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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238673, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153461

RESUMO

Abstract Coccidiosis remains one of the major problems in poultry all over the world. Very limited data on anticoccidial drugs in wild pigeons is available. The current study was aimed to understand the comparative efficacy of sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen in wild pigeons of Dir district, Pakistan suffering from coccidiosis. The faecal matter of wild pigeons were purchased from the local market for coccidian infection. Results revealed that 88.8% (16/18) were found infected with Eimeria spp. Three positive groups were treated with sulfadimidine (0.2mg/L), amprolium (25mg/L) and triquen. Sulfadimidine was most effective (45%) followed by amprolium (44.6%) while triquen (24.0%) showed less effectiveness against coccidiosis in pigeons. Number of oocysts were 79, 81 and 80 before treatment and 60, 44 and 44 after treatment with sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen respectively. This study showed that sulphadimidine, amprolium and triquen could not significantly reduce the coccidiosis in pigeons. Further studies are required to clear the mechanism of anti-coccidial drugs in wild pigeons.


Resumo A coccidiose continua sendo um dos maiores problemas em aves de todo o mundo. Dados muito limitados sobre drogas anticoccidiais em pombos selvagens estão disponíveis. O presente estudo teve como objetivo compreender a eficácia comparativa da sulfadimidina, amprólio e triquenho em pombos selvagens do distrito de Dir, no Paquistão, que sofrem de coccidiose. A matéria fecal dos pombos selvagens foi comprada no mercado local para infecção por coccídios. Os resultados revelaram que 88,8% (16/18) foram encontrados infectados com Eimeria spp. Três grupos positivos foram tratados com sulfadimidina (0,2mg / L), amprólio (25mg / L) e triquenho. A sulfadimidina foi mais eficaz (45%), seguida pelo amprólio (44,6%), enquanto o triquenho (24,0%) apresentou menor efetividade contra a coccidiose em pombos. O número de oocistos foram 79, 81 e 80 antes do tratamento e 60, 44 e 44 após o tratamento com sulfadimidina, amprólio e triquenho, respectivamente. Este estudo mostrou que sulphadimidine, amprolium e triquen não poderiam reduzir significativamente a coccidiose em pombos. Mais estudos são necessários para limpar o mecanismo de drogas anticoccidiais em pombos selvagens.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 934-939, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153427

RESUMO

Abstract During the present study thirteen Megaderma lyra bats were observed roosting in dark, domed shaped room of Rohtas Fort, district Jhelum. Out of these, six specimens were captured from the roosting site, using hand net. All captured specimens were male. These bats were identified through their unique facial features, an erect and elongated nose-leaf, large oval ears that joined above the forehead and no tail. Mean head and body length of captured specimens was 80 mm, forearm length was 67 mm while average lengths of 3rd, 4th and 5th metacarpals were 51.73 mm, 55.17 mm and 60.42 mm, respectively. Mean skull length was 29.84 mm, breadth of braincase was 12.77 mm. Average Penis length of two specimens was 6.6 mm and total bacular length was 3.08 mm respectively. This is the first record of Megaderma lyra from district Jhelum.


Resumo Durante o presente estudo, 13 morcegos Megadermalyra foram observados empoleirados em uma sala escura em forma de cúpula no Forte Rohtas, distrito de Jhelum, dos quais 6 espécimes foram capturados no local usando rede manual. Todos os espécimes capturados eram machos. Esses morcegos foram identificados por suas características faciais únicas, uma folha nasal ereta e alongada, grandes orelhas ovais que se juntam acima da testa e sem cauda. O comprimento médio da cabeça e do corpo dos espécimes capturados foi de 80 mm, o comprimento do antebraço foi de 67 mm, enquanto os comprimentos médios do 3º, 4º e 5º metacarpos foram de 51,73 mm, 55,17 mm e 60,42 mm, respectivamente. O comprimento médio do crânio foi de 29,84 mm, e a largura da caixa craniana, de 12,77 mm. O comprimento médio do pênis de duas amostras foi de 6,6 mm, e o comprimento total do báculo foi de 3,08 mm. Este é o primeiro registro de Megadermalyra no distrito de Jhelum.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 776-784, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153399

RESUMO

Abstract Present study was conducted to record ecotoparasitic prevalence in bat fauna of the northwestern parts of Pakistan. A total of 204 bat specimens representing 14 species were captured during a two year survey, extending from June 2015 through May 2016. A species of soft ticks Argas vespertilionis was identified from 23 bat specimens. Similarly, members of the family Dermanyssoidae (dermanyssoid mites) were isolated from 10 bat specimens, that of Spinturnicidae (spinturnicid mites) from 3 and Streblidae (bat flies) from 2 bat specimens. These parasites were collected using entomological tweezers and were identified on morphological basis. Further studies on parasitic prevalence, molecular characterization of bat parasites and their control measures are recommended.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para registrar a prevalência de ectoparasitas na fauna de morcegos em partes do noroeste do Paquistão. Um total de 204 espécimes de morcegos, representando 14 espécies, foi capturado durante uma pesquisa de dois anos, de junho de 2015 a maio de 2016. A espécie de carrapato Argas vespertilionis foi identificada em 23 espécimes de morcegos. Da mesma forma, os membros da família Dermanyssidae (ácaros dermanyssoid) foram isolados de 10 espécimes de morcego, os da Spinturnicidae (ácaros spinturnicid), de 3, e os da Streblidae (mosca de morcego), de 2 espécimes de morcego. Esses parasitas foram coletados com pinça entomológica e identificados com base morfológica. Estudos adicionais sobre prevalência parasitária, caracterização molecular de parasitas de morcego e suas medidas de controle devem ser realizados.

4.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238673, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729384

RESUMO

Coccidiosis remains one of the major problems in poultry all over the world. Very limited data on anticoccidial drugs in wild pigeons is available. The current study was aimed to understand the comparative efficacy of sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen in wild pigeons of Dir district, Pakistan suffering from coccidiosis. The faecal matter of wild pigeons were purchased from the local market for coccidian infection. Results revealed that 88.8% (16/18) were found infected with Eimeria spp. Three positive groups were treated with sulfadimidine (0.2mg/L), amprolium (25mg/L) and triquen. Sulfadimidine was most effective (45%) followed by amprolium (44.6%) while triquen (24.0%) showed less effectiveness against coccidiosis in pigeons. Number of oocysts were 79, 81 and 80 before treatment and 60, 44 and 44 after treatment with sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen respectively. This study showed that sulphadimidine, amprolium and triquen could not significantly reduce the coccidiosis in pigeons. Further studies are required to clear the mechanism of anti-coccidial drugs in wild pigeons.


Assuntos
Amprólio , Coccidiose , Animais , Galinhas , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/veterinária , Columbidae , Paquistão , Sulfametazina
5.
Braz J Biol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146253

RESUMO

During the present study thirteen Megaderma lyra bats were observed roosting in dark, domed shaped room of Rohtas Fort, district Jhelum. Out of these, six specimens were captured from the roosting site, using hand net. All captured specimens were male. These bats were identified through their unique facial features, an erect and elongated nose-leaf, large oval ears that joined above the forehead and no tail. Mean head and body length of captured specimens was 80 mm, forearm length was 67 mm while average lengths of 3rd, 4th and 5th metacarpals were 51.73 mm, 55.17 mm and 60.42 mm, respectively. Mean skull length was 29.84 mm, breadth of braincase was 12.77 mm. Average Penis length of two specimens was 6.6 mm and total bacular length was 3.08 mm respectively. This is the first record of Megaderma lyra from district Jhelum.

6.
Braz J Biol ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965336

RESUMO

Present study was conducted to record ecotoparasitic prevalence in bat fauna of the northwestern parts of Pakistan. A total of 204 bat specimens representing 14 species were captured during a two year survey, extending from June 2015 through May 2016. A species of soft ticks Argas vespertilionis was identified from 23 bat specimens. Similarly, members of the family Dermanyssoidae (dermanyssoid mites) were isolated from 10 bat specimens, that of Spinturnicidae (spinturnicid mites) from 3 and Streblidae (bat flies) from 2 bat specimens. These parasites were collected using entomological tweezers and were identified on morphological basis. Further studies on parasitic prevalence, molecular characterization of bat parasites and their control measures are recommended.

8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 729-734, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32099361

RESUMO

Background: Recently, use of nanotechnology in biomedical applications such as drug delivery and diagnostic and therapeutic tools has increased greatly. This study evaluated gold nanoparticle (GNPs)-induced nephrotoxic effects in rats in vivo, and examined protective effects of alpha-lipoic acid (α-Lip) and Vitamin E (Vit E) against nephrotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory kidney damage induced by GNPs. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar-Kyoto rats (220-240 g, 12 weeks old) were dosed with 50 µL of 10 nm GNPs administered intraperitoneally with or without 200 mg/kg/day Vit E or 200 mg/kg/day α-Lip. Serum was prepared for biochemical analyses. Kidney function was evaluated through measurement of creatinine (CR), uric acid (URIC), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation were evaluated by measurement of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in kidney tissue homogenates. Results and Conclusions: The results showed a significant rise in serum kidney function biomarkers including urea, URIC, CR, and BUN in GNP-treated rats compared to normal control rats. Furthermore, GNPs led to decreased GSH and elevated MDA levels. Vit E or α-Lip supplementation showed a beneficial effect against nephrotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory kidney damage induced by GNPs. This study suggests that use of natural antioxidants in combination with GNPs may be a useful tool in preventing GNPs toxicity.


Assuntos
Ouro/toxicidade , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Ácido Tióctico/farmacologia , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Creatinina/sangue , Glutationa/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Ácido Úrico/sangue
9.
Clin Transl Oncol ; 22(5): 663-669, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma is a well-known and commonly lethal tumour yet there exists scarce published information available from Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study examined the demographic, clinical, and histopathological profile of melanoma in a sample of Saudi patients over a period of 13 years. Medical records of 98 patients from 2004 to 2016 were retrieved from the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at King Faisal Specialist Hospital (KFSH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: Forty two males and fifty six females (median age of 58 years) were analysed. Most cases were diagnosed in patients aged 50 years or above. The most common sites of occurrence were the extremities, especially the feet, followed by the head and neck, and then mucosal regions. Most mucosal melanomas were located in the mouth. The most common histopathological form was nodular melanoma (38 cases) followed by acral lentiginous melanoma (27 cases). Most of the cases were diagnosed in late diagnostic stages III and IV (59 cases) and most had higher Clark's level and stage V Breslow thickness. The cases with preceding history of xeroderma pigmentosum and dysplastic nevi tended to be diagnosed earlier. The most common mode of treatment was surgical resection. Patients on palliative treatment were older. Only 27/40 patients were confirmed to be alive and the rest were lost to follow-up. CONCLUSION: Our data contrast with previously published studies from other parts of the world. Further work is needed to confirm our findings of female preponderance, common histological subtypes of nodular and acral melanomas, and the high involvement of oral mucosa in our Saudi patients.

10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 13: 7765-7770, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30538457

RESUMO

Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the nephrotoxicity caused by gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and investigate the potential roles of quercetin (Qur) and arginine (Arg) in mitigating the inflammatory kidney damage and dysfunction and inhibiting the toxicity induced by GNPs in rats. Methods: Kidney function was assessed using various serum biomarkers, including blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid (URIC), and creatinine (CR), while toxicity was evaluated by measuring the biomarkers glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in kidney tissues. Results: Administration of GNPs to the rats severely affected the serum kidney biomarkers, as confirmed by the notable increases in BUN, URIC, and CR. Substantial changes in the levels of the biomarkers MDA and GSH in the kidney tissues were also observed, with a reduced level of GSH and elevated MDA activity. The administration of Qur or Arg exerted a protective effect against GNP-induced inflammatory kidney damage and toxicity, but with different responses according to their evaluated normalized values. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the beneficial effects of supplementation with Qur or Arg during the treatment with GNPs, potentially providing a powerful tool for cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Arginina/uso terapêutico , Ouro/toxicidade , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Quercetina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Arginina/farmacologia , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Creatinina/sangue , Glutationa/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/sangue , Nefropatias/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Quercetina/farmacologia , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Ureia/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/sangue
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 13: 7931-7938, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30538469

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study was to verify and confirm the oxidative-mediated hepatotoxicity, inflammatory liver damage, and oxidative stress induced by intraperitoneal administration of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in vivo; characterize the effect of different natural antioxidants on these hazardous changes; and finally choose the most powerful antioxidant among these different natural antioxidants. Methods: Ten-nanometer GNPs were dissolved in aqueous solution of 0.01% concentration. A dose of 50 µL of 10 nm GNPs was administered intraperitoneally for 7 days to the rats, whereas the antioxidants were orally administered for the same time period. The antioxidants used in the study were vitamin E (Vit E), α-lipoic acid (ALA), quercetin (Qur), arginine (Arg), and melanin. Forty Wistar-Kyoto male rats were used. Rats were arbitrarily divided into seven groups after acclimatization for 1 week. For serum separation, blood samples were obtained from each animal. Serum liver function markers and tissue oxidative stress and lipid proxidation biomarkers were assessed. Results: The increase in the levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, alanine aminotransferase, and total bilirubin in the serum of rats and the increase of malondialdehyde in the hepatic tissue and decrease in reduced glutathione when compared with the control in this study confirmed the ability of GNPs to cause hazardous effects. Conclusion: Treatment of rats with Vit E, ALA, Qur, Arg, and melanin along with GNPs significantly inhibited the inflammatory liver damage, lipid peroxidation, and the oxidative stress induced by GNPs in vivo, but with different responses due to their evaluated normalization values, and it has been confirmed that melanin is the most powerful antioxidant among these different natural antioxidants, ie, it has the most effective potential role against the hepatic inflammatory damage, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Ouro/toxicidade , Inflamação/patologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bilirrubina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/sangue , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Ratos Wistar , gama-Glutamiltransferase/metabolismo
12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 13: 5207-5213, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30233181

RESUMO

Introduction: Melanin pigments are produced by melanocytes and are believed to act as antioxidants based on the belief that melanin can suppress electronically stirred states and scavenge the free radicals. Materials and methods: The study was aimed to verify and prove the toxicity induced by administration of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and to characterize the role of melanin as an antioxidant against inflammatory liver damage, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation induced intraperitoneally by GNPs in vivo. Results: The findings from this study confirmed that administration of GNPs intraperitoneally caused liver damage in addition to producing oxidative stress and fatty acid peroxidation. The treatment of rats with melanin along with GNPs induced dramatic changes in all the measured biochemical parameters. Our data demonstrated that melanin completely inhibited inflammatory liver damage, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation, which was confirmed by the histological investigation of different liver sections stained by H&E. Conclusion: These results suggest the beneficial use of melanin together with GNPs for alleviating its toxicity. Other studies should be implemented taking into consideration the role of melanin in comparison with other natural antioxidants.


Assuntos
Ouro/toxicidade , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Melaninas/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Glutationa/metabolismo , Ouro/química , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , gama-Glutamiltransferase/metabolismo
13.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 13: 2821-2825, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29785108

RESUMO

Background: The aim of the study was to confirm the hepatotoxicity induced by small-sized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and evaluate the role of quercetin (Qur) and arginine (Arg) against hepatotoxicity caused by GNPs. Methods: Twenty-five healthy male Wistar-Kyoto rats were used. GNPs were administered intraperitoneally to these rats at the dose of 50 µL for seven consecutive days. The role of Qur and Arg antioxidants against toxicity induced by GNPs was detected through the measurement of serum liver function and oxidative stress biomarkers in the liver tissues. Results: Coadministration of Qur and Arg along with GNPs significantly induced dramatic alterations in the biochemical parameters. Levels of malondialdehyde, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total protein increased significantly in the GNPs injected group than in the control group, while reduced glutathione was greatly reduced in the GNPs group than in the control group. It also significantly decreased liver enzymes and the oxidative stress, therefore improving the liver damage and hepatotoxicity induced by GNPs. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that Qur and Arg antioxidants effectively improved the hepatic oxidative damage induced by GNPs. It also substantiates the application of Qur and Arg as protecting stand-in against GNPs' hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Arginina/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Quercetina/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Ouro/efeitos adversos , Ouro/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY
14.
Mymensingh Med J ; 26(4): 831-839, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29208872

RESUMO

Magnitude of recurrent headache (RHA) is not well explored among school-children (schoolers) particularly in developing countries like Bangladesh, though recent literature reveals that RHA connotes serious public health implication(s) particularly in schoolers in resource constraint countries. To study age and gender-dependent correlates of RHA among secondary-level schoolers and to determine if these remains its risk-factors. Cross-sectional population based respondent-dependent study employing direct interviews using pre-tested open and closed-ended questionnaire following ICHD-II (2004) diagnostic criteria. Overall, 17% RHA was observed among 1499 schoolers surveyed initially, being more in pubertal/adolescents (13-15 years) than pre-pubertal (11-12 years) ones. Of screened-out 255 RHA positive cases, migraine (MHA) was observed in 55.3% while tension-type-headache (TTH) in 19.6% schoolers. RHA demonstrated a steady-inclining trend with schooler's age. Gender difference was obvious in MHA (p<0.001) but not in TTH (p<0.31). Pubertal schoolers (OR=8.75) and boys (OR=1.8) remained at greater risk for migraine but less risky for TTH. Mass-awareness program is imperative to prevent RHA among schoolers towards progressing it into chronicity, psycho-socially handicapped and economically burdened. Further in-depth studies warrant prudent data to examine its long-term risks/underlying factors involving more diverse population (school-children) from different geographical areas and cultural contexts.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Cefaleia do Tipo Tensional , Adolescente , Bangladesh , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Cefaleia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Cefaleia do Tipo Tensional/epidemiologia
15.
Public Health Action ; 7(1): 21-25, 2017 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28775939

RESUMO

Setting: Three public sector tertiary care hospitals in Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan, with anecdotal evidence of gaps between the diagnosis and treatment of patients with tuberculosis (TB). Objectives: To assess the proportion of pre-treatment loss to follow-up (LTFU), defined as no documented evidence of treatment initiation or referral in TB registers, among smear-positive pulmonary TB patients diagnosed in 2015, and the associated sociodemographic factors. Design: A retrospective cohort study involving the review of laboratory and TB registers. Results: Of 1110 smear-positive TB patients diagnosed (58% female, median age 40 years, 5% from outside the province or the country), 235 (21.2%) were lost to follow-up before starting treatment. Pre-treatment LTFU was higher among males; in patients residing far away, in rural areas, outside the province or the country; and in those without a mobile phone number. Conclusion: About one fifth of the smear-positive TB patients were lost to follow-up before starting treatment. Strengthening the referral and feedback mechanisms and using information technology to improve the tracing of patients is urgently required. Further qualitative research is needed to understand the reasons for pre-treatment LTFU from the patient's perspective.

16.
Tob Control ; 2017 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28500119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few assessments of pictorial warnings (PWs) on cigarette packs implemented in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have been done. METHODS: This article includes two cross-sectional studies. In Study 1, convenience samples of adults from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (n=111) and USA (n=115) participated in a consumer survey to rate a total of nine PWs from the GCC, Australia and the UK. Outcome measures were affective responses to PWs and concerns about smoking. In Study 2, tobacco control experts (n=14) from multiple countries rated the same PWs on a potential efficacy scale and completed one open-ended question about each. The PWs were altered to mask their country of origin. Analyses compared ranking on multiple outcomes and examined ratings by country of origin and by smoking status. RESULTS: In the consumer survey, participants from both countries rated the PWs from GCC lower than PWs from other countries on the two measures. The mixed-model analysis showed significant differences between the PWs from Australia and those from the GCC and between the PWs from the UK and those from the GCC (p<0.001) in the consumer and expert samples. The experts' comments about the PWs implemented in the GCC were negative overall and confirmed previously identified themes about effective PWs. CONCLUSION: This study shows PWs originating from the GCC had significantly lower ratings than those implemented in Australia and the UK. The GCC countries may need to re-evaluate the currently implemented PWs and update them periodically.

17.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 120(6): 515-522, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28027430

RESUMO

The biological pigment melanin is present in most of the biological systems. It manifests a host of biological and pharmacological properties. Its role as a molecule with special properties and functions affecting general health, including photoprotective and immunological action, are well recognized. Its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, radioprotective, hepatic, gastrointestinal and hypoglycaemic benefits have only recently been recognized and studied. It is also associated with certain disorders of the nervous system. In this MiniReview, we consider the steadily increasing literature on the bioavailability and functional activity of melanin. Published literature shows that melanin may play a number of possible pharmacological effects such as protective, stimulatory, diagnostic and curative roles in human health. In this MiniReview, possible health roles and pharmacological effects are considered.


Assuntos
Melaninas/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anticarcinógenos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Protetores Solares/farmacologia
18.
Luminescence ; 31(8): 1536-1542, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27345019

RESUMO

The synthesis and characterization of glass systems were carried out using prepared nanocrystals injected into a glass matrix as a thermoluminescence (TL) activator using the melt-quenching method. Sample 1 was prepared as [40P2 O5 50BaO:2.5MgO, 2.5Na2 O, 5TiO2 ], sample 2 as [37.5P2 O5 37.5CaO:25TiO2 ] and sample 3 as [50P2 O5 -50Li2 O]. Formation of the synthesized compound was confirmed by studying the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. An annealing procedure was carried out for 1 h at 400 °C. The glow curve position and shape shifted dramatically and linearly to the higher temperature values on increasing the heating rate. A heating rate of 30 °C/s was the most suitable for obtaining a high TL response. Samples 2 and 3 have the highest TL response, which approached the effective atomic number (Zeff ) of natural bone. The observed TL sensitivity of the prepared samples 2 and 3 is less than that of commercially available 'TLD-200 chips' and LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) phosphor. Sample [37.5P2 O5 37.5CaO:25TiO2 ] would be useful in personal and environmental dosimetry for measuring high doses of gamma radiation. Sample [50P2 O5 -50Li2 O] is a good dosimeter, although it requires the addition of an appropriate transitional metal (activator) to overcome the problem of high fading. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Vidro/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Fosfatos/química , Raios gama , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Tamanho da Partícula , Temperatura , Dosimetria Termoluminescente , Fatores de Tempo , Difração de Raios X
19.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 29(1 Suppl): 351-5, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27005501

RESUMO

The blood serum rheological properties open the door to find suitable radio-protectors and convenient therapy for many cases of radiation exposure. The present study aimed to investigate the rheological properties of rat blood serum at wide range of shear rates after whole body irradiation with different gamma radiation doses in vivo. Healthy male rats were divided into five groups; one control group and 4 irradiated groups. The irradiation process was carried out using Co60 source with dose rate of 0.883cG/sec. Several rheological parameters were measured using Brookfield LVDV-III Programmable rheometer. A significant increase in viscosity and shear stress was observed with 25 and 50Gy corresponding to each shear rate compared with the control; while a significant decrease observed with 75 and 100Gy. The viscosity exhibited a Non-Newtonian behaviour with the shear rate while shear stress values were linearly related with shear rate. The decrease in blood viscosity might be attributed to changes in molecular weight, pH sensitivity and protein structure. The changes in rheological properties of irradiated rats' blood serum might be attributed to destruction changes in the haematological and dimensional properties of rats' blood products.


Assuntos
Raios gama , Hemorreologia , Soro/química , Soro/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Proteínas Sanguíneas/química , Viscosidade Sanguínea/efeitos da radiação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Peso Molecular , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Resistência ao Cisalhamento/efeitos da radiação
20.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 26(2): 339-43, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25758886

RESUMO

Phaeohyphomycosis is a heterogeneous group of opportunistic infections caused by dematiaceous molds, which are distributed worldwide as plant pathogens but rarely cause human diseases. However, due to the growing populations of immunocompromised patients, these fungi are frequently recognized as important human pathogens. We are reporting this very rare, unique case for the first time from Islamabad, Pakistan, describing the association of visceral Phaeohyphomycosis caused by the opportunistic fungus Alternaria alternata, affecting the left kidney, with the immunocompromised state in a young incidentally detected patient with insulin-dependent type I diabetes. The case was diagnosed on the basis of a high index of clinical suspicion, microbial cultures, microscopy, imaging studies and endourological procedures. The patient did not respond well to the highly sensitive Amphotericin B, resulting in loss of the kidney. Therefore, we suggest that clinicians involved in treating immunocompromised patients should have a high degree of clinical suspicion for such opportunistic pathogens to allow timely initiation of the correct diagnostic and therapeutic work-up.


Assuntos
Alternaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/terapia , Feoifomicose/diagnóstico , Feoifomicose/terapia , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/terapia , Alternaria/imunologia , Alternaria/isolamento & purificação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hidronefrose/microbiologia , Hidronefrose/cirurgia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Nefrectomia , Infecções Oportunistas/imunologia , Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Feoifomicose/imunologia , Feoifomicose/microbiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Infecções Urinárias/imunologia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
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