoplasia. Wnt-pathway activation may accelerate prostate cancer androgen-independent growth and mediate antiandrogen resistance. Since 10-20% of advanced prostate cancers harbor Wnt-activating mutations, we aimed to characterize the clinical features and response to novel antiandrogens in such patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who harbor Wnt-pathway mutations have poorer responses to first-line novel hormonal therapies: abiraterone/enzalutamide. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients with mCRPC who received first-line abiraterone or enzalutamide were retrospectively evaluated. Using tumor DNA analyses, we queried for activating mutations in CTNNB1 or inactivating mutations in APC or RNF43, all of which are predicted to stimulate Wnt signaling. Presence or absence of at least one Wnt-activating alteration was correlated with clinical-pathologic characteristics and treatment outcomes. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Time to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, overall survival (OS), and PSA response were measured. Cox regression models were used to test associations between Wnt status and clinical-pathologic outcomes; Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analyses were used to compare time-to-event endpoints. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Of 137 patients evaluated, 11% (n=15) had tumor DNA analysis showing at least one Wnt-stimulating alteration. Patients with Wnt-activating mutations had numerically fewer T3/T4 tumors than Wnt wild-type patients (31% vs 51%), but were otherwise generally balanced. Median time to PSA progression on first-line abiraterone/enzalutamide was shorter in Wnt-activated patients (6.5 vs 9.6mo, hazard ratio [HR] 2.34, p=0.003), as was OS (23.6 vs 27.7mo, HR 2.28, p=0.01). PSA responses were numerically worse in Wnt-activated patients (53% vs 75%, p=0.12). Presence of Wnt-activating alterations (adjusted HR [aHR] 2.33, p=0.007) and use of previous chemotherapy (aHR 1.83, p=0.004) were both independently associated with increased hazard of progression. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with somatic Wnt-pathway activating mutations have worse outcomes to first-line abiraterone/enzalutamide than Wnt wild-type patients. Our data suggest that additional genomically informed therapies are needed for this relevant subset of mCRPC patients. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we retrospectively examined outcomes of metastatic prostate cancer patients with or without Wnt-pathway mutations who received abiraterone or enzalutamide for the first time, in order to examine whether these mutations affect the prognosis. Our study suggested that patients who have Wnt-pathway activating mutations derived less benefit from abiraterone and enzalutamide when compared to patients without these mutations. We conclude that Wnt-pathway mutations might decrease the effectiveness of abiraterone and enzalutamide, and we propose that the Wnt pathway might be a good therapeutic target for these patients, in order to potentially reverse or prolong resistance to abiraterone and enzalutamide in men with Wnt mutations.

12.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 17(4): 275-282.e1, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline genetic testing increasingly identifies advanced prostate cancer (PCa) patients who are candidates for precision therapies. The Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Consortium (PCCTC) established the Germline Genetics Working Group to provide guidance and resources to expand effective use of germline genetic testing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 14-item questionnaire was e-mailed to academic oncologists at 43 PCCTC sites to collect information on germline genetic testing patterns, including patients considered, choice of assays, barriers slowing adoption, and actions to overcome barriers. RESULTS: Twenty-six genitourinary oncologists from 19 institutions responded. Less than 40% (10 of 26) reported referring patients to a genetics department, whereas the remainder take personal responsibility for genetic testing and counseling; 16 (62%) consider testing all metastatic PCa patients, whereas 3 (12%) consider testing all patients with high-risk local disease; and 7 (27%) use multigene comprehensive pan-cancer panels, and 14 (54%) use smaller or targeted cancer gene panels. Barriers to widespread use are: (1) delayed or limited access to genetic counseling; (2) no insurance coverage; (3) lack of effective workflows; (4) insufficient educational materials; and (5) time and space constraints in busy clinics. The primary limitation was the <50% (19 of 43) response from PCCTC sites and no coverage of nonacademic cancer treatment facilities. CONCLUSION: Joint efforts by urologists, oncologists, genetics counselors, insurers, and cancer centers can accelerate implementation of integrated germline genetic services for personalized treatment and clinical trial eligibility for PCa patients.

13.
Future Oncol ; 15(20): 2395-2411, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237441

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint blockade holds great promise in the treatment of solid tumors but has not yet been approved for use in advanced prostate cancer. This is largely due to the relatively modest response in clinical trials in unselected patients and the lack of available biomarkers to predict clinical benefit. Germline and somatic mismatch repair (MMR) gene deficiencies are more prevalent than previously thought, especially in the metastatic setting, in patients with high-grade Gleason scores and in patients with variant histologies. An early signal suggests that patients with deficiency in MMR may respond well to immunotherapy. Both germline and somatic genetic testing are recommended, yet questions remain on the best modality for testing given lack of standardization and false-negative results in patients with complex genomic structural rearrangements. Expanded panels, such as next generation sequencing may increase the sensitivity without compromising specificity. Future studies are still needed to explore the relationships of hypermutation, tumor mutational burden, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and microsatellite instability-H status as predictors of response to immunotherapy. The drivers of variable response is largely unknown, and a more mature understanding of the mechanisms of resistance in deficiencies in MMR tumors may help to more precisely inform use of immunotherapy in prostate cancer.

14.
Eur J Cancer ; 114: 107-116, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082669

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radium 223 dichloride (radium-223) is an alpha particle-emitting bone-directed therapy that prolongs overall survival in men with bone-predominant metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Docetaxel is an antimicrotubule cytotoxic agent that improves survival in mCRPC. We investigated whether combining these potentially cross-sensitising agents to dually target tumour and bone would be safe and effective. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Phase 1 was a dose escalation study to define a recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of docetaxel and radium-223. In phase 2a, patients were randomised 2:1 to the recommended combination regimen or docetaxel at a dose of 75 mg/m2 every 3 weeks (q3w). Patients with bone-predominant mCRPC were eligible. End-points were safety, efficacy and treatment-related changes in serum and imaging biomarkers. RESULTS: Twenty patients were enrolled in phase 1; 53 patients were randomised in phase 2a: 36 to combination treatment and 17 to docetaxel alone. The RP2D for the combination was radium-223 55 kBq/kg every six weeks × 5 doses, plus docetaxel 60 mg/m2 q3w × 10 doses. Febrile neutropenia was dose limiting. A higher rate of febrile neutropenia was seen in the docetaxel monotherapy arm (15% vs 0%); the safety profile of the treatment groups was otherwise similar. The combination arm had more durable suppression of prostate-specific antigen (median time to progression, 6.6 vs 4.8 months, respectively), alkaline phosphatase (9 vs 7 months) and osteoblastic bone deposition markers. CONCLUSIONS: Radium-223 in combination with docetaxel at the RP2D was well tolerated. Exploratory efficacy data suggested enhanced antitumour activity for the combination relative to docetaxel alone. Comparative studies with end-points of clinical benefit are warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01106352.

15.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(5.5): 583-586, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117038

RESUMO

Updates to the NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer include further refinements in taking a family history, new recommendations for germline and somatic testing, use of androgen receptor blockers for nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, advice regarding intermittent versus continuous androgen deprivation therapy, and consideration of whether to treat the primary tumor in men diagnosed with de novo metastatic prostate cancer.

16.
Prostate ; 79(8): 929-933, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abiraterone increases survival in prostate cancer, but tumors resistant to abiraterone can exhibit a hormonally resistant, aggressive phenotype. We hypothesized that the therapeutic pressure of abiraterone is resulting in more clinically aggressive disease at progression, characterized by increased visceral metastases. Our objective was to determine whether abiraterone increased the risk of development of visceral metastases at the time of progression compared with placebo in a randomized phase III trial. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of the COU-AA-302 trial of abiraterone plus prednisone vs placebo plus prednisone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. The primary outcome was the development of visceral metastases. The cumulative incidences of visceral metastases were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using log-rank testing. Multivariable Cox regression analysis assessed for the independent association of abiraterone with the development of visceral metastases. RESULTS: Eighty-four of 1088 patients developed visceral metastases during study. Log-rank testing and Cox regression showed no difference in time to visceral metastases between groups (HR 1.01 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.65-1.56]; P = .97). Abiraterone treatment was not associated with the development of visceral metastases in multivariable analysis (HR 0.89 [95% CI, 0.57-1.40]; P = .62). The study was limited by censoring of radiographic outcomes at the time of completion of primary study therapy; longer term risks were not assessed. CONCLUSIONS: Abiraterone was not associated with increased risk of visceral metastatic disease at the time of progression compared with placebo.

17.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(5): 479-505, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085757

RESUMO

The NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer include recommendations regarding diagnosis, risk stratification and workup, treatment options for localized disease, and management of recurrent and advanced disease for clinicians who treat patients with prostate cancer. The portions of the guidelines included herein focus on the roles of germline and somatic genetic testing, risk stratification with nomograms and tumor multigene molecular testing, androgen deprivation therapy, secondary hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy in patients with prostate cancer.

18.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(13): 1120-1129, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865549

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) results in a truncated receptor, which leads to ligand-independent constitutive activation that is not inhibited by anti-androgen therapies, including abiraterone or enzalutamide. Given that previous reports suggested that circulating tumor cell (CTC) AR-V7 detection is a poor prognostic indicator for the clinical efficacy of secondary hormone therapies, we conducted a prospective multicenter validation study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: PROPHECY ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02269982) is a multicenter, prospective-blinded study of men with high-risk mCRPC starting abiraterone acetate or enzalutamide treatment. The primary objective was to validate the prognostic significance of baseline CTC AR-V7 on the basis of radiographic or clinical progression free-survival (PFS) by using the Johns Hopkins University modified-AdnaTest CTC AR-V7 mRNA assay and the Epic Sciences CTC nuclear-specific AR-V7 protein assay. Overall survival (OS) and prostate-specific antigen responses were secondary end points. RESULTS: We enrolled 118 men with mCRPC who were starting abiraterone or enzalutamide treatment. AR-V7 detection by both the Johns Hopkins and Epic AR-V7 assays was independently associated with shorter PFS (hazard ratio, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.1 to 3.3; P = .032] and 2.4 [95% CI, 1.1 to 5.1; P = .020], respectively) and OS (hazard ratio, 4.2 [95% CI, 2.1 to 8.5] and 3.5 [95% CI, 1.6 to 8.1], respectively) after adjusting for CTC number and clinical prognostic factors. Men with AR-V7-positive mCRPC had fewer confirmed prostate-specific antigen responses (0% to 11%) or soft tissue responses (0% to 6%). The observed percentage agreement between the two AR-V7 assays was 82%. CONCLUSION: Detection of AR-V7 in CTCs by two blood-based assays is independently associated with shorter PFS and OS with abiraterone or enzalutamide, and such men with mCRPC should be offered alternative treatments.

19.
Eur Urol ; 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, such as olaparib, are being explored as a treatment option for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in men harboring mutations in homologous recombination DNA-repair genes. Whether responses to PARP inhibitors differ according to the affected gene is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether responses to PARP inhibitors differ between men with BRCA1/2 and those with ATM mutations. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a multicenter retrospective review of 23 consecutive men with mCRPC and pathogenic germline and/or somatic BRCA1/2 or ATM mutations treated with olaparib at three academic sites in the USA. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The proportion of patients achieving a ≥50% decline in prostate-specific antigen (PSA50 response) was compared using Fisher's exact test. Clinical and radiographic progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were estimated using Kaplan-Meier analyses and compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The study included two men with BRCA1 mutations, 15 with BRCA2 mutations, and six with ATM mutations. PSA50 responses to olaparib were achieved in 76% (13/17) of men with BRCA1/2 versus 0% (0/6) of men with ATM mutations (Fisher's exact test; p=0.002). Patients with BRCA1/2 mutations had median PFS of 12.3mo versus 2.4mo for those with ATM mutations (hazard ratio 0.17, 95% confidence interval 0.05-0.57; p=0.004). Limitations include the retrospective design and relatively small sample size. CONCLUSIONS: Men with mCRPC harboring ATM mutations experienced inferior outcomes to PARP inhibitor therapy compared to those harboring BRCA1/2 mutations. Alternative therapies should be explored for patients with ATM mutations. PATIENT SUMMARY: Mutations in BRCA1/2 and ATM genes are common in metastatic prostate cancer. In this study we compared outcomes for men with BRCA1/2 mutations to those for men with ATM mutations being treated with olaparib. We found that men with ATM mutations do not respond as well as men with BRCA1/2 mutations.

20.
Invest New Drugs ; 37(5): 1052-1060, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30725389

RESUMO

Background Antibody drug conjugates (ADC) offer the potential of maximizing efficacy while minimizing systemic toxicity. ASG-5ME, an SLC44A4-targeting antibody carrying monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), a microtubule-disrupting agent, was investigated in men with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. Methods The primary objective of this phase I study was to determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose. Secondary objectives were safety, antitumor activity, pharmacokinetic properties, immunogenicity, and the detection of SLC44A4 on circulating tumor cells. Patients (pts) were treated among 7 dose levels every 21 days. A dose expansion phase enrolled 20 additional pts. at the MTD. Results Twenty-six and 20 pts. were treated in dose escalation and dose expansion cohorts respectively. The MTD was 2.7 mg/kg. Dose-limiting toxicities occurred in 4 pts.: grade 3 fatigue (n = 1); grade 3 abdominal pain, diarrhea and fatigue (n = 1); grade 4 neutropenia and hyponatremia and grade 3 maculopapular rash, constipation and hypoxia (n = 1); grade 3 troponin elevation without cardiac sequelae (n = 1). Fatigue and diarrhea were the most prevalent adverse events (AEs) across all cycles. Two grade 5 AEs occurred in the dose expansion cohort, each after 1 dose: 1 pt. developed grade 3 hyperglycemia, renal insufficiency and leukopenia; 1 pt. developed grade 3 hyperglycemia complicated by bacteremia. Free MMAE levels did not accumulate with repeat dosing. Of evaluable pts., 52% had either stable disease or a partial response. Conclusions Further development of ASG-5ME is not being pursued due to its narrow therapeutic index. Some toxicities were potentially related to on-target effects on normal tissue expressing the SLC44A4 protein. However, other toxicities were consistent with studies of previous MMAE-containing ADCs. Unconjugated MMAE is a less likely etiology based on prior data.

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