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1.
mSystems ; 4(4)2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213522

RESUMO

Filamentous fungi are remarkable producers of enzymes dedicated to the degradation of sugar polymers found in the plant cell wall. Here, we integrated transcriptomic data to identify novel transcription factors (TFs) related to the control of gene expression of lignocellulosic hydrolases in Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus nidulans Using various sets of differentially expressed genes, we identified some putative cis-regulatory elements that were related to known binding sites for Saccharomyces cerevisiae TFs. Comparative genomics allowed the identification of six transcriptional factors in filamentous fungi that have corresponding S. cerevisiae homologs. Additionally, a knockout strain of T. reesei lacking one of these TFs (S. cerevisiae AZF1 homolog) displayed strong reductions in the levels of expression of several cellulase-encoding genes in response to both Avicel and sugarcane bagasse, revealing a new player in the complex regulatory network operating in filamentous fungi during plant biomass degradation. Finally, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis showed the scope of the AZF1 homologue in regulating a number of processes in T. reesei, and chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR) provided evidence for the direct interaction of this TF in the promoter regions of cel7a, cel45a, and swo Therefore, we identified here a novel TF which plays a positive effect in the expression of cellulase-encoding genes in T. reesei IMPORTANCE In this work, we used a systems biology approach to map new regulatory interactions in Trichoderma reesei controlling the expression of genes encoding cellulase and hemicellulase. By integrating transcriptomics related to complex biomass degradation, we were able to identify a novel transcriptional regulator which is able to activate the expression of these genes in response to two different cellulose sources. In vivo experimental validation confirmed the role of this new regulator in several other processes related to carbon source utilization and nutrient transport. Therefore, this work revealed novel forms of regulatory interaction in this model system for plant biomass deconstruction and also represented a new approach that could be easy applied to other organisms.

2.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 12: 146, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223336

RESUMO

Background: Trichoderma reesei is the most important industrial producer of lignocellulolytic enzymes. These enzymes play an important role in biomass degradation leading to novel applications of this fungus in the biotechnology industry, specifically biofuel production. The secretory pathway of fungi is responsible for transporting proteins addressed to different cellular locations involving some cellular endomembrane systems. Although protein secretion is an extremely efficient process in T. reesei, the mechanisms underlying protein secretion have remained largely uncharacterized in this organism. Results: Here, we report for the first time the isolation and characterization of T. reesei extracellular vesicles (EVs). Using proteomic analysis under cellulose culture condition, we have confidently identified 188 vesicular proteins belonging to different functional categories. Also, we characterized EVs production using transmission electron microscopy in combination with light scattering analysis. Biochemical assays revealed that T. reesei extracellular vesicles have an enrichment of filter paper (FPase) and ß-glucosidase activities in purified vesicles from 24, 72 and 96, and 72 and 96 h, respectively. Furthermore, our results showed that there is a slight enrichment of small RNAs inside the vesicles after 96 h and 120 h, and presence of hsp proteins inside the vesicles purified from T. reesei grown in the presence of cellulose. Conclusions: This work points to important insights into a better understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying the regulation of cellulolytic enzyme secretion in this fungus.

3.
Biotechnol Adv ; 37(6): 107347, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771467

RESUMO

Lignocellulose is a rich and sustainable globally available carbon source and is considered a prominent alternative raw material for producing biofuels and valuable chemical compounds. Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the crucial steps of lignocellulose degradation. Cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzyme mixes produced by different microorganisms including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria, are used to degrade the biomass to liberate monosaccharides and other compounds for fermentation or conversion to value-added products. During biomass pretreatment and degradation, toxic compounds are produced, and undesirable carbon catabolic repression (CCR) can occur. In order to solve this problem, microbial metabolic pathways and transcription factors involved have been investigated along with the application of protein engineering to optimize the biorefinery platform. Engineered Microorganisms have been used to produce specific enzymes to breakdown biomass polymers and metabolize sugars to produce ethanol as well other biochemical compounds. Protein engineering strategies have been used for modifying lignocellulolytic enzymes to overcome enzymatic limitations and improving both their production and functionality. Furthermore, promoters and transcription factors, which are key proteins in this process, are modified to promote microbial gene expression that allows a maximum performance of the hydrolytic enzymes for lignocellulosic degradation. The present review will present a critical discussion and highlight the aspects of the use of microorganisms to convert lignocellulose into value-added bioproduct as well combat the bottlenecks to make the biorefinery platform from lignocellulose attractive to the market.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Hidrólise , Lignina
4.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14931, 2018 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297963

RESUMO

In this study, through global transcriptional analysis by RNA-Sequencing, we identified the main changes in gene expression that occurred in two functional mutants of the MAPK genes tmk1 and tmk2 in Trichoderma reesei during sugarcane bagasse degradation. We found that the proteins encoded by these genes regulated independent processes, sometimes in a cross-talk manner, to modulate gene expression in T. reesei. In the Δtmk2 strain, growth in sugarcane bagasse modulated the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, cell growth and development, and G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated cell signaling. On the other hand, deletion of tmk1 led to decreased expression of the major genes for cellulases and xylanases. Furthermore, TMK1 found to be involved in the regulation of the expression of major facilitator superfamily transporters. Our results revealed that the MAPK signaling pathway in T. reesei regulates many important processes that allow the fungus to recognize, transport, and metabolize different carbon sources during plant cell wall degradation.


Assuntos
Celulase/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Celulase/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Saccharum/metabolismo , Trichoderma/genética , Trichoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Int J Genomics ; 2018: 1974151, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345291

RESUMO

The filamentous fungi Trichoderma reesei is one of the most well-studied cellulolytic microorganisms. It is the most important fungus for the industrial production of enzymes to biomass deconstruction being widely used in the biotechnology industry, mainly in the production of biofuels. Here, we performed an analytic review of the holocellulolytic system presented by T. reesei as well as the transcriptional and signaling mechanisms involved with holocellulase expression in this fungus. We also discuss new perspectives about control of secretion and cellulase expression based on RNA-seq and functional characterization data of T. reesei growth in different carbon sources, which comprise glucose, cellulose, sophorose, and sugarcane bagasse.

6.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 11: 84, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29619080

RESUMO

Background: Trichoderma reesei is a saprophytic fungus implicated in the degradation of polysaccharides present in the cell wall of plants. T. reesei has been recognized as the most important industrial fungus that secretes and produces cellulase enzymes that are employed in the production of second generation bioethanol. A few of the molecular mechanisms involved in the process of biomass deconstruction by T. reesei; in particular, the effect of sugar transporters and induction of xylanases and cellulases expression are yet to be known. Results: In our study, we characterized a novel sugar transporter, which was previously identified by our group through in silico analysis of RNA-seq data. The novel T. reesei 69957-sugar transport system (Tr69957) is capable of transporting xylose, mannose, and cellobiose using a T. reesei 69957-sugar transport system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The deletion of Tr69957 in T. reesei affected the fungal growth and biomass accumulation, and the sugar uptake in the presence of mannose, cellobiose, and xylose. Molecular docking studies revealed that Tr69957 shows reduced protein-ligand binding energy for interactions towards disaccharides in comparison with monosaccharides. Furthermore, the deletion of Tr69957 affected the gene expression of cellobiohydrolases (cel7a and cel6a), ß-glucosidases (cel3a and cel1a), and xylanases (xyn1 and xyn2) in the cultures of parental and mutant strains in the presence of cellobiose and sugarcane bagasse (SCB). Conclusion: The transporter Tr69957 of T. reesei can transport cellobiose, xylose, and mannose, and can affect the expression of a few genes encoding enzymes, such as cellulases and xylanases, in the presence of SCB. We showed for the first time that a filamentous fungus (T. reesei) contains a potential mannose transporter that may be involved in the degradation of cellulose.

7.
Curr Genomics ; 17(2): 112-8, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27226767

RESUMO

Paracoccidioidomycosis is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. It is caused by the temperature-dependent dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The P. brasiliensis cell wall is a dynamic outer structure, composed of a network of glycoproteins and polysaccharides, such as chitin, glucan and N-glycosylated proteins. These glycoproteins can interact with the host to affect infection rates, and are known to perform other functions. We inhibited N-linked glycosylation using tunicamycin (TM), and then evaluated the expression of P. brasiliensis genes related to cell wall remodeling. Our results suggest that cell wall synthesis related genes, such as ß-1,3-glucanosyltransferase (PbGEL3), 1,3-ß-D-glucan synthase (PbFKS1), and α-1,4-amylase (PbAMY), as well as cell wall degrading related genes, such as N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (PbNAG1), α-1,3-glucanase (PbAGN), and ß-1,3-glucanase (PbBGN1 and PbBGN2), have their expression increased by the N-glycosylation inhibition, as detected by qRT-PCR. The observed increases in gene expression levels reveal possible compensatory mechanisms for diminished enzyme activity due to the lack of glycosylation caused by TM.

8.
Curr Genomics ; 17(2): 119-31, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27226768

RESUMO

Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) mediated by CRE1 in Trichoderma reesei emerged as a mechanism by which the fungus could adapt to new environments. In the presence of readily available carbon sources such as glucose, the fungus activates this mechanism and inhibits the production of cellulolytic complex enzymes to avoid unnecessary energy expenditure. CCR has been well described for the growth of T. reesei in cellulose and glucose, however, little is known about this process when the carbon source is sophorose, one of the most potent inducers of cellulase production. Thus, we performed high-throughput RNA sequencing to better understand CCR during cellulase formation in the presence of sophorose, by comparing the mutant ∆cre1 with its parental strain, QM9414. Of the 9129 genes present in the genome of T. reesei, 184 were upregulated and 344 downregulated in the mutant strain ∆cre1 compared to QM9414. Genes belonging to the CAZy database, and those encoding transcription factors and transporters are among the gene classes that were repressed by CRE1 in the presence of sophorose; most were possible indirectly regulated by CRE1. We also observed that CRE1 activity is carbon-dependent. A recent study from our group showed that in cellulose, CRE1 repress different groups of genes when compared to sophorose. CCR differences between these carbon sources may be due to the release of cellodextrins in the cellulose polymer, resulting in different targets of CRE1 in both carbon sources. These results contribute to a better understanding of CRE1-mediated CCR in T. reesei when glucose comes from a potent inducer of cellulase production such as sophorose, which could prove useful in improving cellulase production by the biotechnology sector.

9.
Fungal Genet Biol ; 73: 93-103, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25459535

RESUMO

The ascomycete Trichoderma reesei is one of the most well-studied cellulolytic fungi and is widely used by the biotechnology industry in the production of second generation bioethanol. The carbon catabolite repression (CCR) mechanism adopted by T. reesei is mediated by the transcription factor CRE1. CCR represses genes related to cellulase production when a carbon source is readily available in the medium. Using RNA sequencing, we investigated CCR during the synthesis of cellulases, comparing the T. reesei Δcre1 mutant strain with its parental strain, QM9414. Of 9129 genes in the T. reesei genome, 268 genes were upregulated and 85 were downregulated in the presence of cellulose (Avicel). In addition, 251 genes were upregulated and 230 were downregulated in the presence of a high concentration of glucose. Genes encoding cellulolytic enzymes and transcription factors and genes related to the transport of nutrients and oxidative metabolism were also targets of CCR, mediated by CRE1 in a carbon source-dependent manner. Our results also suggested that CRE1 regulates the expression of genes related to the use of copper and iron as final electron acceptors or as cofactors of enzymes that participate in biomass degradation. As a result, the final effect of CRE1-mediated transcriptional regulation is to modulate the access of cellulolytic enzymes to cellulose polymers or blocks the entry of cellulase inducers into the cell, depending on the glucose content in the medium. These results will contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of carbon catabolite repression in T. reesei, thereby enhancing its application in several biotechnology fields.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Genoma Fúngico , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Trichoderma/genética , Celulose/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Glucose/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Trichoderma/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 9(6): e99366, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24941042

RESUMO

In this work, we report the in silico identification of the cis-regulatory elements for XYR1 and CRE1 proteins in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei, two regulators that play a central role in the expression of cellulase genes. Using four datasets of condition-dependent genes from RNA-seq and RT-qPCR experiments, we performed unsupervised motif discovery and found two short motifs resembling the proposed binding consensus for XYR1 and CRE1. Using these motifs, we analysed the presence and arrangement of putative cis-regulatory elements recognized by both regulators and found that shortly spaced sites were more associated with XYR1- and CRE1-dependent promoters than single, high-score sites. Furthermore, the approach used here allowed the identification of the previously reported XYR1-binding sites from cel7a and xyn1 promoters, and we also mapped the potential target sequence for this regulator at the cel6a promoter that has been suggested but not identified previously. Additionally, seven other promoters (for cel7b, cel61a, cel61b, cel3c, cel3d, xyn3 and swo genes) presented a putative XYR1-binding site, and strong sites for CRE1 were found at the xyr1 and cel7b promoters. Using the cis-regulatory architectures nearly defined for XYR1 and CRE1, we performed genome-wide identification of potential targets for direct regulation by both proteins and important differences on their functional regulons were elucidated. Finally, we performed binding site mapping on the promoters of differentially expressed genes found in T. reesei mutant strains lacking xyr1 or cre1 and found that indirect regulation plays a key role on their signalling pathways. Taken together, the data provided here sheds new light on the mechanisms for signal integration mediated by XYR1 and CRE1 at cellulase promoters.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Trichoderma/genética , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Sequência Consenso , DNA Fúngico/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Fúngicos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Elementos Reguladores de Transcrição , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 7(1): 41, 2014 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24655731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is a major producer of lignocellulolytic enzymes utilized by bioethanol industries. However, to achieve low cost second generation bioethanol production on an industrial scale an efficient mix of hydrolytic enzymes is required for the deconstruction of plant biomass. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for lignocellulose-degrading enzyme production T. reesei during growth in cellulose, sophorose, and glucose. RESULTS: We examined and compared the transcriptome and differential secretome (2D-DIGE) of T. reesei grown in cellulose, sophorose, or glucose as the sole carbon sources. By applying a stringent cut-off threshold 2,060 genes were identified as being differentially expressed in at least one of the respective carbon source comparisons. Hierarchical clustering of the differentially expressed genes identified three possible regulons, representing 123 genes controlled by cellulose, 154 genes controlled by sophorose and 402 genes controlled by glucose. Gene regulatory network analyses of the 692 genes differentially expressed between cellulose and sophorose, identified only 75 and 107 genes as being specific to growth in sophorose and cellulose, respectively. 2D-DIGE analyses identified 30 proteins exclusive to sophorose and 37 exclusive to cellulose. A correlation of 70.17% was obtained between transcription and secreted protein profiles. CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed new players in cellulose degradation such as accessory proteins with non-catalytic functions secreted in different carbon sources, transporters, transcription factors, and CAZymes, that specifically respond in response to either cellulose or sophorose.

12.
Gene Expr Patterns ; 14(2): 88-95, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24480777

RESUMO

Trichoderma reesei is the most important fungus for the industrial production of enzymes to biomass deconstruction. Most of the genes encoding cellulases and hemicellulases are regulated by the transcription factors CRE1 and XYR1. In this work, the regulation of 22 genes of cellulases and xylanases by these transcription factors was investigated under three different carbon sources. Analysis of gene expression and enzymatic profiles of CMCase, ß-glucosidase, and xylanases showed different regulation that was depended of the carbon source in both Δxyr1 and Δcre1 mutants. In the presence of glucose, the majority of genes evaluated (82%) showed increased expression levels in the Δcre1 mutant compared to the parental QM9414 strain. In the Δxyr1 mutant, it was observed that expression of cellulase and xylanase genes was reduced compared to the parental QM9414 strain, when cultured in the presence of cellulose or sophorose. Interesting, in the presence of glucose, approximately 60% of the analyzed genes had increased expression in the Δxyr1 mutant compared to parental strain. Furthermore, no correlation between gene expression and the number of putative binding sites of XYR1 and CRE1 to promoter region of cellulolytic and xylanolytic studied genes was observed. Therefore, these results demonstrated that the regulation of cellulase and xylanase by the transcription factors CRE1 and XYR1 is influenced by different carbon sources.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Trichoderma/genética , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica
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