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1.
Enferm Clin ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish the evolution of the care process after the implementation of the Best Practices Guideline «Assessment and Care of Adults at Risk for Suicidal Ideation and Behaviour¼. METHOD: A descriptive longitudinal study was carried out at the Mental Health Hospitalization Unit in Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Granada. All patients admitted to the Unit between 2016 and 2018, 1471 in total, were included. Compliance of care process indicators and suicidal risk were evaluated; in addition, suicide rates per 100,000 inhabitants were obtained. Absolute and relative frequencies of the indicators were calculated, as well as the change during the study period by the chi-square Pearson test, for P<.05. RESULTS: We observed a statistically significant increase in the entire care process. The percentage of patients with suicidal risk assessment improved from 16% in 2016 to 45.25% in 2018. The application of safety measures grew reaching 100% in 2018, and community services referral went from 70.31% to 90.50%. The percentage of patients at risk of suicidal ideation remains stable. Suicide rates per 100,000 inhabitants in Granada decreased by 24.50%. CONCLUSIONS: Improvement in the care process and the decrease in the suicide rate in Granada since the implementation of the guideline are consistent with the results of other research and offer a hopeful vision. Comprehensive strategies for suicide prevention must be promoted, and the evaluation of initiatives undertaken must continue.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4820, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179793

RESUMO

The toxicity of essential oils that can be used in insect pest management to pollinators needs further studies. Apis mellifera Linnaeus and Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) foragers were exposed by three pathways to ginger, mint, oregano and thyme essential oils to provide their LC50, LD50 and LC90, LD90. Oregano and thyme were more toxic through contact and topically for A. mellifera while the toxicity of mint and ginger was lower. Trigona hyalinata was more tolerant to the essential oils than A. mellifera. In the walking test, the area was treated (totally or partially) with sub-doses (LC50) obtained via contact. The area fully treated with oregano reduced the distance traveled and the movement speed increased the number of stops by A. mellifera. Similar results were observed for T. hyalinata with oregano and thyme oils. Apis mellifera showed irritability remaining shorter time in the area partially treated with ginger, mint and thyme essential oils while T. hyalinata had similar behavior with ginger and thyme. Essential oils did not repel A. mellifera or T. hyalinata, but those of ginger, mint and thyme reduced the time spent by A. mellifera in areas treated with sublethal doses. Oregano and thyme essential oils reduced the survival, mainly, of A. mellifera, while ginger and mint were selective for both pollinators.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0222738, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182249

RESUMO

Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a slow and progressive disease that develops in preexisting lung cavities of patients with tuberculosis sequelae, and it is associated with a high mortality rate. Serological tests such as double agar gel immunodiffusion test (DID) or counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) test have been routinely used for CPA diagnosis in the absence of positive cultures. However, these tests have been replaced with enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and, a variety of methods. This systematic review compares ELISA accuracy to reference test (DID and/or CIE) accuracy in CPA diagnosis. It was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The study was registered in PROSPERO under the registration number CRD42016046057. We searched the electronic databases MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE (Elsevier), LILACS (VHL), Cochrane library, and ISI Web of Science. Gray literature was researched using Google Scholar and conference abstracts. We included articles with patients or serum samples from patients with CPA who underwent two serological tests: ELISA (index test) and IDD and/or CIE (reference test). We used the test accuracy as a result. Original articles were considered without a restriction of date or language. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and summary receiver operating characteristic curves were estimated. We included 14 studies in the review, but only four were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivities and specificities were 0.93 and 0.97 for the ELISA test. These values were 0.64 and 0.99 for the reference test (DID and/or CIE). Analyses of summary receiver operating characteristic curves yielded 0.99 for ELISA and 0.99 for the reference test (DID and/or CIE). Our meta-analysis suggests that the diagnostic accuracy of ELISA is greater than the reference tests (DID and/or CIE) for early CPA detection.

4.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190338, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130368

RESUMO

Oropouche virus (OROV) is an arthropod-borne virus of the Peribunyaviridae family, transmitted to humans primarily by Culicoides paraensis. It is one of the main arboviruses infecting humans in Brazil, primarily in the Amazon Region. Here, we report the detection of OROV in the saliva and urine of a patient whose samples were collected five days after the onset of symptoms. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis further confirmed the results. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the detection of OROV in the saliva and urine of an infected patient. In addition, the results of our study expand the current knowledge pertaining to the natural history of Oropouche fever.

5.
J Therm Biol ; 88: 102489, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125977

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to evaluate the thermal comfort of sows in a free-range system in the Brazilian Savanna, based on behavior observation, availability of shading resources, meteorological and physiological variables. The sows were analyzed in the gestation sector at Água Limpa Farm from University of Brasília; the sows were housed in paddocks of 1000 m2 each containing artificial and natural shading structures, where air temperature (Tair, °C), wind speed, relative humidity (RH, %) and black globe temperatures (TG, °C) were collected for the environment characterization in 20-min-intervals. From the black globe temperature, the Mean Radiant Temperature (TMR, °C) and the Radiant Heat Load (RHL, W m-2) were calculated in the sun and under the shade structures. The total short-wave irradiance was calculated through the sum of direct, diffuse and reflected radiations. For the behavioral evaluation, an ethogram was elaborated, taking in consideration where the animals were in the paddocks, body posture, and the activity performed. The physiological variables such as respiratory rate (breaths.min-1), surface and rectal temperatures (°C) were measured during the experiment. The data was statistically analyzed through analysis of variance and frequency analysis. There was a difference at 11a.m., 2 and 3p.m., with values above 40 °C under the shade and above 70 °C in the sun for the TMR. The preferential choice was for natural shading by the sows, due to the lower TMR and RHL throughout the day and resting activity had been predominated. The rectal temperature did not differ between the animals and the days evaluated, respiratory rate varied according to air temperature, and surface temperature only among the evaluated animals. It was concluded that even when there is a greater radiation incidence and meteorological variables above the condition of comfort for sows, they did not express any abnormal behavior that could indicate discomfort.

6.
J Sports Sci Med ; 19(1): 38-42, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132825

RESUMO

A functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (rs4680) is a gene variant that has been shown to predict the ability to maintain cognitive agility during combat and competition. Critically, COMT Met (low-activity; high dopamine) allele carriers outperform Val (high-activity; low dopamine) homozygotes on a variety of cognitive tasks. However, the relationship between genotype and cognitive performance appears to reverse under stressful conditions. Stress increases pre-frontal cortex dopamine (PFC DA) levels, and Met allele carriers (with higher DA) show performance deficits relative to Val allele carriers. This pattern reflects the inverted U-shaped function of DA activity where too little (Val allele) or too much (Met allele carriers under stress) DA is associated with poor cognitive performance. The Val allele advantage for stress resiliency is referred to as the COMT "warrior/ worrier" model. In line with this model, we predicted that elite level mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters would be more likely than athlete controls to carry the GG (warrior) genotype compared to an athlete group and a non-athlete group. Based on findings in our previous studies, we also assessed the stress biomarkers cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA). There was an overall significant difference in genotype frequencies between groups (p =0.01) and the MMA group showed a significantly greater GG (warrior) genotype frequency than the non-athlete control group (p = 0.003). There was not a significant group x genotype interaction for the cortisol or sAA; however, the non-athlete GG group had significantly higher cortisol than the A/- group (p = 0.038). Combined, our findings suggest that the "warrior" genotype may play a participation role in combat sports.

9.
Cells ; 9(2)2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102404

RESUMO

Natural killer cells (NK cells) play a major role in the immune response to cancer. An important element of NK target recognition is the binding of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules by killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs). Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most common types of inflammation-based cancer. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence of KIR genes and HLA class I and II alleles in 1074 CRC patients and 1272 controls. We imputed data from single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Illumina OncoArray to identify associations at HLA (HLA-A, B, C, DPB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DRB1) and KIRs (HIBAG and KIR*IMP, respectively). For association analysis, we used PLINK (v1.9), the PyHLA software, and R version 3.4.0. Only three SNP markers showed suggestive associations (p < 10-3; rs16896742, rs28367832, and rs9277952). The frequency of KIR2DS3 was significantly increased in the CRC patients compared to healthy controls (p < 0.005). Our results suggest that the implication of NK cells in CRC may not act through allele combinations in KIR and HLA genes. Much larger studies in ethnically homogeneous populations are needed to rule out the possible role of allelic combinations in KIR and HLA genes in CRC risk.

10.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(2)2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033214

RESUMO

The occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in infant formulae commercialized in the metropolitan area of Monterrey (Nuevo León, Mexico) was determined by using immunoaffinity column clean-up followed by HPLC determination with fluorimetric detection. For this, 55 infant formula powders were classified in two groups, starter (49 samples) and follow-on (6 samples) formulae. Eleven of the evaluated samples (20%) presented values above the permissible limit set by the European Union for infant formulae (25 ng/L), ranging from 40 to 450 ng/L. The estimated daily intake (EDI) for AFM1 was determined employing the average body weight (bw) of the groups of age in the ranges of 0-6 and 6-12 months, and 1-2 years. The results evidenced high intake values, ranging from 1.56 to 14 ng/kg bw/day, depending on the group. Finally, with the EDI value, the carcinogenic risk index was determined, presenting a high risk for all the evaluated groups. Based on these results, it is a necessary extra effort by the regulatory agencies to reduce the AFM1 presence in infant formulae consumed in Mexico.

11.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(4)2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085507

RESUMO

Eucalyptus globulus Labill stands out as one of the hardwood species produced in Europe with prominent mechanical properties, which is undergoing a growing interest in extending added value. The development of engineered wood products with this species and its application in timber structures involving numerical finite element simulations requires knowledge of the mechanical properties for the different orthotropic material directions. The aim of the present study is to determine the main mechanical properties of E. globulus from small clear specimens, necessary for the development of finite element models. The work provides experimental results on the ultimate capacity and modulus of elasticity considering different stresses: tension parallel and perpendicular to the grain, compression parallel and perpendicular to the grain (in radial and tangential directions), shear and longitudinal static bending. The work is complemented with experimental data on timber-to-timber friction coefficients for 0°, 45°, and 90° orientation angles, which are useful in the modeling of traditional joints. Very high values of ultimate stress and modulus of elasticity for the different mechanical properties were obtained, highlighting the great potential of this species for structural applications.

12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2530, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054996

RESUMO

Knowledge of the effect of soil nutrients, such as K and Na and their interaction with water availability, on the growth and wood properties of the eucalypts, is needed to increase the productivity of commercial plantation forests in Brazil that generate employment and taxes. The present study evaluates the apparent wood density (at 12% wood moisture) of Eucalyptus grandis trees at 12, 24, 36 and 48 months old under ambient and lower than ambient (66%) rainfall conditions and K and Na nutrient enrichment. The treatments were two water availability (100 and 66% of the rainfall) and the three nutrient treatments were: K (4.5 kmol/ha), Na (4.5 kmol/ha) and a control (natural conditions). The apparent wood density of samples at breast height (1.3 m) was determined by X-ray densitometry and digital images. Increased nutrients at all four ages and water availability at 36 and 48 months reduced apparent wood density in E. grandis trees, however, effects of nutrients are lower under water availability reduction. The radial profile of wood density was higher in four-year-old trees, but there was radial variation in apparent wood density at all ages. These findings predict that, under water stress, apparent wood density will not decline in commercial E. grandis plantations fertilized with potassium. The use of sodium, as a substitute of potassium, should consider their negative impacts on wood density of Eucalyptus grandis trees.

13.
Nutr Hosp ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054279

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: sedentary behavior (SB) has been independently associated with detrimental health outcomes in different regions worldwide. The aim of this systematic review was to examine whether domain-specific SB is associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) and related biomarkers in South American adults. METHODS: nine electronic databases were searched to identify all studies that analyzed the association between SB and CMD-e.g. obesity, diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and clustering of chronic diseases (CCD)-and related biomarkers in South American adults. Two independent reviewers performed the necessary abstract/full-text screening, data abstraction, and quality assessments. The review protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42018099319). RESULTS: from the 1,262 articles identified in the search 262 were reviewed in full and 20 were used in the analysis in accordance to the inclusion criteria. High SB (mainly sitting and TV time) was associated with an increased likelihood of obesity (n = 8), diabetes (n = 6), and CCD (n = 3), as well as high values of BMI (n = 8), WC (n = 7), % BF (n = 4), plasma lipids (n = 4), and glycemia (n = 5). Eleven out of 20 studies were of higher quality. CONCLUSION: long time spent in SB, mainly sitting and TV time, was positively associated with the occurrence of CMD and related biomarkers in South American adults.

14.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 1122020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054280

RESUMO

We present abdominal computed tomography and enteroscopy images of a 48-year-old male patient with a previous melanoma who presented with epigastric pain. The pain was not controlled with medical management. Abdominal computed tomography and a histological study of biopsies form enteroscopy confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic melanoma. The gastrointestinal involvement of melanoma is usually metastatic. Symptomatic gastrointestinal involvement occurs in less than 5% of melanomas, although postmortem analyses have reported up to 70%. The clinical presentation is variable and usually presents as abdominal pain. The diagnosis of small intestinal involvement of melanoma is a challenge due to its poor accessibility. The enteroscopy has a fundamental role as it allows a direct visualization and biopsies to be taken for histological study.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041360

RESUMO

Melatonin plays an essential role in the regulation of bone growth. The actions that melatonin exerts on odontoblasts may be similar to its action on osteoblasts. This research aimed to evaluate the pulp response to melatonin used for direct pulp capping to evaluate the antioxidant effect of melatonin administered orally and its influence on dental pulp. Direct pulp capping was performed on the upper molars of Sprague Dawley rats using melatonin or Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA). The study groups were: MTA; Melatonin; MTA + Melatonin administered orally; and Melatonin + Melatonin administered orally. In the latter two groups, the animals drank water dosed with melatonin ad libitum (10 mg/100 mL). After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed, and 5 ml of blood, the kidneys, and the liver were extracted in order to evaluate oxidative stress using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances testing (TBARS). Fragments of the maxilla containing the study molars were prepared for histological evaluation. The degree of pulp inflammation and pulp necrosis, the presence of reparative dentin and dentin bridging the pulp chamber, the presence and regularity of the odontoblastic layer, and the presence of pulp fibrosis were evaluated. No significant differences were found between the four study groups for any of the studied histological variables. The oral administration of melatonin did not modify the local effects of MTA or melatonin on dental pulp, or reduce basal-level oxidative stress. The effect of melatonin on pulp is similar to that of MTA and may be used as an agent for direct pulp capping.

16.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 114(1): 59-65, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular remodeling (LVR) is related to both non-fatal and fatal outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To describe the geometric patterns of the LV and their associations. METHODS: A total of 636 individuals between the ages of 45 and 99 years in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were submitted to clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, electrocardiogram, and tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE). The difference between categories was tested with Kruskall-Wallis with post hoc tests, once all variables studied are non-normally distributed and Pearson's Qui-square (categorical variables). Gross and adjusted ORs were estimated by logistic regression. The level of significance was 5% for all tests. Subjects had LVR characterized as: normal geometry (NG), concentric remodeling (CR), concentric hypertrophy (CH), and eccentric hypertrophy (EH). RESULTS: The prevalence of altered patterns was 33%. Subjects presented NG (n = 423; 67%); EH (n = 186; 29%); CH (n = 14; 2%); and CR (n = 13; 2%). The variables of gender, age, level of education and albumin/creatinine ratio (A/C), showed a relationship with the chance of EH even after adjustment. CONCLUSION: Approximately one third of the studied individuals had LVR and were at risk for developing heart failure. Altered A/C in urine was associated with EH, indicating an early relationship between cardiac and renal dysfunction.

17.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0218359, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995562

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Estimate TB mortality rates, catalogue multiple causes on death certificates in which TB was reported and identify predictors of TB from reporting on death certificates in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, based on a multiple cause of death approach. METHODS: The death records of residents in the Amazonas state between 2006-2014 were analyzed and separated into three categories: TB not reported on the death certificate (TBNoR), TB reported as the underlying cause of death (TBUC) and TB reported as an associated cause of death (TBAC). Age standardized annual mortality rates for TBUC, TBAC and with TB reported (TBUC plus TBAC) were estimated for the State of Amazonas using the direct standardization method and World Health Organization 2000-2025 standard population. Mortality odds ratios (OR) for reporting of TBUC and TBAC were estimated using multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Age standardized annual TBUC and TBAC mortality rates ranged between 5.9-7.8/105 and 2.7-4.0/105, respectively. TBUC was associated with being a resident in the State capital (OR = 0.66), of female gender (OR = 0.87), having an education level of 8 to 11, or 12 or more school years (OR = 0.67 and 0.50 respectively), non-white race/skin color (OR = 1.38) and place of death reported as in the State capital (OR = 1.69). TBAC was related to the triennium in which death occurred (OR = 1.21 and 1.22 for the years 2009-2011 and 2012-2014 respectively), age (OR = 36.1 and 16.5 for ages 15-39 and 40-64 years respectively) and when death occurred in the State capital (OR = 5.8). CONCLUSIONS: TBUC was predominantly associated with predictors of unfavorable socioeconomic conditions and health care access constraints, whereas TBAC was mainly related to ages which were typical of high HIV disease incidence.

20.
Int J Sports Med ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975360

RESUMO

The anaerobic threshold (AnT) seems to be not only a physiologic boundary but also a transition after which swimmers technique changes, modifying their biomechanical behaviour. We expanded the AnT concept to a biophysical construct in the four conventional swimming techniques. Seventy-two elite swimmers performed a 5×200 m incremental protocol in their preferred swimming technique (with a 0.05 m·s-1 increase and a 30 s interval between steps). A capillary blood samples were collected from the fingertip and stroke rate (SR) and length (SL) determined for the assessment of [La], SR and SL vs. velocity inflexion points (using the interception of a pair of linear and exponential regression curves). The [La] values at the AnT were 3.3±1.0, 3.9±1.1, 2.9±1 .34 and 4.5±1.4 mmol·l-1 (mean±SD) for front crawl, backstroke, breaststroke and butterfly, and its corresponding velocity correlated highly with those at SR and SL inflection points (r=0.91-0.99, p<0.001). The agreement analyses confirmed that AnT represents a biophysical boundary in the four competitive swimming techniques and can be determined individually using [La] and/or SR/SL. Blood lactate increase speed can help characterise swimmers' anaerobic behaviour after AnT and between competitive swimming techniques.

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