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Prehosp Disaster Med ; 34(4): 385-392, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280729


BACKGROUND: The Global Terrorism Database (GTD) is an open-source database on terrorist incidents around the world since 1970, and it is maintained by the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START; College Park, Maryland USA), a US Department of Homeland Security Center of Excellence. The consortium reviews media reports to determine if an event meets eligibility to be categorized as a terrorism incident for entry into the database. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize chemical terrorism incidents reported to the GTD and understand more about the kinds of chemical agents used, the associated morbidity and mortality, the geography of incidents, and the intended targets. METHODS: Chemical terrorism incidents from 1970 through 2015 were analyzed by chemical agent category, injury and fatality, geographic region, and target. RESULTS: During the study period, 156,772 terrorism incidents were reported to the GTD, of which 292 (0.19%) met the inclusion criteria for analysis as a chemical terrorism incident. The reported chemical agent categories were: unknown chemical (30.5%); corrosives (23.3%); tear gas/mace (12.3%); unspecified gas (11.6%); cyanide (8.2%); pesticides (5.5%); metals (6.5%); and nerve gas (2.1%). On average, chemical terrorism incidents resulted in 51 injuries (mean range across agents: 2.5-1,622.0) and seven deaths (mean range across agents: 0.0-224.3) per incident. Nerve gas incidents (2.1%) had the highest mean number of injuries (n = 1,622) and fatalities (n = 224) per incident. The highest number of chemical terrorism incidents occurred in South Asia (29.5%), Western Europe (16.8%), and Middle East/North Africa (13.0%). The most common targets were private citizens (19.5%), of which groups of women (22.8%) were often the specific target. Incidents targeting educational institutions often specifically targeted female students or teachers (58.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Chemical terrorism incidents rarely occur; however, the use of certain chemical terrorism agents, for example nerve gas, can cause large mass-causality events that can kill or injure thousands with a single use. Certain regions of the world had higher frequency of chemical terrorism events overall, and also varied in their frequencies of the specific chemical terrorism agent used. Data suggest that morbidity and mortality vary by chemical category and by region. Results may be helpful in developing and optimizing regional chemical terrorism preparedness activities.

Causas de Morte , Terrorismo Químico/estatística & dados numéricos , Defesa Civil/organização & administração , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 56(9): 841-845, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29490507


INTRODUCTION: Steroidal alkaloids are found in plants of the genus Veratrum. Their toxicity manifests as gastrointestinal symptoms followed by a Bezold-Jarisch reflex: hypopnea, hypotension, and bradycardia. Some Veratrum steroidal alkaloids are also teratogens interfering with the hedgehog-2 signaling pathway, which causes cyclopsia and holoprosencephaly. We present a case of accidental poisoning from Veratrum parviflorum mistaken for the edible Allium tricoccum (ramps, wild leek). CASE HISTORY: A 27-year-old man and his 25-year-old wife presented to the emergency department with nausea, vomiting, hypotension, and bradycardia after foraging and ingesting plants that they believed to be a local native species of wild leek. METHODS: We collected and analyzed the implicated fresh plant material and both patients' serum/plasma. We used liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and high-resolution electrospray ionization time of flight tandem mass spectrometry to extract and characterize steroidal alkaloids from the foraged plant and patients' serum. RESULTS: Our V. parviflorum samples contained verazine, veratramine, veratridine, and cyclopamine. DISCUSSION: Steroidal alkaloids have been previously isolated from Veratrum viride and Veratrum album and toxicity has been reported mainly from V. album species. CONCLUSION: V. parviflorum toxicity manifests with gastrointestinal and cardiac symptoms. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive as with previous case reports of toxicity with other Veratrum species.

Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico , Intoxicação por Plantas/fisiopatologia , Alcaloides de Veratrum/envenenamento , Veratrum/envenenamento , Vômito/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Georgia , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Vômito/etiologia
J Med Toxicol ; 13(2): 173-179, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28105575


INTRODUCTION: Bongkrekic acid (BA) has a unique mechanism of toxicity among the mitochondrial toxins: it inhibits adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) rather than the electron transport chain. Bongkrekic acid is produced by the bacterium Burkholderia gladioli pathovar cocovenenans (B. cocovenenans) which has been implicated in outbreaks of food-borne illness involving coconut- and corn-based products in Indonesia and China. Our objective was to summarize what is known about the epidemiology, exposure sources, toxicokinetics, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis and treatment of human BA poisoning. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (1946 to present), EMBASE (1947 to present), SCOPUS, The Indonesia Publication Index ( ), ToxNet, book chapters, Google searches, Pro-MED alerts, and references from previously published journal articles. We identified a total of 109 references which were reviewed. Of those, 29 (26 %) had relevant information and were included. Bongkrekic acid is a heat-stable, highly unsaturated tricarboxylic fatty acid with a molecular weight of 486 kDa. Outbreaks have been reported from Indonesia, China, and more recently in Mozambique. Very little is known about the toxicokinetics of BA. Bongkrekic acid produces its toxic effects by inhibiting mitochondrial (ANT). ANT can also alter cellular apoptosis. Signs and symptoms in humans are similar to the clinical findings from other mitochondrial poisons, but they vary in severity and time course. Management of patients is symptomatic and supportive. CONCLUSIONS: Bongkrekic acid is a mitochondrial ANT toxin and is reported primarily in outbreaks of food-borne poisoning involving coconut and corn. It should be considered in outbreaks of food-borne illness when signs and symptoms manifest involving the liver, brain, and kidneys and when coconut- or corn-based foods are implicated.

Ácido Bongcréquico/envenenamento , Infecções por Burkholderia/microbiologia , Burkholderia gladioli/metabolismo , Cocos/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Translocases Mitocondriais de ADP e ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Zea mays/microbiologia , Animais , Ácido Bongcréquico/farmacocinética , Infecções por Burkholderia/enzimologia , Infecções por Burkholderia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Burkholderia/terapia , Burkholderia gladioli/patogenicidade , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/enzimologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/terapia , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Translocases Mitocondriais de ADP e ATP/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 65(29): 748-9, 2016 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27466822


Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (1). It is typically brewed into a tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules (2). It is also known as Thang, Kakuam, Thom, Ketum, and Biak (3). The Drug Enforcement Administration includes kratom on its Drugs of Concern list (substances that are not currently regulated by the Controlled Substances Act, but that pose risks to persons who abuse them), and the National Institute of Drug Abuse has identified kratom as an emerging drug of abuse (3,4). Published case reports have associated kratom exposure with psychosis, seizures, and deaths (5,6). Because deaths have been attributed to kratom in the United States (7), some jurisdictions have passed or are considering legislation to make kratom use a felony (8). CDC characterized kratom exposures that were reported to poison centers and uploaded to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) during January 2010-December 2015. The NPDS is a national database of information logged by the country's regional poison centers serving all 50 United States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico and is maintained by the American Association of Poison Control Centers. NPDS case records are the result of call reports made by the public and health care providers.

Mitragyna/envenenamento , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
J Med Toxicol ; 12(3): 315-7, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27379884


Evidence suggests that in-utero exposure to environmental chemicals, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), heavy metals, and radionuclides, that might bioaccumulate in the mother may increase a newborn's risk of adverse developmental, neurological, and immunologic effects. Chemical contamination of bodies of water and strong ocean currents worldwide can drive these chemicals from lower latitudes to Arctic waters where they accumulate in common traditional subsistence foods. In response to concerns of the people from Alaska of the effects of bio-accumulated chemicals on their children, the Maternal Organics Monitoring Study(MOMS) was developed. The objective of the study was to assess the risks and benefits associated with the population's subsistence diet. Data analysis of biological samples at the CDC's NCEH laboratory and maternal questionnaires is ongoing. Results will be provided to Alaska Native communities to help support public health actions and inform future interventions and research.

Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Contaminação de Alimentos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Toxicologia/métodos , Adulto , Alaska , Nativos do Alasca , Regiões Árticas , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Exposição Materna/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Saúde Pública/tendências , Sistema de Registros , Toxicologia/tendências , Estados Unidos , United States Dept. of Health and Human Services