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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e235612, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153466

RESUMO

Abstract The experiment was carried out on mango cv. Dusehri to investigate the effect of N, P and K fertilizers on vegetative, reproductive growth, yield and fruit quality. Eight different fertilizer combinations such as T1 (control), T2 (N), T3 (P), T4 (K), T5 (NP), T6 (NK), T7 (PK) and T8 (NPK) were used. Individual or combine fertilizer application of N (1000 g), P (750 g) and K (750 g) were applied during growing season in February and August. All the treatments significantly influenced on vegetative growth, flowering, fruiting, yield and other physiochemical attributes of mango as compared to control. Least effect was observed with individual fertilizer application while combine fertilizer treatments enhanced most of the investigated parameters. Especially, qualitative traits showed non-significant differences between treated and untreated mango trees. However, among the different treatments T8 (NPK) showed significance for fruiting aspects such as maximum size of growth flushes (177.51 mm), total number of panicles/tree (845), total number of flowers/panicle (974), sex ratio (69.18%), fruit retention (13.85%), total number of fruits/tree (379), yield (82 kg/tree), fruit weight (197.5 g), pulp weight (135.5 g) and physiochemical parameters namely TSS (24.53), Vit. C (57.63 mg/100 mL) and total sugar (20.84%). In general, combine application of NPK (T8) were the most effective in enhancing fruiting aspects, yield, physiochemical characteristics as well as improved fruit quality of mango trees.


Resumo O experimento foi realizado em manga cv. Dusehri para investigar o efeito dos fertilizantes N, P e K no crescimento vegetativo, reprodutivo, produtividade e de qualidade do fruto. Foram utilizadas oito combinações diferentes de fertilizantes: T1 (controle), T2 (N), T3 (P), T4 (K), T5 (NP), T6 (NK), T7 (PK) e T8 (NPK). Cada tratamento de N (1.000 g), P (750 g) e K (750 g) foi aplicado duas vezes durante a estação de crescimento em fevereiro e agosto. Todos os tratamentos influenciaram significativamente o crescimento vegetativo, floração, frutificação, produtividade e outros atributos físico-químicos da manga em relação ao controle. Menos efeito foi observado com a aplicação individual de fertilizante, enquanto os tratamentos combinados aumentaram a maioria dos parâmetros investigados. Especialmente as características qualitativas mostraram diferenças não significativas entre mangueiras tratadas e não tratadas. No entanto, entre os diferentes tratamentos, T8 (NPK) apresentou significância para aspectos de frutificação, como tamanho máximo de folgas de crescimento (177,51 mm), número total de panículas/árvore (845), número total de flores/panícula (974), razão sexual (69,18%), retenção de frutos (13,85%), número total de frutos/árvore (379), produção (82 kg/árvore), peso do fruto (197,5 g) e peso da polpa (135,5 g), além de parâmetros físico-químicos, como TSS (24,53), vitamina C (57,63 mg/100 mL) e açúcar total (20,84%). Em geral, a aplicação combinada de NPK (T8) foi a mais eficaz no aprimoramento dos aspectos de frutificação, produtividade, características físico-químicas, além da melhoria da qualidade dos frutos das mangueiras.

2.
Radiology ; : 201740, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904776

RESUMO

Acknowledging the increasing number of studies describing the use of whole-body MRI for cancer screening, and the increasing number of examinations being performed in patients with known cancers, an international multidisciplinary expert panel of radiologists and a geneticist with subject-specific expertise formulated technical acquisition standards, interpretation criteria, and limitations of whole-body MRI for cancer screening in individuals at higher risk, including those with cancer predisposition syndromes. The Oncologically Relevant Findings Reporting and Data System (ONCO-RADS) proposes a standard protocol for individuals at higher risk, including those with cancer predisposition syndromes. ONCO-RADS emphasizes structured reporting and five assessment categories for the classification of whole-body MRI findings. The ONCO-RADS guidelines are designed to promote standardization and limit variations in the acquisition, interpretation, and reporting of whole-body MRI scans for cancer screening. Published under a CC BY 4.0 license Online supplemental material is available for this article.

3.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799913

RESUMO

Using semi-automated software simplifies quantitative analysis of the visible burden of disease on whole-body MRI diffusion-weighted images. To establish the intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measures, we retrospectively analyzed data from 20 patients with bone metastases from breast (BCa; n = 10; aged 62.3 ± 14.8) or prostate cancer (PCa; n = 10; aged 67.4 ± 9.0) who had undergone examinations at two timepoints, before and after hormone-therapy. Four independent observers processed all images twice, first segmenting the entire skeleton on diffusion-weighted images, and then isolating bone metastases via ADC histogram thresholding (ADC: 650-1400 µm2/s). Dice Similarity, Bland-Altman method, and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient were used to assess reproducibility. Inter-observer Dice similarity was moderate (0.71) for women with BCa and poor (0.40) for men with PCa. Nonetheless, the limits of agreement of the mean ADC were just ±6% for women with BCa and ±10% for men with PCa (mean ADCs: 941 and 999 µm2/s, respectively). Inter-observer Intraclass Correlation Coefficients of the ADC histogram parameters were consistently greater in women with BCa than in men with PCa. While scope remains for improving consistency of the volume segmented, the observer-dependent variability measured in this study was appropriate to distinguish the clinically meaningful changes of ADC observed in patients responding to therapy, as changes of at least 25% are of interest.

4.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750684

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Next-generation imaging includes positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (wbMRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging. Accurate quantification of oligometastatic disease using next-generation imaging is important to define the role and value of metastasis-directed therapy (MDT). OBJECTIVE: To perform a review of next-generation imaging modalities in the detection of recurrent oligometastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer in men who received prior radical treatment for localized disease. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Libraries, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched for studies reporting next-generation imaging and oncological outcomes. An expert panel of urologists, radiation oncologists, radiologists, and nuclear medicine physicians performed a nonsystematic review of strengths and limitations of currently available imaging options for detecting the presence and extent of recurrent oligometastatic disease. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: From 370 articles identified, three clinical trials and 21 observational studies met the following inclusion criteria: metachronous oligometastatic recurrence after radical treatment for prostate cancer, MDT, and hormone-sensitive patients. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) was allowed before MDT. Next-generation imaging modalities included PET/computed tomography and/or PET/MRI with the following tracers: choline (n = 1), NaF (n = 1), and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA; n = 1) for clinical trials; choline (n = 7) or PSMA (n = 11) or both (n = 3) for observational studies. The number of metastases ranged from two to five lesions in most studies. In PSMA-based studies, progression-free survival ranged from 19% to 100%, whereas in studies employing choline, progression-free survival ranged from 16% to 93%. Overall, ADT-free survival ranged from 48% to 79%, while local control was reported as 75-100% and prostate-specific antigen response as 23-94%. Among the different PET tracers and wbMRI, PSMA PET is emerging as the most accurate imaging technique in defining the oligometastatic status. CONCLUSIONS: PSMA and choline PET contribute to guiding MDT in men with hormone-sensitive oligometastatic prostate cancer. Further studies are warranted to ascertain their role and optimize the timing of imaging for such patients. PATIENT SUMMARY: We looked at the evidence regarding the use of modern imaging techniques to direct additional treatments in men with early spread of prostate cancer after they receive their initial radical treatment. We found that next-generation imaging, in particular prostate-specific membrane antigen and choline positron emission tomography, can successfully guide metastasis-directed therapies, and further trials should evaluate which modalities are best suited to improve outcomes for our patients.

5.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e235612, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681899

RESUMO

The experiment was carried out on mango cv. Dusehri to investigate the effect of N, P and K fertilizers on vegetative, reproductive growth, yield and fruit quality. Eight different fertilizer combinations such as T1 (control), T2 (N), T3 (P), T4 (K), T5 (NP), T6 (NK), T7 (PK) and T8 (NPK) were used. Individual or combine fertilizer application of N (1000 g), P (750 g) and K (750 g) were applied during growing season in February and August. All the treatments significantly influenced on vegetative growth, flowering, fruiting, yield and other physiochemical attributes of mango as compared to control. Least effect was observed with individual fertilizer application while combine fertilizer treatments enhanced most of the investigated parameters. Especially, qualitative traits showed non-significant differences between treated and untreated mango trees. However, among the different treatments T8 (NPK) showed significance for fruiting aspects such as maximum size of growth flushes (177.51 mm), total number of panicles/tree (845), total number of flowers/panicle (974), sex ratio (69.18%), fruit retention (13.85%), total number of fruits/tree (379), yield (82 kg/tree), fruit weight (197.5 g), pulp weight (135.5 g) and physiochemical parameters namely TSS (24.53), Vit. C (57.63 mg/100 mL) and total sugar (20.84%). In general, combine application of NPK (T8) were the most effective in enhancing fruiting aspects, yield, physiochemical characteristics as well as improved fruit quality of mango trees.


Assuntos
Mangifera , Animais , Aves , Fertilizantes , Frutas , Árvores
7.
Rheumatol Int ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688999

RESUMO

Mucosal dryness and dyspareunia are symptoms that may significantly affect women with primary SjÓ§gren syndrome (pSS). We investigated whether vaginal dryness is correlated with sexual function, and the impact may have on the quality of life (QoL) and mental health well-being in pSS patients. Ethically approved comparative cross-sectional study was designed to assess sexual function using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) in 65 pSS female patients vs 62 sex-matched controls. The effect of vaginal dryness and fatigue on sexual function was investigated. Vaginal dryness was correlated with oral dryness estimated by salivary flow rate and the Clinical Oral Dryness Score to investigate whether genital dryness is indicative of general mucosal dryness in pSS. Validated questionnaires were used to investigate the effect of sexual function on QoL and mental health well-being. The number of sexually active pSS participants was significantly less than in the control group (28/65 vs 42/62, p < 0.05). The sexual function was significantly impaired in the pSS group (mean FSFI = 19 vs 28.3, p < 0.05). There was no significant association between self-reported vaginal dryness and oral dryness or sexual function. The open-ended questions showed that the most troublesome symptom reported by pSS patients was oral dryness (43%, n = 28/65) followed by fatigue (31%, n = 20/65). Sexual dysfunction had a negative impact on QoL and the mental health well-being of pSS patients in all aspects, especially on the quality of social life (ß = 0.7, p = 0.02). Addressing sexual dysfunction can potentially improve the QoL of pSS patients significantly, especially their social well-being.

8.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(3): 395-402, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570542

RESUMO

Importance: Screening for prostate cancer using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing can lead to problems of underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis. Short, noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or transrectal ultrasonography might overcome these limitations. Objective: To compare the performance of PSA testing, MRI, and ultrasonography as screening tests for prostate cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, population-based, blinded cohort study was conducted at 7 primary care practices and 2 imaging centers in the United Kingdom. Men 50 to 69 years of age were invited for prostate cancer screening from October 10, 2018, to May 15, 2019. Interventions: All participants underwent screening with a PSA test, MRI (T2 weighted and diffusion), and ultrasonography (B-mode and shear wave elastography). The tests were independently interpreted without knowledge of other results. Both imaging tests were reported on a validated 5-point scale of suspicion. If any test result was positive, a systematic 12-core biopsy was performed. Additional image fusion-targeted biopsies were performed if the MRI or ultrasonography results were positive. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was the proportion of men with positive MRI or ultrasonography (defined as a score of 3-5 or 4-5) or PSA test (defined as PSA ≥3 µg/L) results. Key secondary outcomes were the number of clinically significant and clinically insignificant cancers detected if each test was used exclusively. Clinically significant cancer was defined as any Gleason score of 3+4 or higher. Results: A total of 2034 men were invited to participate; of 411 who attended screening, 408 consented to receive all screening tests. The proportion with positive MRI results (score, 3-5) was higher than the proportion with positive PSA test results (72 [17.7%; 95% CI, 14.3%-21.8%] vs 40 [9.9%; 95% CI, 7.3%-13.2%]; P < .001). The proportion with positive ultrasonography results (score, 3-5) was also higher than the proportion of those with positive PSA test results (96 [23.7%; 95% CI, 19.8%-28.1%]; P < .001). For an imaging threshold of score 4 to 5, the proportion with positive MRI results was similar to the proportion with positive PSA test results (43 [10.6%; 95% CI, 7.9%-14.0%]; P = .71), as was the proportion with positive ultrasonography results (52 [12.8%; 95% CI, 9.9%-16.5%]; P = .15). The PSA test (≥3 ng/mL) detected 7 clinically significant cancers, an MRI score of 3 to 5 detected 14 cancers, an MRI score of 4 to 5 detected 11 cancers, an ultrasonography score of 3 to 5 detected 9 cancer, and an ultrasonography score of 4 to 5 detected 4 cancers. Clinically insignificant cancers were diagnosed by PSA testing in 6 cases, by an MRI score of 3 to 5 in 7 cases, an MRI score of 4 to 5 in 5 cases, an ultrasonography score of 3 to 5 in 13 cases, and an ultrasonography score of 4 to 5 in 7 cases. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, when screening the general population for prostate cancer, MRI using a score of 4 or 5 to define a positive test result compared with PSA alone at 3 ng/mL or higher was associated with more men diagnosed with clinically significant cancer, without an increase in the number of men advised to undergo biopsy or overdiagnosed with clinically insignificant cancer. There was no evidence that ultrasonography would have better performance compared with PSA testing alone.

9.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33585994

RESUMO

"Node-RADS" addresses the lack of consensus in the radiologic assessment of lymph node involvement by cancer and meets the increasing demand for structured reporting on the likelihood of disease involvement. Node Reporting and Data System 1.0 (Node-RADS) systematically classifies the degree of suspicion of lymph node involvement based on the synthesis of established imaging findings. Straightforward definitions of imaging findings for two proposed scoring categories "size" and "configuration" are combined into assessment categories between 1 ("very low likelihood") and 5 ("very high likelihood"). This scoring system is suitable for assessing likely involvement of lymph nodes on CT and MRI scans. It can be applied at any anatomical site, and to regional and non-regional lymph nodes in relation to a primary tumor location. Node-RADS will improve communication with referring physicians and promote the consistency of reporting for primary staging and in response assessment settings. KEY POINTS: • Node-RADS standardizes reporting of possible cancer involvement of regional and distant lymph nodes on CT and MRI. • Node-RADS proposes the scoring categories "size" and "configuration" for assigning the 5-point Node-RADS score from 1 ("very low likelihood") to 5 ("very high likelihood"). • Node-RADS aims to increase consensus among radiologists for primary staging and in response assessment settings.

10.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Imaging techniques are used to identify local recurrence of prostate cancer (PCa) for salvage therapy and to exclude metastases that should be addressed with systemic therapy. For magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a reduction in the variability of acquisition, interpretation, and reporting is required to detect local PCa recurrence in men with biochemical relapse after local treatment with curative intent. OBJECTIVE: To propose a standardised method for image acquisition and assessment of PCa local recurrence using MRI after radiation therapy (RP) and radical prostatectomy (RT). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Prostate Imaging for Recurrence Reporting (PI-RR) was formulated using the existing literature. An international panel of experts conducted a nonsystematic review of the literature. The PI-RR system was created via consensus through a combination of face-to-face and online discussions. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Similar to with PI-RADS, based on the best available evidence and expert opinion, the minimum acceptable MRI parameters for detection of recurrence after radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy are set. Also, a simplified and standardised terminology and content of the reports that use five assessment categories to summarise the suspicion of local recurrence (PI-RR) are designed. PI-RR scores of 1 and 2 are assigned to lesions with a very low and low likelihood of recurrence, respectively. PI-RR 3 is assigned if the presence of recurrence is uncertain. PI-RR 4 and 5 are assigned for a high and very high likelihood of recurrence, respectively. PI-RR is intended to be used in routine clinical practice and to facilitate data collection and outcome monitoring for research. CONCLUSIONS: This paper provides a structured reporting system (PI-RR) for MRI evaluation of local recurrence of PCa after RT and RP. PATIENT SUMMARY: A new method called PI-RR was developed to promote standardisation and reduce variations in the acquisition, interpretation, and reporting of magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating local recurrence of prostate cancer and guiding therapy.

12.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(3): 1034-1041, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369647

RESUMO

Primary SS (pSS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the exocrine glands leading to glandular dysfunction, resulting in dryness of the eyes, mouth and other mucosal surfaces. Systemic manifestations also occur in the majority of patients. There has been increasing interest in recent years, with a number of publications regarding the classification criteria, diagnostic tools, disease activity, damage, impact and potential treatments. This article reviews recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of ocular and oral involvement in pSS. Recent stand-out developments include measurement of tear osmolarity as a marker in dry eye disease diagnosis, new devices measuring tear constituents and meibomian gland structure and treatment of its dysfunction. Lip biopsy is still valuable despite emerging evidence of non-invasive diagnostic techniques, notably salivary gland ultrasound.

13.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 23(12): 1530-1538, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Since the Dengue virus spreads rapidly and the vector becomes resistant to insecticides and larvicides, exploration of new compounds that overcome resistance problems, are easily degraded and do not lead to bioaccumulation, is needed. This study evaluated four extract types of Derris elliptica represented the polar, semi-polar and nonpolar extract against the 3rd-instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and determined the effective concentration among the extracts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The crude extract was obtained from the maceration of root powder of the plant with methanol and subsequently evaporated. The crude extract was diluted in distilled water and partitioned sequentially with ethyl-acetate, n-hexane and water to obtain their fractions. All the fractions were evaporated to obtain their extract types. Initial bioassay test of the extracts with concentration ranges of 50, 100, 500 and 1,000 mg L-1 against Ae. aegypti larvae and resulted in 86-100% larval mortality rates at concentrations of 50 and 100 mg L-1, except for water extract. The lower concentration range of 3, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg L-1 of three extract types were tested. RESULTS: Larval mortality rates of 18.4-100, 1.6-99.2 and 0.8-98.4% with LC50 of 4.088, 14.066 and 21.063 mg L-1, respectively for n-hexane, methanol and ethyl-acetate. FTIR analysis indicated nine lead compounds in which rotenone and ceramides were observed in all extract types. CONCLUSION: The n-hexane extract showed the highest larvicidal toxicity and its specific compounds are necessarily isolated to obtain pure bioactive ingredients.

14.
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol ; 24(6): 726-750, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307587

RESUMO

Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) is gradually being integrated into clinical pathways for the detection, characterization, and staging of malignant tumors including those arising in the musculoskeletal (MSK) system. Although further developments and research are needed, it is now recognized that WB-MRI enables reliable, sensitive, and specific detection and quantification of disease burden, with clinical applications for a variety of disease types and a particular application for skeletal involvement. Advances in imaging techniques now allow the reliable incorporation of WB-MRI into clinical pathways, and guidelines recommending its use are emerging. This review assesses the benefits, clinical applications, limitations, and future capabilities of WB-MRI in the context of other next-generation imaging modalities, as a qualitative and quantitative tool for the detection and characterization of skeletal and soft tissue MSK malignancies.

15.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382151

RESUMO

Over the past decade, updated definitions for the different stages of prostate cancer and risk for distant disease, along with the advent of new therapies, have remarkably changed the management of patients. The two expectations from imaging are accurate staging and appropriate assessment of disease response to therapies. Modern, next-generation imaging (NGI) modalities, including whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) and nuclear medicine (most often prostate-specific membrane antigen [PSMA] positron emission tomography [PET]/computed tomography [CT]) bring added value to these imaging tasks. WB-MRI has proven its superiority over bone scintigraphy (BS) and CT for the detection of distant metastasis, also providing reliable evaluations of disease response to treatment. Comparison of the effectiveness of WB-MRI and molecular nuclear imaging techniques with regard to indications and the definition of their respective/complementary roles in clinical practice is ongoing. This paper illustrates the evolution of WB-MRI imaging protocols, defines the current state-of-the art, and highlights the latest developments and future challenges. The paper presents and discusses WB-MRI indications in the care pathway of men with prostate cancer in specific key situations: response assessment of metastatic disease, "all in one" cancer staging, and oligometastatic disease.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess non-invasive imaging for detection and quantification of gland structure, inflammation and function in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) using PET-CT with 11C-Methionine (11C-MET; radiolabelled amino acid), and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG; glucose uptake marker), to assess protein synthesis and inflammation, respectively; multiparametric MRI evaluated salivary gland structural and physiological changes. METHODS: In this imaging/clinical/histology comparative study (GSK study 203818; NCT02899377) patients with pSS and age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers underwent MRI of the salivary glands and 11C-MET PET-CT. Patients also underwent 18F-FDG PET-CT and labial salivary gland biopsies. Clinical and biomarker assessments were performed. Primary endpoints were semi-quantitative parameters of 11C-MET and 18F-FDG uptake in submandibular and parotid salivary glands and quantitative MRI measures of structure and inflammation. Clinical and minor salivary gland histological parameter correlations were explored. RESULTS: Twelve patients with pSS and 13 healthy volunteers were included. Lower 11C-MET uptake in parotid, submandibular and lacrimal glands, lower submandibular gland volume, higher MRI fat fraction, and lower pure diffusion in parotid and submandibular glands were observed in patients vs healthy volunteer, consistent with reduced synthetic function. Disease duration correlated positively with fat fraction and negatively with 11C-MET and 18F-FDG uptake, consistent with impaired function, inflammation and fatty replacement over time. Lacrimal gland 11C-MET uptake positively correlated with tear flow in patients, and parotid gland 18F-FDG uptake positively correlated with salivary gland CD20+ B-cell infiltration. CONCLUSION: Molecular imaging and MRI may be useful tools to non-invasively assess loss of glandular function, increased glandular inflammation and fat accumulation in pSS.

17.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241520

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: • Identify, assure, and measure major sources of variability affecting the MRI-directed biopsy pathway for prostate cancer diagnosis.• Develop strategies to control and minimize variations that impair pathway effectiveness including the performance of main players and team working.• Assure end-to-end quality of the diagnostic chain with robust multidisciplinary team working.

18.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 6(1): 83, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060614

RESUMO

Bone is the most frequent site for metastasis for many cancers, notably for tumours originating in the breast and the prostate. Tumour cells can escape from the primary tumour site and colonize the bone microenvironment. Within the bone, these disseminated tumour cells, as well as those arising in the context of multiple myeloma, may assume a state of dormancy, remaining quiescent for years before resuming proliferation and causing overt metastasis, which causes bone destruction via activation of osteoclast-mediated osteolysis. This structural damage can lead to considerable morbidity, including pain, fractures and impaired quality of life. Although treatment of bone metastases and myeloma bone disease is rarely curative, disease control is often possible for many years through the use of systemic anticancer treatments on a background of multidisciplinary supportive care. This care should include bone-targeted agents to inhibit tumour-associated osteolysis and prevent skeletal morbidity as well as use of appropriate local treatments such as radiation therapy, orthopaedic surgery and specialist palliative care to minimize the impact of metastatic bone disease on physical functioning. In this Primer, we provide an overview of the clinical features, the pathophysiology and the specific treatment approaches to prevent and treat bone metastases from solid tumours as well as myeloma bone disease.

19.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38 Suppl 126(4): 180-188, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether the use of digital image analysis (DIA) in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) for the calculation of the total area of the salivary gland (SG), focus score (FS) and SG area occupied by the inflammatory infiltrate (area fraction, AF), was able to generate reproducible readings among different raters, reducing disagreement. METHODS: Haematoxylin and Eosin digital slides from pSS and non-specific chronic sialadenitis (NSCS) patients were analysed blindly by 4 independent raters among 3 centres. Using an open-source software (QuPath) raters were asked to provide the total area of the gland i) using a grid-based method and ii) a software-based area-calculation tool, iii) the number of inflammatory foci and iv) the total area of the inflammatory infiltrate. Collected data was used to calculate the inter-rater agreement. RESULTS: For the calculation of the total SG area, DIA generated higher agreement among raters than grid-based calculation (inter-class correlation coefficient ICC=0.85 vs 0.98). Agreement for calculated total area of the inflammatory infiltrate (ICC=0.94) and for AF (ICC=0.94) was higher than infiltrates count number (ICC=0.54) and FS (ICC=0.56). AF achieved a 30% improvement over the FS at generating consensus among raters when used as a diagnostic cut-off. CONCLUSIONS: A digital approach achieved a far superior inter-rater agreement when calculating the total area compared to a grid-based approach. The calculation of AF proved superior to FS in correctly classifying pSS vs NSCS biopsies. We suggest that digitally calculated AF should be used alongside FS for large multi-centre studies to improve data harmonisation.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Sjogren , Algoritmos , Humanos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Glândulas Salivares/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Sjogren/diagnóstico
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