Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 27
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Bioresour Technol ; 325: 124731, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486412

RESUMO

During the mining of rare earth mineral, the use of lanthanum-containing fertilizers, and the disposal of lanthanum-containing electronic products, the content of lanthanum (La(III)) in typical ammonia wastewater with low carbon to nitrogen ratio is increasing day by day. Here, effects of La(III) on anammox process in performance, microbial community structure, metabolic function, and microbial co-occurrence network were investigated. The results shown that the nitrogen removal efficiency was declines briefly and then gradually recovers after low dosage (1-5 mg/L) La(III) treatment and the decrease to low level (24.25 ± 1.74%) under high La(III) dosage (10 mg/L). La(III) in the range of 1-5 mg/L significantly promoted the relative abundance of Anammoxoglobus (0.024% to 9.762%). The blocking of key metabolic pathways was confirmed to cause the breakdown of anammox by PICRUSt. Furthermore, network analysis revealed that lack of cooperation bacteria limits the activity of Anammoxoglobus.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Microbiota , Reatores Biológicos , Lantânio , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Águas Residuárias
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 409: 124829, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422752

RESUMO

Alkyl quaternary ammonium-modified clay minerals, which are common environmentally friendly materials, have been widely studied and applied for the removal of pollutants. However, there are few reports on functionalizing the counterions to expand the application. In this study, the cationic gemini surfactant butane-1,4-bis(dodecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide) (gBDDA) and tetrachloroferrate (FeCl4-) are designed to modify montmorillonite (Mt), and the obtained FeCl4-/Gemini-Mt composite (FeOMt) is used for the removal of nitrate and/or phosphate from aqueous solution. The successful intercalation of gBDDA and favorable loading of FeCl4- into FeOMt are suggested by the characterization results of X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Nitrate and/or phosphate are rapidly sequestered, and the respective maximum uptakes of 8.77 (N) and 28.1 (P) mg/g in the binary system are obtained. The phosphate uptake is stably maintained against many coexisting ions, but the nitrate uptake decreases with the increase in ionic strength. FeOMt is reusable and shows comparable uptake for nitrate and phosphate with respect to gBDDA-modified Mt and polymerized ferric chloride. Considering the multi-functionality and facile synthesis, FeOMt shows promising potential in the purification of wastewater contaminated simultaneously by poorly hydrated anions (e.g., ClO4-, TcO4-, etc.) and iron-selective anions (e.g., H2AsO4-, etc.).

3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 209: 111796, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341697

RESUMO

Cerium Ce(III) is one of the major pollutants contained in wastewater generated during Ce(III) mining. However, the effect(s) of Ce(III) on the functional genera responsible for removing nitrogen biologically from wastewater has not been studied and reported. In this study, the effects of Ce(III) on aspects of partial-nitritation-(PN) process including ammonia oxidation rate (AOR), process kinetics, and microbial activities were investigated. It was found that the effect of dosing Ce(III) in the PN system correlated strongly with the AOR. Compared to the control, batch assays dosed with 5 mg/L Ce(III) showed elevated PN efficiency of about 121%, an indication that maximum biological response was feasible upon Ce(III) dose. It was also found that, PN performance was not adversely affected, given that Ce(III) dose was ≤20 mg/L. Process kinetics investigated also suggested that the maximum Ce(III) dose without any visible inhibition to the activities of ammonium oxidizing bacteria was 1.37 mg/L, but demonstrated otherwise when Ce(III) dose exceeded 5.63 mg/L. Compared to the control, microbes conducted efficient Ce(III) removal (averaged 98.66%) via biosorption using extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Notably, significant deposits of Ce(III) was found within the EPS produced as revealed by SEM, EDX, CLSM and FTIR. 2-dimensional correlation infrared-(2DCOS-IR) revealed ester group (uronic acid) as a major organic functional group that promoted Ce(III) removal. Excitation-emission matrix-(EEM) spectrum and 2DCOS-IR suggested the dominance of Fulvic acid, hypothesized to have promoted the performance of the PN process under Ce(III) dosage.


Assuntos
Cério/toxicidade , Nitrificação/efeitos dos fármacos , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Compostos de Amônio , Bactérias , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Mineração , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
4.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143746, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229085

RESUMO

This study reveals the efficient treatment of high strength food waste under varying hydraulic retention times (48 h, 36 h and 24 h) in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) integrated with microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) to become a continuous stirred microbial electrolysis cell (CSMEC). COD removal efficiency in the CSMEC surpassed 92% with OLR ranging from 0.4 to 21.31 kg COD/m3·d compared to that of the CSTR. The maximum current density (based on the cathode surface area) was 1125.35 ± 81 mA/m2 in the CSMEC. Biogas yield and methane production rates increased by 16.5% and 19.3% in the CSMEC respectively compared to the CSTR. CSMEC was 1.52 times better in performance compared to the CSTR. Firmicutes, Synergistetes, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla associated with both CSMEC and CSTR. Archaeal microbial community analysis showed Methanosaeta, Methanobacterium, Methanosarcina and Methanocorpusculum as the dominant genus associated with the CSMEC.

5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(28): 35364-35380, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594445

RESUMO

A new type of sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) with floating macrophyte Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, or Lemna minor L. biocathode was constructed and assessed in three phases at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) for electrical current generation during the degradation of urban river sediment. The results showed a highest voltage output of 0.88 ± 0.1 V, maximum power density of 80.22 mW m-3, highest columbic efficiency of 15.3%, normalized energy recovery of 0.030 kWh m-3, and normalized energy production of 0.005 kWh m-3 in the Lemna minor L. SMFC during phase 3 at HRT of 48 h, respectively. Highest removal efficiencies of total chemical oxygen demand of 80%, nitrite of 99%, ammonia of 93%, and phosphorus of 94% were achieved in Lemna minor L. system, and 99% of nitrate removal and 99% of sulfate removal were achieved in Pistia stratiotes and Limnobium laevigatum system during the SMFC operation, respectively. Pistia stratiotes exhibited the highest growth in terms of biomass and tap root system of 29.35 g and 12.2 cm to produce the maximum dissolved oxygen of 16.85 ± 0.2 mg L-1 compared with other macrophytes. The predominant bacterial phylum Proteobacteria of 62.86% and genus Exiguobacterium of 17.48% were identified in Limnobium laevigatum system, while the class Gammaproteobacteria of 28.77% was observed in the control SMFC. The integration of technologies with the continuous flow operation shows promising prospect in the remediation of polluted urban river sediments along with the generation of electrical current.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Poluentes Ambientais , Eletrodos , Sedimentos Geológicos , Rios
6.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 560: 338-348, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635881

RESUMO

Perchlorate (ClO4-) and pertechnetate (TcO4-) exhibit similar adsorption characteristics on alkyl quaternary ammonium-modified montmorillonite (Mt), and 99mTcO4- normally coexists with 90Sr2+ in radionuclide-contaminated water. In this study, hexadecyl pyridinium (HDPy)-modified Mt (OMt) was encapsulated in alginate beads to inhibit HDPy release and simultaneously immobilize ClO4- and Sr2+ ions. The release of HDPy was remarkably reduced (78 times) from OMt after alginate encapsulation. Adsorption of ClO4- and Sr2+ on the obtained composite demonstrated synergistic effects, with adsorption capacities reaching 0.542 and 0.484 mmol/g, respectively. Compared to the single-adsorbate system, adsorption capacities of ClO4- and Sr2+ increased significantly. The characterization of solids using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as the chemical analysis of the aqueous solution, demonstrated that HDPy+-COO- disintegration accounted for the adsorption synergy. HDPy was extracted from the Mt interlayer space during the synthesis of OMt/alginate and then partially re-intercalated back after interacting with ClO4- during the adsorption of ClO4- and/or Sr2+. In the binary-adsorbate system, the synergy-induced adsorption capacity was superior to many previously reported adsorbents, implying that OMt/alginate beads can be a promising adsorbent for the remediation of aqueous solutions contaminated with multiple radionuclides.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 705: 135797, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806320

RESUMO

Yttrium (Y(III)) is mined commercially for industrial purposes due to its excellent physical properties. However, the effects of Y(III) in mining-wastewater on the performance of partial-nitritation process and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have not been explored. To elucidate Y(III) effects on biological mechanisms, kinetics was conducted to establish a correlation between Y(III) dosage and specific-oxygen-uptake-rate (SOUR). The mechanism(s) demonstrated by bacterial population to resist against toxic effects from Y(III) dose was also investigated using scanning electron microscopy-(SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy-(EDS), confocal laser scanning microscopy-(CLSM),Fourier transform infrared-(FTIR) spectroscopy, and 2-dimensional correlation infrared-(2DCOS-IR) approach. The study revealed a strong correlation between ammonium oxidation rate (AOR) and Y(III) dosage. AOR promotion was more pronounced when Y(III) concentration was ≤20 mg/L (maximum AOR of 12.39 mgN/L/h, at 5 mg/L), whereas inhibition when Y(III) in influent was >20 mg/L (minimum AOR of 7.34 mgN/L/h, at 500 mg/L). Aiba model demonstrated high-performance (R2 = 0.962) when Y(III) concentration ranged 0-20 mg/L, whereas linear model fitted well (R2 of 0.984) to experimental data when Y(III) dose ranged 20-500 mg/L. The maximum change in SOUR (Vmax), half-rate constant (Km), and inhibition constant (Ki) reached 1.04 d-1, 20.12 mg/L, and 4.87 mg/L, respectively, an indication that dosage of Y(III) could affect the partial-nitritation process. SEM-EDS showed that the content of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) increased along with increasing Y(III) dosage. When 20 mg/L of Y(III) was dosed, the fraction of Y(III) within the surface elemental composition of the sludge increased gradually whereas that of calcium decreased. To further comprehend the EPS production, CLSM results further revealed ß-polysaccharide as the dominant component in the EPS. FTIR/2DCOD-IR showed that the chelation of polyguluronic sections within ß-polysaccharide, together with hydrazine might be the main pathways of cell resistance, but ß- glucan, may have caused the hormesis.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Bactérias , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Reatores Biológicos , Oxirredução , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias , Ítrio
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 692: 741-755, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539982

RESUMO

Conventional nitrification/denitrification process is gradually being replaced with partial-nitritation/anammox (PN/A) processes due to its installation and running cost. However, high ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria activity as well as optimum out-selection of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) are necessary to achieving efficient PN/A process. Consequently, to enhance PN process via nitrifying bacteria enrichment/out-selection within psychrophilic environment, a novel pH-DO (dissolved oxygen) control strategy was proposed and the response of PN, kinetics, AOB enrichment, and NOB out-selection efficiency was investigated during start-up and long-term operation. With DO of 0.7 mg/L and pH of 7.5-7.9, quick start-up of the PN process was established within 34d as NO2--N accumulation ratio (NAR) reached 90.08 ±â€¯1.4%. Again, when NLR was elevated to 0.8 kg/m3·d (400mgNH4+-N/L), DO curtailed to 0.2 mg/L, pH maintained at 7.7 and free ammonium at 6.5 mg/L, NAR and NH4+-N removal rate could still reach 97.04 ±â€¯2.4% and 97.84 ±â€¯1.5%, respectively. After optimum control factors had been established, real nitrogen-rich-mine-wastewater was fed (DO, 0.2 mg/L, pH, 8.9, and free ammonia, 6.5 mg/L) and NAR and NH4+-N removal rate reached was 97.33 ±â€¯0.5% and 97.76 ±â€¯1.1%, respectively. Estimated kinetic parameters including maximum degradation rate (Vmax = 1.58/d), half-rate constant (Km = 33.8 mg/L), and inhibition constant (Ki = 201.6 mg/L) suggested that inhibition on NH4+-N oxidation was most feasible at higher concentration of NH4+-N. To elucidate biological mechanisms, 16S rRNA high-throughput revealed that AOB (Nitrosomonas) enrichment had increased from 0.08% to 49% whereas NOB (Nitrospira) abundance reduced from 1% to 0.034%, indicating pH-DO control efficiently enriched AOB and out-selected NOB. Conversely, when influent NH4+-N was curtailed to about 200 mg/L and free ammonia concentration maintained at 6.5 mg/L, the population of AOB was observably reduced by 6% within a period of 14 days, indicating control strategies including pH-DO control and substrate availability were the key factors which substantially influenced and promoted the activities and growth of AOBs in the present SBR.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbiota/fisiologia , Nitrificação , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Amônia/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Oxigênio/análise
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 26829-26843, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300989

RESUMO

Sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) and constructed wetlands with macrophytes have been independently employed for the removal of heavy metals from polluted aquatic ecosystems. Nonetheless, the coupling of macrophytes at the cathode of SMFCs for efficient and synchronous heavy metal removal and bioelectricity generation from polluted river sediment has not been fully explored. Therefore, a novel macrophyte biocathode SMFC (mSMFC) was proposed, developed, and evaluated for heavy metals/organics removal as well as bioelectricity generation in an urban polluted river. With macrophyte-integrated cathode, higher heavy metal removals of Pb 99.58%, Cd 98.46%, Hg 95.78%, Cr 92.60%, As 89.18%, and Zn 82.28% from the sediments were exhibited after 120 days' operation. Total chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, and loss on ignition reached 73.27%, 44.42 ± 4.4%, and 5.87 ± 0.4%, respectively. A maximum voltage output of 0.353 V, power density of 74.16 mW/m3, columbic efficiency of 19.1%, normalized energy recovery of 0.028 kWh/m3, and net energy production of 0.015 kWh/m3 were observed in the Lemna minor L. SMFC. Heavy metal and organic removal pathways included electrochemical reduction, precipitation and recovery, bioaccumulation by macrophyte from the surface water, and bioelectrochemical reduction in the sediment. This study established that mSMFC proved as an efficient system for the remediation of heavy metals Pb, Cd, Hg, Cr, As, and Zn, and TCOD in polluted rivers along with bioelectricity generation.


Assuntos
Araceae/metabolismo , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Eletrodos , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 108-120, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284185

RESUMO

Two novel feedforward backpropagation Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)-based-models (8:NH:1 and 7:NH:1) combined with Box-Behnken design of experiments methodology was proposed and developed to model NH4+ and Total Nitrogen (TN) removal within an upflow-sludge-bed (USB) reactor treating nitrogen-rich wastewater via Single-stage Nitrogen removal using Anammox and Partial nitritation (SNAP) process. ANN were developed by optimizing network architecture parameters via response surface methodology. Based on the goodness-of-fit standards, the proposed three-layered NH4+ and TN removal ANN-based-models trained with Levenberg-Marquardt-algorithm demonstrated high-performance as computations exhibited smaller deviations-(±2.1%) as well as satisfactory coefficient of determination (R2), fractional variance-(FV), and index of agreement-(IA) ranging 0.989-0.997, 0.003-0.031 and 0.993-0.998, respectively. The computational results affirmed that the ANN architecture which was optimized with response surface methodology enhanced the efficiency of the ANN-based-models. Furthermore, the overall performance of the developed ANN-based models revealed that modeling intricate biological systems (such as SNAP) using ANN-based models with the view to improve removal efficiencies, establish process control strategies and optimize performance is highly feasible. Microbial community analysis conducted with 16S rRNA high-throughput approach revealed that Candidatus Kuenenia was the most pronounced genera which accounted for 13.11% followed by Nitrosomonas-(6.23%) and Proteocatella-(3.1%), an indication that nitrogen removal pathway within the USB was mainly via partial-nitritation/anammox process.

12.
Bioresour Technol ; 284: 359-372, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954904

RESUMO

Single-stage nitrogen removal by anammox/partial-nitritation (SNAP) process was proposed and explored in a packed-bed-EGSB reactor to treat nitrogen-rich wastewater. With dissolved oxygen (DO) maintained within 0.2-0.5 mg/L, reactor performance and microbial community dynamics were evaluated and reported. To ascertain whether control/prediction of the SNAP process was feasible with mathematical modeling, a novel 3-layered backpropagation-artificial-neural-network-(BANN) was also developed to model nitrogen removal efficiencies. When NLR of 300 gN/m3·d and DO of <0.3 mg/L was employed, the SNAP-process demonstrated autotrophic nitrogen removal pathways with NH4+-N and TN removal of 91.1% and 81.9%, respectively. Microbial community succession revealed by 16S rRNA high-throughput gene-sequencing indicated that Candidatus-Kuenenia-(33.83%), Nitrosomonas-(3.4%) Armatimonadetes_gp5-(1.39%), Ignavibacterium-(1.80%), Thiobacillus-(1.33%), and Nitrospira-(1.17%) were the most pronounced genera at steady-state. The proposed BANN-model demonstrated high-performance as computational results revealed smaller deviations (±3%) and satisfactory coefficient of determination-(R2 = 0.989), fractional variance-(FV = 0.0107), and index of agreement-(IA = 0.997). Thus, forecasting the efficiency of a SNAP-process with neural-network modeling was highly feasible.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Redes Neurais de Computação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
13.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 128: 241-251, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035233

RESUMO

Sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) efficacy depends highly on organic matter flux and dissolved oxygen (DO) at the anode and cathode, respectively. However, utilizing floating-macrophyte for elevated DO supply at the cathode has not been fully explored. Therefore, a novel floating-macrophyte implanted biocathode single-chamber SMFC (mSMFC) was developed for the simultaneous removal of pollutant and bioelectricity generation from polluted urban river sediment. With Lemna minor L. employed in mSMFC, high pollutant removal was feasible as opposed to the control bioreactor. Total COD, nitrate and sulfate removal reached 57%, 99%, and 99%, respectively. Maximum voltage output, power density, columbic efficiency, normalized energy recovery, and net energy production observed was 0.56 ±â€¯0.26 V, 86.06 mW m-3, 24.7%, 0.033 kWh m-3 and 0.020 kWh m-3, respectively. Alternatively, when floating-macrophyte (predominantly Pistia stratiotes) was employed in the catholyte, DO increased significantly to about 10 mg L-1 in the mSMFC. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed Euryarchaeota-(90.91%) and Proteobacteria-(59.68%) as the dominant phyla affiliated to archaea and bacteria, respectively. Pollutant removal mechanisms observed within the mSMFC included bioelectrochemical oxidation at the anode and reduction reaction and macrophyte hyperaccumulation at the cathode. The novel mSMFC system provided an effective approach for the removal of pollutant and bioelectricity generation.


Assuntos
Araceae/metabolismo , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Eletrodos , Água Doce/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Euryarchaeota/genética , Euryarchaeota/isolamento & purificação , Água Doce/microbiologia , Nitratos/isolamento & purificação , Oxigênio/isolamento & purificação , Fósforo/isolamento & purificação , Proteobactérias/genética , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rios , Sulfatos/isolamento & purificação , Urbanização , Microbiologia da Água
14.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(12): 2250-2259, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245917

RESUMO

Aerofloats, such as aniline aerofloat ((C6H5NH)2PSSH), are extensively employed for collection activities in wastewater particularly in cases where minerals are in flotation. Although this aniline aerofloat has efficient collection properties, they are ordinarily biologically persistent chemicals in which case their residual, as well as their byproducts, pose great environmental risks to water and soils. In this study, the removal efficiency of aniline aerofloat (AAF) by a combined vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and ozone (O3) process (VUV/O3) was evaluated. Furthermore, the impacts of pH, O3, the concentration of AAF and coexisting ions (SiO32-, CO32-, Cl- (Na+), SO42-, Ca2+) were systematically studied. The experiments revealed that, with an initial AAF of 15 mg/L, AAF removal >88% was feasible with a reaction time of 60 min, pH of 8 and O3 of 6 g/h. The order of influence of the selected coexisting ions on the degradation of AAF by VUV/O3 was Ca2+ > CO32- > SiO32- > Cl- (Na+) >SO42-. Compared with VUV and O3 in terms of pollutant degradation rate, VUV/O3 showed a remarkable performance, followed by O3 and VUV. Additionally, the degradation kinetics of AAF by the VUV/O3 process agreed well with first-order elimination kinetics.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Compostos de Anilina , Oxirredução , Raios Ultravioleta , Vácuo , Águas Residuárias
15.
Chemosphere ; 216: 186-194, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368083

RESUMO

Previous study has demonstrated that microaerobic process is effective in nitrogen removal from the wastewater with high ammonium and low carbon to nitrogen ratio. In the microaerobic system, synergistic action of anammox, ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and denitrifiers was the key issues to remove nitrogen from the wastewater rich in ammonium. Temperature has a significant effect on specific growth rate and activity of various nitrogen removal functional bacteria. In this study, the effect of temperature (35 °C-15 °C) on nitrogen removal were investigated in an up-flow microaerobic sludge reactor (UMSR) at the HRT of 8 h and reflux ratio of 45. Above 71.2% of total nitrogen (TN) and 80.7% of NH4+ removal efficiencies were observed at the temperature no less than 17 °C. With the temperature further decreasing to 15 °C, denitrifiers still dominant the UMSR, but AOB, NOB and Candidatus Brocadia as the predominant anammox bacteria were inhibited revealed by high throughput sequencing, resulting in the decrease of TN and NH4+ removal to 39.7% and 61.8%, respectively. Fortunately, when the temperature rebounded to 20 °C, a higher TN and NH4+ removal of 81.2% and 97.3% were obtained again in the UMSR.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/química , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Carbono/química , Nitrogênio/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Bactérias , Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio/análise
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 655: 1104-1112, 2019 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577104

RESUMO

Butane-1,4-bis(dodecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide) (gBDDA) and dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTMA) in same stoichiometric amounts were applied to modify montmorillonite (Mt) under microwave and ultrasound conditions. The composition and structure of products were obtained through multiple characterizations including XRD, FTIR, TG/DTG, SEM, TEM, and N2 adsorption/desorption measurements, and the adsorption performance of chromate and phenol on these products were also investigated. Intercalations of gBDDA and DTMA into interlayer space of Mt were observed, but the amount of anchored modifier on the external surface was larger for gBDDA compared with DTMA when the stoichiometric amount of modifier larger than 1.0 times cation exchange capacity of Mt was added. Although there was no significant difference in morphology among products, the interlayer space distance, specific surface area, and pore size distribution were closely associated with the species and amount of applied modifier. Adsorption of phenol on products through partition mechanism relied on not only organic content, but also the configuration of modifier. Meanwhile, adsorption of chromate mainly depended on the presence of counter ion (bromide), which accounted for the high adsorption capacity and initial adsorption rate on gOMt-0.75. The fitting parameters of adsorption results using pseudo-second order model and Freundlich model suggested that gBDDA-modified Mt could sequester phenol or chromate in the faster manner with higher affinity. Compared with the conventional surfactant such as DTMA, the study revealed that, using gemini surfactant such as gBDDA to modify Mt would significantly reduce or even has the potential to eradicate the secondary pollution by modifier release during adsorption process. This study provides a new direction for Mt modification intended to be used as adsorbents to treat polluted water with high standards such as drinking water.

17.
J Environ Manage ; 217: 825-831, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29660708

RESUMO

This study investigated the role of COD/N ratio on the start-up and performance of an upflow microaerobic sludge reactor (UMSR) treating piggery wastewater at 0.5 mgO2/L. At high COD/N ratio (6.24 and 4.52), results showed that the competition for oxygen between ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria limited the removal of nitrogen. Nitrogen removal efficiency was below 40% in both scenarios. Decreasing the influent COD/N ratio to 0.88 allowed achieving high removal efficiencies for COD (∼75%) and nitrogen (∼85%) due to the lower oxygen consumption for COD mineralization. Molecular biology techniques showed that nitrogen conversion at a COD/N ratio 0.88 was dominated by the anammox pathway and that Candidatus Brocadia sp. was the most important anammox bacteria in the reactor with a relative abundance of 58.5% among the anammox bacteria. Molecular techniques also showed that Nitrosomonas spp. was the major ammonia-oxidiser bacteria (relative abundance of 86.3%) and that denitrification via NO3- and NO2- also contributed to remove nitrogen from the system.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Águas Residuárias , Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 257: 102-112, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29486407

RESUMO

In this a, three-layered feedforward-backpropagation artificial neural network (BPANN) model was developed and employed to evaluate COD removal an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating industrial starch processing wastewater. At the end of UASB operation, microbial community characterization revealed satisfactory composition of microbes whereas morphology depicted rod-shaped archaea. pH, COD, NH4+, VFA, OLR and biogas yield were selected by principal component analysis and used as input variables. Whilst tangent sigmoid function (tansig) and linear function (purelin) were assigned as activation functions at the hidden-layer and output-layer, respectively, optimum BPANN architecture was achieved with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (trainlm) after eleven training algorithms had been tested. Based on performance indicators such the mean squared errors, fractional variance, index of agreement and coefficient of determination (R2), the BPANN model demonstrated significant performance with R2 reaching 87%. The study revealed that, control and optimization of an anaerobic digestion process with BPANN model was feasible.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias , Anaerobiose , Amido , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 254: 115-120, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29413911

RESUMO

A novel consolidated bioprocess for hyper-production of butyric acid from delignified rice straw without exogenous enzymes involved was developed by co-fermentation of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 and C. thermobutyricum ATCC 49875. Feasibility of the consolidated bioprocess was approved by batch fermentations, with the optimum pH of 6.5. Fed-batch fermentation with a constant pH of 6.5 at 55 °C could enhance the butyric acid yield to a remarkable 33.9 g/L with a selectivity as high as 78%. Metabolic analysis of the co-culture indicated that sugars liberated by C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 were effectively converted to butyric acid by C. thermobutyricum ATCC 49875. Secondary metabolism of C. thermobutyricum ATCC 49875 also contributed to the hyper-production of butyric acid, resulting in the re-assimilation of by-products such as acetic acid and ethanol. This work provides a more effective fermentation process for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass for future applications.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico , Oryza , Biomassa , Fermentação
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 249: 935-942, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29145120

RESUMO

To enhance nutrient removal more cost-efficiently in microaerobic process treating piggery wastewater characterized by high ammonium (NH4+-N) and low chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total nitrogen (TN) ratio, a novel upflow microaerobic biofilm reactor (UMBR) was constructed and the efficiency in nutrient removal was evaluated with various influent COD/TN ratios and reflux ratios. The results showed that the biofilm on the carriers had increased the biomass in the UMBR and enhanced the enrichment of slow-growth-rate bacteria such as nitrifiers, denitrifiers and anammox bacteria. The packed bed allowed the microaerobic biofilm process perform well at a low reflux ratio of 35 with a NH4+-N and TN removal as high as 93.1% and 89.9%, respectively. Compared with the previously developed upflow microaerobic sludge reactor, the UMBR had not changed the dominant anammox approach to nitrogen removal, but was more cost-efficiently in treating organic wastewater with high NH4+-N and low COD/TN ratio.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Nitrogênio , Águas Residuárias , Biofilmes , Desnitrificação , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...