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1.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 180: 109038, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487758

RESUMO

AIMS: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a growing chronic disease. Evidence of whether the healthcare setting affects management and glycemic control is scarce. We evaluate outcomes in patients with T1D in private and public healthcare settings in Mexico, registered in the National T1D Registry in Mexico (RENACED-DT1). METHODS: Biochemical parameters, diabetes education, and treatment were analyzed considering the data registered in the last visit. Development of chronic complications was determined during follow-up. RESULTS: We included 1,603 patients; 71.5% (n = 1,146) registered in the public system, and 28.5% (n = 457) in a private institution. Patients in the public setting had higher HbA1c (8.6%, IQR: 7.3%-10.5% vs 7.7%, IQR: 7.0%-8.8%; p < 0.001). Indicators of diabetes education, glucose monitoring, and use of insulin-pumps were lower in the public setting. Patients in the public setting were at higher risk of diabetic chronic kidney disease, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Diabetes knowledge was a mediator between type of healthcare setting and the likelihood of achieving glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS: Patients registered in public healthcare settings have an adverse metabolic profile and higher risk of complications. Social factors need to be addressed in order to implement multidisciplinary measures focused on diabetes education for patients with T1D in Mexico.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256447, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 testing capacity is important to monitor epidemic dynamics and as a mitigation strategy. Given difficulties of large-scale quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) implementation, rapid antigen tests (Rapid Ag-T) have been proposed as alternatives in settings like Mexico. Here, we evaluated diagnostic performance of Rapid Ag-T for SARS-CoV-2 infection and its associated clinical implications compared to qRT-PCR testing in Mexico. METHODS: We analyzed data from the COVID-19 registry of the Mexican General Directorate of Epidemiology up to April 30th, 2021 (n = 6,632,938) and cases with both qRT-PCR and Rapid Ag-T (n = 216,388). We evaluated diagnostic performance using accuracy measures and assessed time-dependent changes in the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUROC). We also explored test discordances as predictors of hospitalization, intubation, severe COVID-19 and mortality. RESULTS: Rapid Ag-T is primarily used in Mexico City. Rapid Ag-T have low sensitivity 37.6% (95%CI 36.6-38.7), high specificity 95.5% (95%CI 95.1-95.8) and acceptable positive 86.1% (95%CI 85.0-86.6) and negative predictive values 67.2% (95%CI 66.2-69.2). Rapid Ag-T has optimal diagnostic performance up to days 3 after symptom onset, and its performance is modified by testing location, comorbidity, and age. qRT-PCR (-) / Rapid Ag-T (+) cases had higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes (HR 1.54 95% CI 1.41-1.68) and were older, qRT-PCR (+)/ Rapid Ag-T(-) cases had slightly higher risk or adverse outcomes and ≥7 days from symptom onset (HR 1.53 95% CI 1.48-1.59). Cases detected with rapid Ag-T were younger, without comorbidities, and milder COVID-19 course. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid Ag-T could be used as an alternative to qRT-PCR for large scale SARS-CoV-2 testing in Mexico. Interpretation of Rapid Ag-T results should be done with caution to minimize the risk associated with false negative results.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/análise , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Curva ROC , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico City has been sharp, as several social inequalities at all levels coexist. Here, we conducted an in-depth evaluation of the impact of individual and municipal-level social inequalities on the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico City. METHODS: We analyzed suspected SARS-CoV-2 cases, from the Mexico City Epidemiological Surveillance System from February 24th, 2020, to March 31 st, 2021. COVID-19 outcomes included rates of hospitalization, severe COVID-19, invasive mechanical ventilation, and mortality. We evaluated socioeconomic occupation as an individual risk, and social lag, which captures municipal-level social vulnerability, and urban population density as proxies of structural risk factors. Impact of reductions in vehicular mobility on COVID-19 rates and the influence of risk factors were also assessed. Finally, we assessed discrepancies in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 excess mortality using death certificates from the General Civil Registry. RESULTS: We detected vulnerable groups who belonged to economically unfavored sectors and experienced increased risk of COVID-19 outcomes. Cases living in marginalized municipalities with high population density experienced greater for COVID-19 outcomes. Additionally, policies to reduce vehicular mobility had differential impacts modified by social lag and urban population density. Finally, we report an under-registry of COVID-19 deaths along with an excess mortality closely related to marginalized and densely populated communities in an ambulatory setting. This could be attributable to a negative impact of modified hospital admission criteria during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic occupation and municipality-wide factors played a significant role in shaping the course of the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico City.

4.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 46, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sampson et al. developed a novel method to estimate very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the setting of hypertriglyceridemia. Familial Combined Hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is a common primary dyslipidemia in which lipoprotein composition interferes with LDL-C estimation. This study aimed to evaluate performance of LDL-C using this new method (LDL-S) compared with LDL-C estimated by Friedewald's and Martin eq. (LDL-F, LDL-M) in FCHL. METHODS: Data were collected from 340 subjects with confirmed FCHL. Concordance for VLDL-C measured by ultracentrifugation and LDL-C estimated using these measures compared to Sampson's, Martin's and Friedewald's equations was performed using correlation coefficients, root mean squared error (RMSE) and bias. Also, concordance of misclassified metrics according to LDL-C (< 70 and < 100 mg/dL) and Apo B (< 80 and < 65 mg/dL) thresholds were assessed. RESULTS: Sampson's equation was more accurate (RMSE 11.21 mg/dL; R2 = 0.88) compared to Martin's (RMSE 13.15 mg/dL; R2 = 0.875) and the Friedewald's equation (RMSE 13.7 mg/dL; R2 = 0.869). When assessing performance according to LDL-C, Sampson's had highest correlation and lowest RMSE compared to other equations (RMSE 19.99 mg/dL; R2 = 0.840). Comparing performance strength across triglyceride levels, Sampson's showed consistently improved correlations compared to Martin's and Friedewald's formulas for increasing triglycerides and for the FCHL phenotype of mixed dyslipidemia. Sampson's also had improved concordance with treatment goals. CONCLUSIONS: In FCHL, VLDL-C and LDL-C estimation using Sampson's formula showed higher concordance with lipid targets assessed using VLDL-C obtained by ultracentrifugation compared with Friedewald's and Martin's equations. Implementation of Sampson's formula could improve treatment monitoring in FCHL.

5.
Arch Med Res ; 52(6): 648-655, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a health care problem in women that increases morbimortality, particularly in developing countries. There is limited information regarding atypical risk factors associated with IHD in Mexican women. AIM: To explore risk factors in women that could contribute to IHD and myocardial dysfunction using the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion study (MPS). METHODS: We designed a cross-sectional study in which we evaluated atypical and typical risk factors using a clinical questionnaire. We performed a SPECT-MPS to evaluate the presence of ischemia/infarction, decreased left ventricular ejection fraction, systolic dyssynchrony and diastolic function by peak filling rate and time to peak filling rate. RESULTS: 172 women were included, 64 with IHD. Adverse events during pregnancy (premature birth and miscarriage), rheumatoid arthritis, gynecological conditions (menopause and age of first menstruation) and low educational level, together with previously known typical risk factors were associated with infarction or ischemia and ventricular dysfunction. Potential associated factors for systolic dyssynchrony were rheumatoid arthritis (OR: 2.90, 95% CI: 0.95-8.66, p = 0.054) and history of premature birth (OR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.01-0.66, p <0.01). Although those women with arterial hypertension and smoking shown an increased risk for dyssynchrony, these factors were not statistically significant. Low-educational level (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.1-4.18, p = 0.019) was associated with decreased peak filling rate. CONCLUSION: The presence of atypical risk factors in women could lead to decreased myocardial function, particularly in women at risk of developing IHD.

8.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(8): e117-e126, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronological age (CA) is a predictor of adverse coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes; however, CA alone does not capture individual responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Here, we evaluated the influence of aging metrics PhenoAge and PhenoAgeAccel to predict adverse COVID-19 outcomes. Furthermore, we sought to model adaptive metabolic and inflammatory responses to severe SARS-CoV-2 infection using individual PhenoAge components. METHOD: In this retrospective cohort study, we assessed cases admitted to a COVID-19 reference center in Mexico City. PhenoAge and PhenoAgeAccel were estimated using laboratory values at admission. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to estimate risk for COVID-19 lethality and adverse outcomes (intensive care unit admission, intubation, or death). To explore reproducible patterns which model adaptive responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, we used k-means clustering using PhenoAge components. RESULTS: We included 1068 subjects of whom 222 presented critical illness and 218 died. PhenoAge was a better predictor of adverse outcomes and lethality compared to CA and SpO2 and its predictive capacity was sustained for all age groups. Patients with responses associated to PhenoAgeAccel >0 had higher risk of death and critical illness compared to those with lower values (log-rank p < .001). Using unsupervised clustering, we identified 4 adaptive responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection: (i) inflammaging associated with CA, (ii) metabolic dysfunction associated with cardiometabolic comorbidities, (iii) unfavorable hematological response, and (iv) response associated with favorable outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Adaptive responses related to accelerated aging metrics are linked to adverse COVID-19 outcomes and have unique and distinguishable features. PhenoAge is a better predictor of adverse outcomes compared to CA.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Metabolismo/fisiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593750

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diabetes and hyperglycemia are risk factors for critical COVID-19 outcomes; however, the impact of pre-diabetes and previously unidentified cases of diabetes remains undefined. Here, we profiled hospitalized patients with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes to evaluate its impact on adverse COVID-19 outcomes. We also explored the role of de novo and intrahospital hyperglycemia in mediating critical COVID-19 outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective cohort of 317 hospitalized COVID-19 cases from a Mexico City reference center. Type 2 diabetes was defined as previous diagnosis or treatment with diabetes medication, undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes using glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria and de novo or intrahospital hyperglycemia as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥140 mg/dL. Logistic and Cox proportional regression models were used to model risk for COVID-19 outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 159 cases (50.2%) had type 2 diabetes and 125 had pre-diabetes (39.4%), while 31.4% of patients with type 2 diabetes were previously undiagnosed. Among 20.0% of pre-diabetes cases and 6.1% of normal-range HbA1c had de novo hyperglycemia. FPG was the better predictor for critical COVID-19 compared with HbA1c. Undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (OR: 5.76, 95% CI 1.46 to 27.11) and pre-diabetes (OR: 4.15, 95% CI 1.29 to 16.75) conferred increased risk of severe COVID-19. De novo/intrahospital hyperglycemia predicted critical COVID-19 outcomes independent of diabetes status. CONCLUSIONS: Undiagnosed type 2 diabetes, pre-diabetes and de novo hyperglycemia are risk factors for critical COVID-19. HbA1c must be measured early to adequately assess individual risk considering the large rates of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in Mexico.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Doenças não Diagnosticadas/complicações , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Doenças não Diagnosticadas/epidemiologia
10.
Echocardiography ; 38(2): 280-288, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy is associated with poor prognosis and adverse events. Left ventricular and left atrial global strain and left atrial reservoir strain (LV-GS; LA-GS; LA-RS) could be used as markers for myocardial function in different ventricular remodeling forms. This study aimed to evaluate LV-GS and LA-GS scores in different ventricular remodeling variants and identify risk factors for myocardial dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: This cross-sectional study was divided into four groups of ventricular remodeling: normal geometry, eccentric hypertrophy (EH), concentric hypertrophy (CH), and concentric remodeling (CR). Strain analysis was obtained using standardized protocols. We included 121 subjects, 33 with previous myocardial infarction (MI). We found that EH had the lowest LV-GS and CH, the lowest LA-GS, and LA-RS. Atrial and ventricular dysfunction was present in 40 (33%) and 14 (11.5%) subjects, respectively. Smoking, male sex, and previous MI were associated with LV dysfunction and smoking and dyslipidemia with LA dysfunction; EH was closely associated with LV dysfunction and CH with LA dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that different ventricular geometry types had echocardiographic profiles associated with different risk factors for dysfunction assessed by strain. The assessment of ventricular remodeling by global strain could be used as a complementary tool in the echocardiographic evaluation of ventricular and atrial function.


Assuntos
Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Estudos Transversais , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda , Masculino , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
J Clin Lipidol ; 15(1): 124-133, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. OBJECTIVE: Report the results of the first years (2017-2019) of the Mexican FH registry. METHODS: There are 60 investigators, representing 28 federal states, participating in the registry. The variables included are in accordance with the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) FH recommendations. RESULTS: To date, 709 patients have been registered, only 336 patients with complete data fields are presented. The mean age is 50 (36-62) years and the average time since diagnosis is 4 (IQR: 2-16) years. Genetic testing is recorded in 26.9%. Tendon xanthomas are present in 43.2%. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is 11.3% and that of premature CAD is 9.8%. Index cases, male gender, hypertension and smoking were associated with premature CAD. The median lipoprotein (a) level is 30.5 (IQR 10.8-80.7) mg/dl. Statins and co-administration with ezetimibe were recorded in 88.1% and 35.7% respectively. A combined treatment target (50% reduction in LDL-C and an LDL-C <100 mg/dl) was achieved by 13.7%. Associated factors were index case (OR 3.6, 95%CI 1.69-8.73, P = .002), combination therapy (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.23-4.90, P = .011), type 2 diabetes (OR 2.8, 95%CI 1.03-7.59, P = .036) and age (OR 1.023, 95%CI 1.01-1.05, P = .033). CONCLUSION: The results confirm late diagnosis, a lower than expected prevalence and risk of ASCVD, a higher than expected prevalence of type 2 diabetes and undertreatment, with relatively few patients reaching goals. Recommendations include, the use of combination lipid lowering therapy, control of comorbid conditions and more frequent genetic testing in the future.

12.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 15(1): 162-168, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830095

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the use of the electronic integral monitoring system (SMID) to identify factors associated to glycemic control and its impact in the quality of care in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: T2D patients registered in SMID were analyzed. Biochemical, clinical and lifestyle variables were recorded. Factors associated to HbA1c ≤7% were explored. Quality of care of the clinic was measured according to the National Committee for Quality Assurance Criteria (NCQA) that requires a score of 75 to achieve a good quality of care. RESULTS: 511 patients were included. Prescription of basal insulin, SGLT-2 inhibitors and barriers to follow nutritional plan were associated with decreased probability of having adequate glycemic control. Patients in the maintenance stage of motivation had higher probability of having HbA1c ≤7%. According to NCQA evaluation 60 points were achieved. Glucose goals were not met; 35.9% had HbA1c ≥9% and 17% HbA1c <7%. While foot evaluation, smoking approach, blood pressure and lipids goals were accomplished; eye and renal evaluations were borderline. CONCLUSION: Glycemic control in patients with long standing T2D and multiple comorbidities is challenging, which directly impacts in the quality of care. Professionals should focus in reinforcing non-pharmacological interventions to optimize glycemic targets.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(10): e655-e658, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857829

RESUMO

We profiled cases with nonrespiratory symptoms (NRS) and asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections assessed within Mexico City's Epidemiological Surveillance System. Initially asymptomatic or NRS cases have decreased risk of adverse outcomes compared with cases with respiratory symptoms. Comorbidity and age influence symptom development in initially asymptomatic cases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , México/epidemiologia
14.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(3): e52-e59, 2021 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has had a disproportionate impact on older adults. Mexico's population is younger, yet COVID-19's impact on older adults is comparable to countries with older population structures. Here, we aim to identify health and structural determinants that increase susceptibility to COVID-19 in older Mexican adults beyond chronological aging. METHODS: We analyzed confirmed COVID-19 cases in older adults using data from the General Directorate of Epidemiology of Mexican Ministry of Health. We modeled risk factors for increased COVID-19 severity and mortality, using mixed models to incorporate multilevel data concerning healthcare access and marginalization. We also evaluated structural factors and comorbidity profiles compared to chronological age for COVID-19 mortality risk prediction. RESULTS: We analyzed 20 804 confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases in adults aged 60 and older. Male sex, smoking, diabetes, and obesity were associated with pneumonia, hospitalization, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission in older adults, CKD and COPD were associated with hospitalization. High social lag indexes and access to private care were predictors of COVID-19 severity and mortality. Age was not a predictor of COVID-19 severity in individuals without comorbidities and combination of structural factors and comorbidities were better predictors of COVID-19 lethality and severity compared to chronological age alone. COVID-19 baseline lethality hazards were heterogeneously distributed across Mexican municipalities, particularly when comparing urban and rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: Structural factors and comorbidity explain excess risk for COVID-19 severity and mortality over chronological age in older Mexican adults. Clinical decision-making related to COVID-19 should focus away from chronological aging onto more a comprehensive geriatric care approach.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(2): 506-517, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Both insulin resistance (IR) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) are related cardiometabolic risk factors; nevertheless, their joint effect on endothelial functionality is controversial. This study aims to evaluate the joint effect of IR and VAT on endothelial functionality using the pulse-waveform analysis and explore the mediating role of VAT on the effect of IR on arterial pressure, arterial stiffness and incident arterial hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured VAT (n = 586) using two methods (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and a clinical surrogate), arterial stiffness (with pulse-waveform velocity), and IR (using three methods: HOMA2-IR (n = 586), a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (n = 131) and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamping (n = 97)) to confirm the mediator effect of IR on VAT. The incidence of arterial hypertension attributable to the mediating effect of IR related to VAT was evaluated using a prospective cohort (n = 6850). Adjusted linear regression models, causal mediation analysis, and Cox-proportional hazard risk regression models were performed to test our objective. IR and VAT led to increased arterial stiffness and increased blood pressure; the combination of both further worsened vascular parameters. Nearly, 57% (ΔE→MY 95% CI: 31.7-100.0) of the effect of IR on altered pulse-wave velocity (PWV) analysis was mediated through VAT. Moreover, VAT acts as a mediator of the effect of IR on increased mean arterial pressure (ΔE→MY 35.7%, 95% CI: 23.8-59) and increased hypertension risk (ΔE→MY 69.1%, 95% CI: 46.1-78.8). CONCLUSION: VAT acts as a mediator of IR in promoting arterial stiffness and arterial hypertension. Both phenomena should be targeted to ameliorate the cardiometabolic risk.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Rigidez Vascular , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Insulina/sangue , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health-care workers (HCWs) could be at increased occupational risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Information regarding prevalence and risk factors for adverse outcomes in HCWs is scarce in Mexico. Here, we aimed to explore prevalence of SARS-CoV-2, symptoms, and risk factors associated with adverse outcomes in HCWs in Mexico City. METHODS: We explored data collected by the National Epidemiological Surveillance System in Mexico City. All cases underwent real-time RT-PCR test. We explored outcomes related to severe COVID-19 in HCWs and the diagnostic performance of symptoms to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCWs. RESULTS: As of July 5 th, 2020, 35,095 HCWs were tested for SARS-CoV-2 and 11,226 were confirmed (31.9%). Overall, 4,322 were nurses (38.5%), 3,324 physicians (29.6%), 131 dentists (1.16%) and 3,449 laboratory personnel and other HCWs (30.8%). After follow-up, 1,009 HCWs required hospitalization (9.00%), 203 developed severe outcomes (1.81%), and 93 required mechanical-ventilatory support (0.82%). Lethality was recorded in 226 (2.01%) cases. Symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity were fever, cough, malaise, shivering, myalgias at evaluation but neither had significant predictive value. We also identified 341 asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections (3.04%). Older HCWs with chronic non-communicable diseases, pregnancy, and severe respiratory symptoms were associated with higher risk for adverse outcomes. Physicians had higher risk for hospitalization and for severe outcomes compared with nurses and other HCWs. CONCLUSIONS: We report a high prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCWs in Mexico City. No symptomatology can accurately discern HCWs with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Particular attention should focus on HCWs with risk factors to prevent adverse outcomes and reduce infection risk.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699108

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous reports in European populations demonstrated the existence of five data-driven adult-onset diabetes subgroups. Here, we use self-normalizing neural networks (SNNN) to improve reproducibility of these data-driven diabetes subgroups in Mexican cohorts to extend its application to more diverse settings. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We trained SNNN and compared it with k-means clustering to classify diabetes subgroups in a multiethnic and representative population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets with all available measures (training sample: NHANES-III, n=1132; validation sample: NHANES 1999-2006, n=626). SNNN models were then applied to four Mexican cohorts (SIGMA-UIEM, n=1521; Metabolic Syndrome cohort, n=6144; ENSANUT 2016, n=614 and CAIPaDi, n=1608) to characterize diabetes subgroups in Mexicans according to treatment response, risk for chronic complications and risk factors for the incidence of each subgroup. RESULTS: SNNN yielded four reproducible clinical profiles (obesity related, insulin deficient, insulin resistant, age related) in NHANES and Mexican cohorts even without C-peptide measurements. We observed in a population-based survey a high prevalence of the insulin-deficient form (41.25%, 95% CI 41.02% to 41.48%), followed by obesity-related (33.60%, 95% CI 33.40% to 33.79%), age-related (14.72%, 95% CI 14.63% to 14.82%) and severe insulin-resistant groups. A significant association was found between the SLC16A11 diabetes risk variant and the obesity-related subgroup (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.83, p=0.008). Among incident cases, we observed a greater incidence of mild obesity-related diabetes (n=149, 45.0%). In a diabetes outpatient clinic cohort, we observed increased 1-year risk (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.51) and 2-year risk (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.31) for incident retinopathy in the insulin-deficient group and decreased 2-year diabetic retinopathy risk for the obesity-related subgroup (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.89). CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes subgroup phenotypes are reproducible using SNNN; our algorithm is available as web-based tool. Application of these models allowed for better characterization of diabetes subgroups and risk factors in Mexicans that could have clinical applications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Síndrome Metabólica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(8)2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak poses a challenge to health care systems due to its high complication rates in patients with cardiometabolic diseases. Here, we identify risk factors and propose a clinical score to predict COVID-19 lethality, including specific factors for diabetes and obesity, and its role in improving risk prediction. METHODS: We obtained data of confirmed and negative COVID-19 cases and their demographic and health characteristics from the General Directorate of Epidemiology of the Mexican Ministry of Health. We investigated specific risk factors associated to COVID-19 positivity and mortality and explored the impact of diabetes and obesity on modifying COVID-19-related lethality. Finally, we built a clinical score to predict COVID-19 lethality. RESULTS: Among the 177 133 subjects at the time of writing this report (May 18, 2020), we observed 51 633 subjects with SARS-CoV-2 and 5,332 deaths. Risk factors for lethality in COVID-19 include early-onset diabetes, obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, advanced age, hypertension, immunosuppression, and chronic kidney disease (CKD); we observed that obesity mediates 49.5% of the effect of diabetes on COVID-19 lethality. Early-onset diabetes conferred an increased risk of hospitalization and obesity conferred an increased risk for intensive care unit admission and intubation. Our predictive score for COVID-19 lethality included age ≥ 65 years, diabetes, early-onset diabetes, obesity, age < 40 years, CKD, hypertension, and immunosuppression and significantly discriminates lethal from non-lethal COVID-19 cases (C-statistic = 0.823). CONCLUSIONS: Here, we propose a mechanistic approach to evaluate the risk for complications and lethality attributable to COVID-19, considering the effect of obesity and diabetes in Mexico. Our score offers a clinical tool for quick determination of high-risk susceptibility patients in a first-contact scenario.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Obesidade/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , COVID-19 , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Arch Med Res ; 51(5): 413-418, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327292

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) is a condition that develops in subjects after myocardial infarction. Evidence suggests that optimal medical treatment (OMT) is not inferior to intervention (INT) using percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). AIM: To compare clinical outcomes in subjects with SIHD who only received OMT and those who received INT+OMT. METHODS: We retrospectively examined subjects with SIHD who underwent myocardial perfusion study-SPECT/CT in a reference center in Mexico. We assigned two branches: INT+OMT (subjects with previous PCI or CABG) and OMT (subjects with antiplatelet drugs, ß-blockers, renin-angiotensin-system blockade, nitrates, calcium-channel blockers, and aggressive lipid-lowering therapy). Clinical outcomes at follow-up were angina relief, functional class improvement, hospitalization, myocardial reinfarction and death from any cause. RESULTS: We included 100 subjects; 51 with OMT and 49 with INT+OMT. 54 subjects had 1 affected vessel and 46 more than 2. INT+OMT group had up to 14 fold likelihood (95% CI: 3.38-63.35) of achieving angina relief and 2.2 fold likelihood (95% CI: 0.92-5.57, p = 0.077) for functional class improvement. No differences were found in hospitalization, myocardial infarction and death from any cause compared to OMT. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with OMT have no higher risk of adverse clinical outcomes compared to INT+OMT. However, the INT+OMT provides angina relief and functional class improvement compared to OMT.


Assuntos
Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Clin Nutr ; 39(5): 1613-1621, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intra-abdominal and visceral fat (VAT) are risk factors for the development of cardio-metabolic comorbidities; however its clinical assessment is limited by technology and required expertise for its assessment. We aimed to develop a novel score (METS-VF) to estimate VAT by combining the non-insulin-based METS-IR index, waist-height ratio (WHtr), age and sex. METHODS: We developed METS-VF in a sample of 366 individuals with Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). METS-VF was modeled using non-linear regression and validated in two replication cohorts with DXA (n = 184, with n = 118 who also had MRI) and bio-electrical impedance (n = 991). We also assessed METS-VF to predict incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) and arterial hypertension independent of body-mass index (BMI) in our Metabolic Syndrome Cohort (n = 6144). RESULTS: We defined METS-VF as: 4.466 + 0.011*(Ln(METS-IR))3 + 3.239*(Ln(WHtr))3 + 0.319*(Sex) + 0.594*(Ln(Age)). METS-VF showed better performance compared to other VAT surrogates using either DXA (AUC 0.896 95% CI 0.847-0.945) or MRI (AUC 0.842 95% CI 0.771-0.913) as gold standards. We identified a METS-VF cut-off point >7.18 in healthy patients which has 100% sensitivity (95% CI 76.8-100) and 87.2% specificity (95% CI 79.1-93.0) to identify increased VAT (>100 cm2). METS-VF also had adequate performance in subjects with metabolically-healthy obesity. Finally, in our metabolic syndrome cohort, subjects in the upper quintiles of METS-VF (>7.2) had 3.8 and 2.0-fold higher risk of incident T2D and hypertension, respectively (p < 0.001). This effect was independent of BMI for both outcomes. CONCLUSION: METS-VF is a novel surrogate to estimate VAT, which has better performance compared to other surrogate VAT indexes and is predictive of incident T2D and hypertension. METS-VF could be a useful tool to assess cardio-metabolic risk in primary care practice and research settings.

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