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1.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(12): 2217-2226, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end-products (AGE) are formed through nonenzymatic glycation of free amino groups in proteins or lipid. They are associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, and their accumulation in the body is implicated in chronic disease morbidity and mortality. We examined the association between postdiagnosis dietary Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML)-AGE intake and mortality among women diagnosed with breast cancer. METHODS: Postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years were enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) between 1993 and 1998 and followed up until death or censoring through March 2018. We included 2,023 women diagnosed with first primary invasive breast cancer during follow-up who completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) after diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards (PH) regression models estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of association between tertiles of postdiagnosis CML-AGE intake and mortality risk from all causes, breast cancer, and cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: After a median 15.1 years of follow-up, 630 deaths from all causes were reported (193 were breast cancer-related, and 129 were cardiovascular disease-related). Postdiagnosis CML-AGE intake was associated with all-cause (HRT3vsT1, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.09-1.74), breast cancer (HRT3vsT1, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.98-2.24), and cardiovascular disease (HRT3vsT1, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.09-3.32) mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of AGEs was associated with higher risk of major causes of mortality among postmenopausal women diagnosed with breast cancer. IMPACT: Our findings suggest that dietary AGEs may contribute to the risk of mortality after breast cancer diagnosis. Further prospective studies examining dietary AGEs in breast cancer outcomes and intervention studies targeting dietary AGE reduction are needed to confirm our findings.

2.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455445

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence favors a network concept in tuberous sclerosis (TSC) with seizure generation and propagation related to changes in global and regional connectivity between multiple, anatomically distant tubers. Direct exploration of network dynamics in TSC has been made possible through intracranial sampling with stereoelectroencephalography (sEEG). The objective of this study is to define epileptic networks in TSC using quantitative analysis of sEEG recordings. We also discuss the impact of the definition of these epileptic networks on surgical decision-making. METHODS: Intracranial sEEG recordings were obtained from four pediatric patients who presented with medically refractory epilepsy secondary to TSC and subjected to quantitative signal analysis methods. Cortical connectivity was quantified by calculating pairwise coherence between all contacts and constructing an association matrix. The global coherence, defined as the ratio of the largest eigenvalue to the sum of all the eigenvalues, was calculated for each frequency band (delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma). Spatial distribution of the connectivity was identified by plotting the leading principal component (product of the largest eigenvalue and its corresponding eigenvector). RESULTS: Four pediatric subjects with TSC underwent invasive intracranial monitoring with sEEG, comprising 31 depth electrodes and 250 contacts, for localization of the epileptogenic focus and guidance of subsequent surgical intervention. Quantitative connectivity analysis revealed a change in global coherence during the ictal period in the beta/low gamma (14-30 Hz) and high gamma (31-80 Hz) bands. Our results corroborate findings from existing literature, which implicate higher frequencies as a driver of synchrony and desynchrony. CONCLUSIONS: Coordinated high-frequency activity in the beta/low gamma and high gamma bands among spatially distant sEEG define the ictal period in TSC. This time-dependent change in global coherence demonstrates evidence for intra-tuberal and inter-tuberal connectivity in TSC. This observation has surgical implications. It suggests that targeting multiple tubers has a higher chance of seizure control as there is a higher chance of disrupting the epileptic network. The use of laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) allowed us to target multiple disparately located tubers in a minimally invasive manner with good seizure control outcomes.

3.
Radiography (Lond) ; 27(3): 927-934, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775519

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Continuing Professional development (CPD) is deemed essential for the Radiographers (DR) and Radiation Therapists (RT) after Singapore commenced state registration. Diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy treatment services are constantly revolutionizing and those working in this field requires sufficient knowledge of the uptrends for training and development. The purpose of this survey is to identify the current training needs of the registered DR and RT in Singapore, and to understand their views about CPD activities. METHODS: An online questionnaire was disseminated by the Singapore Society of Radiographers (SSR) to all registered DR and RT in Singapore, and all practicing in restructured and private hospitals were included. Data collection took place from January 2018 to April 2018. RESULTS: 102 responses were analysed, where 89 were DR and 13 were RT. CPD was provided in 72.5% (n = 74) of the participants' institutions, and 69.6% (n = 71) of participants were aware of CPD. Interestingly, participants were significantly more likely to be unaware of CPD when working in an institution which do not offer CPD. Training programme objective was the most important factor for selecting a programme. 93.1% (n = 95) preferred SSR to support them for CPD. There were a few constraints to CPD engagements identified such as financial factors, lack of time, and institution availability. CONCLUSION: There was significant intrinsic motivation in a quality CPD activity. CPD activities should be current, accessible and relevant for the healthcare professionals to increase participation, which directly contributes to high standards of clinical care. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Local healthcare institutions should be aware and address needs, gaps and aspirations of the local DR and RT community to ensure adequate preparation has been made upon initiation of mandatory CPD.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Motivação , Singapura , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Ethn Dis ; 31(1): 57-66, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33519156

RESUMO

Objective: We applied a social network approach to examine if three types of diabetes-related stigma (self-stigma, perceived stigma and enacted stigma) moderated associations between social network characteristics (network size, kin composition, household composition, and network density), social support, and blood glucose among Ghanaians with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Data were obtained through a cross-sectional survey of 254 adults at a diabetes clinic in Ghana that assessed participants' social networks, social support, and frequency of experiencing three types of diabetes-related stigma. Results: Self-stigma moderated associations between kin composition and social support when controlling for network size ß=-.97, P=.004). Among study participants reporting low self-stigma, kin composition was positively associated with social support (ß=1.29, P<.0001), but this association was not found among those reporting high self-stigma. Network size was positively associated with social support among participants reporting both low and high self-stigma. None of the types of diabetes-related stigma moderated other associations between social networks, social support, and blood glucose. Conclusions: Individuals with T2DM who report high self-stigma may have lower social support, which can reduce their capacity for disease management. Additionally, larger social networks may be beneficial for individuals with T2DM in countries like Ghana, and interventions that expand network resources may facilitate diabetes control.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Gana , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Rede Social , Apoio Social
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 83-91, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153327

RESUMO

Abstract Current study assessed the impact of Lantana camara invasion on native plant diversity in Pothohar region of Pakistan. The approach used for study was random samplings and comparisons of diversity indices [number of species (S), abundance (N), species richness (R), evenness (Jꞌ), Shannon diversity index (Hꞌ) and Simpson index of dominance (λ)] with two categorical factors i.e., invaded and non-invaded (control). Control plots harboured by an average of 1.74 more species/10m2. The control category was diverse (Hꞌ=2.56) than invaded category (Hꞌ=1.56). The higher value of species richness in control plots shows heterogeneous nature of communities and vice versa in invaded plots. At multivariate scale, ordination (nMDS) and ANOSIM showed significant magnitude of differences between invaded and control plots at all sites. The decrease in studied diversity indices in invaded over control sites indicated that plant communities become less productive due to Lantana invasion.


Resumo O presente estudo avaliou o impacto da invasão de Lantana camara na diversidade de plantas nativas na região de Pothohar, no Paquistão. A abordagem utilizada para o estudo foram a amostragem aleatória e a comparação de índices de diversidade, como número de espécies (S), abundância (N), riqueza de espécies (R), equitabilidade (Jꞌ), índice de diversidade de Shannon (Hꞌ) e índice de dominância de Simpson (λ), com dois fatores categóricos, ou seja, invadidos e não invadidos (controle). As parcelas não invadidas tinham, em média, 1,74 espécie a mais / 10 m2 que parcelas invadidas. A categoria controle foi mais diversa (Hꞌ = 2,56) do que a categoria invadida (Hꞌ = 1,56). O maior valor da riqueza de espécies em parcelas de controle mostra a natureza heterogênea das comunidades, e vice-versa, em parcelas invadidas. Na escala multivariada, ordenação (nMDS) e ANOSIM mostraram magnitude significativa das diferenças entre as parcelas invadidas e controle em todos os locais. A diminuição nos índices de diversidade estudados em locais invadidos por controle indicou que as comunidades de plantas se tornam menos produtivas por causa da invasão de Lantana.

6.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 27(6): 1271-1280, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Heavy users of the emergency department (ED) are a heterogeneous population. Few studies have captured the social and demographic complexity of patients with the largest burden of ED use. Our objective was to model associations between social and demographic patient characteristics and quantiles of the distributions of ED use, defined as frequent and high-charge. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of electronic health and billing records of 99 637 adults residing in an urban North Carolina county who visited an ED within Atrium Health, a large integrated health care system, in 2017. Mid-quantile and standard quantile regression models were used for count and continuous responses, respectively. Frequent and high-charge use outcomes were defined as the median (0.50) and upper quantiles (0.75, 0.95, 0.99) of the outcome distributions for total billed ED visits and associated charges during the study period. Patient characteristic predictors were: insurance coverage (Medicaid, Medicare, private, uninsured), total visits to ambulatory care during the study period (0, 1, >1), and patient demographics: age, gender, race, ethnicity, and living in an underprivileged community called a public health priority area (PHPA). RESULTS: Results showed heterogeneous relationships that were stronger at higher quantiles. Having Medicaid or Medicare insurance was positively associated with ED visits and ED charges at most quantiles. Racial and geographic disparities were observed. Black patients had more ED visits and lower ED charges than their White counterparts at most quantiles of the outcome distributions. Patients living in PHPAs, had lower charges than their counterparts at the median but higher charges at the 0.95 and 0.99 quantiles. CONCLUSIONS: The relationships between patient characteristics and frequent and high-charge use of the ED vary based on the level of use. These findings can be used to inform targeted interventions, tailored policy, and population health management initiatives.

7.
J Relig Health ; 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517523

RESUMO

This study examined whether the frequency of participation in religious activities and seeking care from spiritual and other traditional medicine (TM) practitioners were associated with blood glucose (HbA1c) control among urban Ghanaians with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Findings revealed that increased frequency of participation in religious activities was significantly associated with decreased HbA1c levels, whereas increased use of TM practitioners was significantly associated with increased HbA1c levels. These findings suggest that strategically integrating religious activities into disease management plans for Ghanaians with T2DM who identify as being religious may be a viable intervention mechanism.

8.
Am J Emerg Med ; 46: 225-232, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether and how avoidable emergency department (ED) utilization is associated with ambulatory or primary care (APC) utilization, insurance, and interaction effects. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: A cross-sectional analysis of electronic health records from 70,870 adults residing in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, who visited an ED within a large integrated healthcare system in 2017. METHODS: APC utilization was measured as total visits, categorized as: 0, 1, and > 1. Insurance was defined as the method of payment for the ED visit as: Medicaid, Medicare, private, or uninsured. Avoidable ED utilization was quantified as a score (aED), calculated as the sum of New York University Algorithm probabilities multiplied by 100. Quantile regression models were used to predict the 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th, and 99th percentiles of avoidable ED scores with APC visits and insurance as predictors (Model 1) and with an interaction term (Model 2). RESULTS: Having >1 APC visit was negatively associated with aED at the lower percentiles and positively associated at higher percentiles. A higher aED was associated with having Medicaid insurance and a lower aED was associated with having private insurance, compared to being uninsured. In stratified models, having >1 APC visit was negatively associated with aED at the 25th percentile for the uninsured and privately insured, but positively associated with aED at higher percentiles among the uninsured, Medicaid-insured, and privately insured. CONCLUSIONS: The association between APC utilization and avoidable ED utilization varied based on segments of the distribution of ED score and differed significantly by insurance type.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina , Revisão da Utilização de Recursos de Saúde
9.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(9): e171-e178, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between depression and fall risk in older adults is recognized, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. This study estimated the mediating role of antidepressant use in the association between depression and falls and fall injuries. METHODS: Longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (2004-2006) were linked with medication data from the Prescription Drug Study (2005). The sample included community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 with data on depression and medication use (n = 3565). Depression was measured using 2 independent survey tools: Composite International Diagnostic Interview for depression short form and an 8-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. We used causal mediation analysis to estimate and compare the direct and indirect (mediated by antidepressant use) effects of depression on falls and fall injuries. RESULTS: Individuals with major depressive disorder were significantly more likely to experience a fall (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.41, 2.62) and a fall injury (OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.55) over 2 years. Indirect effect estimates showed that antidepressant medication use accounted for approximately 19% and 18% of the association between major depressive disorder and falls and fall injuries, respectively. Results were similar when using an alternative depression measure and when considering only selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: Antidepressant use explains a significant proportion, but not a majority, of the association between depression and greater fall risk. Treatment benefits of antidepressants should be considered with, and may outweigh, concerns about increased risk of falls associated with antidepressant use.

11.
J Periodontol ; 92(7): 975-982, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survival average causal effect (SACE) can give valid estimates of the periodontal treatment effect on birth outcomes in randomized controlled trials when fetal losses are unequal across the treatment arms. A regression-based method to estimate SACE using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression can be biased if the treatment effect varies across the outcome distribution. In this case quantile regression may be a suitable alternative. METHODS: We compared OLS and quantile regression models estimating SACE to calculate the effect of periodontal treatment on birthweight and gestational age in secondary analyses of publicly available Obstetrics and Periodontal Therapy (OPT) trial data. RESULTS: Periodontal treatment tended to increase birthweight and gestational age at the lowest quantiles, remained flat in the middle quantiles, and trended to decrease both birthweight and gestational age in the highest quantiles. In quantile regression models estimating SACE the ß-coefficients: 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles were 277.5:  -141.0 to 696.0 g, 1.4: -107 to 110.3 g, and -84: -344 to 175.3 g for birthweight, and 0.6: -1.0 to 2.2 weeks, -0.1: -0.5 to 0.2 weeks, and -0.6: -1.0 to -0.1 weeks for gestational age. Estimates from OLS models estimating SACE were close to the null, ß: 95% CI -4.7: 132.3 to 123.0 g for birthweight, and 0.03: -0.72 to 0.78 weeks for gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: OLS models to evaluate SACE for periodontal treatment effects on birthweight and gestational age may be biased towards the null. Quantile regression may be a preferable alternative.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Gravidez , Análise de Regressão
12.
Braz J Biol ; 81(1): 83-91, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236291

RESUMO

Current study assessed the impact of Lantana camara invasion on native plant diversity in Pothohar region of Pakistan. The approach used for study was random samplings and comparisons of diversity indices [number of species (S), abundance (N), species richness (R), evenness (Jꞌ), Shannon diversity index (Hꞌ) and Simpson index of dominance (λ)] with two categorical factors i.e., invaded and non-invaded (control). Control plots harboured by an average of 1.74 more species/10m2. The control category was diverse (Hꞌ=2.56) than invaded category (Hꞌ=1.56). The higher value of species richness in control plots shows heterogeneous nature of communities and vice versa in invaded plots. At multivariate scale, ordination (nMDS) and ANOSIM showed significant magnitude of differences between invaded and control plots at all sites. The decrease in studied diversity indices in invaded over control sites indicated that plant communities become less productive due to Lantana invasion.


Assuntos
Lantana , Paquistão , Plantas
13.
Am J Med ; 134(1): e15-e19, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been an increase in the use of smokeless tobacco recently. Whether smokeless tobacco use may predispose individuals to use other addictive substances is unknown. The use of multiple addictive substances may compound an individual's adverse health effects. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis, we used the 2016-2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey database to identify all individuals who reported the use of smokeless tobacco and extracted data regarding baseline and demographic patterns, as well as information regarding the use of other addictive substances. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, poverty level, education, employment status, and marital status were used to determine the odds ratios (ORs) for use of alcohol, cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and marijuana among smokeless tobacco users. RESULTS: We identified 30,395 (3.38%) individuals in our study population who reported smokeless tobacco use. Compared with non-users, smokeless tobacco users were more likely to be unmarried, male, Caucasian, belonging to the lower socioeconomic strata, and did not have a formal college education (P <0.01). In multivariable analyses, smokeless tobacco use was associated with a higher likelihood of cigarettes use (OR: 1.76 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.66-1.86, P <0.01]), e-cigarette use (OR: 1.61 [95% CI: 1.52-1.71, P <0.01]), and heavy alcohol consumption (OR:2.36 [95% CI: 2.17-2.56, P <0.01]) but not marijuana use (OR: 1.11 [95% CI: 0.90-1.38, P = 0.33]). CONCLUSION: In a large, nationally representative sample, smokeless tobacco use was associated with the increased use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and alcohol. Simultaneous use of these substances may compound the adverse health effects of smokeless tobacco use. Public health interventions addressing this concerning trend are warranted.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Tabaco sem Fumaça/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
15.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 49(4): 377-383, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341956

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Poor oral health has been shown to be associated with selected adverse health outcomes. This study assessed the association between untreated dental caries and mortality and examined whether having dental insurance mitigates the risk of mortality among working-age US adults with dental caries. METHODS: Analysis used the publicly available linked mortality file for NHANES III, an observational study conducted in 1988-1994, with follow-up through December 2015. Propensity score matching was conducted to create similar populations of insured and uninsured adults, resulting in a sample of 4420 matched observations. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to investigate the effect of untreated dental caries and that of dental insurance on risk of all-cause mortality. The descriptive and final outcome statistical analyses were adjusted for complex sampling technique using weights, strata and cluster variables. RESULTS: Adults with untreated dental caries had a higher risk of mortality (HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.06-1.68) than those with no dental caries. Having dental insurance was associated with a lower risk of mortality (HR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.59-0.92). An interaction between caries treatment status and dental insurance was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with untreated dental caries have a higher risk of mortality, even in the presence of dental insurance. Untreated caries may be an indicator for multiple risk factors, including personal attitudes regarding health and healthcare-seeking behaviour.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Adulto , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Saúde Bucal , Fatores de Risco
16.
Kans J Med ; 13: 318-321, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33343826

RESUMO

Introduction: The prevalence of e-cigarette use among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals and its association with risk behaviors was studied. Methods: Using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey, self-reported sexual orientation, e-cigarette use, cigarettes, marijuana, smokeless tobacco, and high-risk behavior (using non-prescribed drugs, treatment for sexually transmitted disease, or receiving monetary or drug compensation in exchange for sex in the previous year) were assessed. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to study the association between LGBT and risk behaviors. Results: The prevalence of e-cigarette use among LGBT adults was 13%, nearly twice that of heterosexual adults. LGBT adults were more likely [Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)] to report current use of e-cigarettes 1.84 (1.64, 2.06), cigarettes 1.61 (1.49, 1.73), marijuana 2.37 (1.99, 2.82), and high-risk behavior 3.69 (3.40, 4.01) compared to heterosexual adults. Results for smokeless tobacco were not significant. Conclusion: There are disparities in e-cigarette and other risk behaviors among LGBT adults, which may increase risk of adverse health effects in this vulnerable population.

18.
J Clin Periodontol ; 47(11): 1294-1303, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939782

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the relationship of dental insurance with all-cause mortality and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes mellitus (DM), and cerebrovascular diseases (CBD) among those with periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NHANES III and its associated mortality data set were used in this study. The outcome variables were "all-cause mortality" and "combined mortality" due to CVD, DM, and CBD. The independent variable was dental insurance stratified over periodontitis status. Unweighted frequencies with weighted column percentages were used for descriptive statistics, and chi-square test was applied for significance. Cox proportional hazard models were used for stratified multivariable analyses. All analyses were performed in SAS v9.4 accounting for survey data complexities. Significance level was kept at 5%. RESULTS: The mortality was 14.58% for all-cause mortality and 4.06% for combined mortality among those with periodontitis in this study. Dental insurance significantly reduced the hazard of all-cause mortality among those with periodontitis (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.61 - 0.93), adjusted for covariates. However, no association of dental insurance with combined mortality was observed among periodontitis group. CONCLUSIONS: Dental insurance reduces hazard of all-cause mortality among those with periodontitis. Dental insurance ensures access to dentists and improves oral and dental health. Longitudinal study is needed to establish causality.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Periodontite , Adulto , Humanos , Seguro Odontológico , Estudos Longitudinais , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 565-573, July-Sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132399

RESUMO

Abstract Due to increased number of herbicide resistant weeds, it is needed to explore the allelopathic potential of plants as an alternative. The research was conducted to investigate allelopathic effects of Carica papaya L. leaf powder and aqueous extract on seeds as well as pre-germinated seeds of Avena fatua L., Helianthus annuus L., Rumex dentatus L., Zea mays L. and Triticum aestivum L. on filter paper and soil in Weed Management Program Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Protection at PARC Institute of Advanced Studies in Agriculture, National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. Germination percentage (%), radicle length (cm) and plumule length (cm) were parameters observed for 'Plant leaf powder bioassay' and 'Aqueous extract method'. Most significant growth inhibition was observed in A. fatua seedlings in filter paper method. A. fatua radicle length was reduced by C. papaya aqueous extract (80%) and leaf powder (89%) bioassays. Plumule length was reduced under the influence of aqueous extract (57-73%) and powdered material (59-77%). The inhibitory effects on other test species were in sequence of H. annuus followed by Z. mays and R. dentatus. The aqueous extract showed non-significant effect on wheat seed germination, radicle and plumule growth. It is suggested that C. papaya aqueous extract can be used as source of weed management in wheat crop.


Resumo Devido ao aumento do número de ervas daninhas resistentes aos herbicidas, é necessário explorar o potencial alelopático das plantas como uma alternativa. A pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de investigar os efeitos alelopáticos do pó foliar de Carica papaya e do extrato aquoso das sementes, bem como das sementes pré-germinadas de Avena fatua, Helianthus annuus, Rumex dentatus, Zea mays e Triticum aestivum em papel de filtro e solo no Laboratório do Programa de Manejo de Ervas Daninhas, Departamento de Plantas e Proteção Ambiental do Instituto PARC de Estudos Avançados em Agricultura, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa Agrícola, Islamabad, Paquistão. A porcentagem de germinação (%), o comprimento radicular e o comprimento da plúmula (cm) foram os parâmetros observados para o 'Bioensaio de Pó de Folha de Planta' e o 'Método de Extração Aquoso'. A maior inibição do crescimento foi observada em mudas de A. fatua no método de papel de filtro. O comprimento radicular de A. fatua foi reduzido com os extratos aquosos de C. papaya (80%) e pó de folhas (89%). O comprimento das plúmulas foi reduzido sob a influência do extrato aquoso (57-73%) e material em pó (59-77%). Os efeitos inibitórios em outras espécies-teste foram na sequência de H. annuus seguido por Z. mays e R. dentatus. O extrato aquoso apresentou efeito não significativo na germinação das sementes de trigo, nos crescimentos radiculares e das plúmulas. Sugere-se que o extrato aquoso de C. papaya pode ser utilizado como fonte de manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura do trigo.

20.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 22(10): 52, 2020 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772332

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the data regarding periodontitis and its association with cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as a closer look at the connection between periodontitis and valvular heart disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The body of literature that demonstrates an association between periodontitis and CVD is growing, and there is increasing evidence that periodontal disease (PD) can have negative cardiovascular effects. Far less data is available for the management of periodontitis specifically in those with valvular heart disease. However, recent studies suggest that routine preoperative dental evaluation practices may not be necessary in all patients and, similar to changes in antibiotic prophylaxis, may only be indicated for a select group of individuals. There is a strong association between PD and CVD, although a causal relationship is yet to be elucidated. Further data is needed in this regard, as well as in determining the appropriate management of PD in those with valvular heart disease.


Assuntos
Endocardite/epidemiologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
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