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1.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 20(4): 380-383, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852249

RESUMO

Melanoma is a common tumor accounting for around 3–5% of all cutaneous malignancies with worldwide increasing incidence. It is still associated with significant mortality despite the breakthrough of new innovative therapies within the last decade. A wide variety of treatment modalities is currently used for the management of melanoma, ranging from surgical excision of primary melanoma to adju-vant and palliative treatment with target molecules, including BRAF and MEK inhibitors, and immune checkpoint inhibitors. β-blockers have recently demonstrated in preclinical and clinical studies to reduce recurrence and to correlate with better overall survival in meta-static melanoma as an additional supportive treatment option, owing to their anti-tumor potential. Further investigation regarding their efficacy and safety profile is needed, since there are only few studies in the literature on this topic. Our aim is to evaluate the role and current status of β-blockers in melanoma management. The literature research includes peer-reviewed articles (clinical trials or scien-tific reviews). Studies were identified by searching electronic databases (MEDLINE and PubMed) till May 2020 and reference lists of respective articles. Only articles published in English language were included. J Drugs Dermatol. 20(4):380-383. doi:10.36849/JDD.5673.

4.
Dermatol Ther ; : e14618, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263945

RESUMO

Sarcoidosis and sarcoid-like reactions (SLRs) may develop in association with various malignancies, as well as in association to certain oncologic drugs, including immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). We aimed to perform a narrative review with regard to the development of ICIs-associated sarcoidosis or SLRs, and to discuss the corresponding diagnostic and therapeutic challenges raised in this scenario. Apropos of a melanoma patient developing SLRs while treated with ipilimumab and nivolumab, we searched for clinically evident, ICIs-associated sarcoidosis or SLRs in the English literature. We recorded the oncologic characteristics, including type of malignancy and type of ICI, the phenotypic characteristics of sarcoidosis/SLRs, as well as the impact on immunotherapy. Including our patient, we identified 80 ICIs-associated sarcoidosis or SLRs cases. Both sexes were equally affected (40 F/40 M) and the most common malignancy was melanoma (65/80, 81.3%). Concerning the oncologic treatment, there was a predilection for pembrolizumab (23/80, 28.7%), followed by the ipilimumab/nivolumab combination (21/80, 26.3%), ipilimumab (18/80, 22.5%), nivolumab (16/80, 20.0%). Although in the majority of the cases (52/80, 65.0%) there was no need for systemic prednisolone for the management of sarcoidosis, a significant proportion of patients finally discontinued ICIs treatment (44/80, 55.0%). Phenotypically, sarcoidosis and SLRs highly imitate oncologic progression posing diagnostic difficulties. A therapeutic dilemma is also raised when there is a need for systemic prednisolone, since the latter may jeopardize the therapeutic efficacy of immunotherapy. Sarcoidosis and SLRs, though rare, can present in oncologic patients treated with ICIs. Clinicians should be aware of this possibility and the related diagnostic and therapeutic challenges they have to face in this scenario.

5.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs)-mediated psoriasis poses significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. OBJECTIVE: To report data on ICI-mediated psoriasis, emerging from the largest so far cohort and to propose a step-by-step management algorithm. METHODS: The medical records of all patients with ICI-mediated psoriasis were retrospectively reviewed across nine institutions. RESULTS: We included a cohort of 115 individuals. Grade-1, 2 and 3 disease severity was reported in 60/105 (57.1%, 10 missing data), 34/105 (32.4%) and 11/105 (10.5%), respectively. The ratio between de novo and exacerbation cases of psoriasis was 21/90 (23.3%). The most common systemic therapy was acitretin (23 patients, 20.1%), followed by systemic steroids (8 patients, 7%), apremilast (7 patients, 6.1%), methotrexate (5 patients, 4.3%) and biologics (4 patients, 3.6%). Overall, 29/112 patients (25.9%) interrupted and 20/111 (18%) permanently discontinued ICIs due to psoriasis. BSA>10% at baseline had a 3.6 increased risk for ICIs treatment modification (OR=3.64, CI 1.27-10.45, p=0.03) and a 6.4 increased risk for permanent discontinuation (OR=6.41, CI 2.40-17.11, p<0.001). Guttate psoriasis and grade2/3 disease were significant positive predictors for antitumor response of ICI whereas pruritus was a negative predictor. LIMITATIONS: Retrospective design CONCLUSION: Acitretin, apremilast and methotrexate are safe and effective modalities for ICI-mediated psoriasis. In most cases, ICI can be completed unhindered. A therapeutic algorithm is proposed.

6.
Eur J Dermatol ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Omalizumab is approved for the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) not responding to antihistamines. Data on omalizumab use in real-world settings and in different populations are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To record our five-year experience of omalizumab use in patients with refractory CSU in a real-world setting. MATERIALS & METHODS: A retrospective analysis of medical records of 80 patients with refractory CSU was performed. Demographic, and clinical characteristics, patterns of response, discontinuation strategies and rate of recurrence were analysed. RESULTS: Eighty individuals were included. UAS7 and DLQI significantly decreased from baseline. Complete response was achieved in 86.3%. Late response was observed at 27.5% of the patients. After discontinuation, 21.7% of patients reinitiated omalizumab due to relapse. The mean number of omalizumab administrations up to first discontinuation was 6.8 (based on an approach to shorten the treatment interval). Only 15.0% of patients experienced adverse events during treatment. CONCLUSION: Omalizumab, with long-term management, was highly effective and safe in achieving control of refractory CSU, with more favourable responses compared to Phase III clinical trials.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314891

RESUMO

The indisputable contribution of dermatoscopy in early diagnosis of melanoma is widely recognized. In the last quinquennium, new data concerning specific melanoma subtypes have come to light. The dermatoscopic morphology of superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) has been extensively investigated in the literature. Atypical network, irregular dots, irregular globules, irregular streaks and irregular blotch correspond to histopathologic alterations at the level of the junction, blue-white veil and atypical vessels suggest intradermal growth, whereas regression structures, negative network and white shiny streaks might reflect junctional or dermal alterations. The list of melanoma specific criteria has been recently updated to include features that typify early melanoma, such as irregular hyperpigmented areas and prominent skin markings and features seen in melanoma on sun damaged skin such as angulated lines. Nodular melanoma lacks most of the aforementioned criteria and is typified by the coexistence of blue and black color, atypical vessels and pink color. Lentigo maligna dermatoscopic criteria mainly develop at the outline of the follicular openings. However, at an early stage these features might be very subtle and the diagnosis should be based on the exclusion of benign tumors (inverse approach). Acral lentiginous melanoma is typified by a parallel ridge pattern, but also SSM criteria should be taken into consideration. The diagnosis of subungual melanoma is based on the assessment of the color and characteristics of the pigmented nail band. For the diagnosis of mucosal melanoma, the assessment of colors is more informative than the assessment of structures and the detection of blue, white or gray should raise the suspicion of melanoma. White shiny streaks and regression structures are the most common features of desmoplastic melanoma. The diagnosis of nevoid melanoma might be highly challenging and require information on the lesion's history. Melanoma on small- and medium-sized congenital nevi is typified by an eccentric location of the suspicious area, negative network and gray angulated lines. Recent advances in knowledge on the dermatoscopic characteristics of peculiar subtypes of the tumor significantly enrich the diagnostic armamentarium of clinicians. The challenge of the forthcoming years is to better characterize biologically aggressive melanomas and to optimize the screening strategies so as to identify them.

9.
Eur J Dermatol ; 30(6): 688-698, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermoscopy has been shown to be a useful supportive tool to assist the diagnosis of several non-neoplastic dermatoses (i.e. inflammatory, infiltrative and infectious skin diseases), yet data on skin of colour is still limited. OBJECTIVES: To characterize dermoscopic features of non-neoplastic dermatoses in dark-skinned patients in order to identify possible clues that may facilitate the differential diagnosis of clinically similar conditions. MATERIALS & METHODS: Members of the International Dermoscopy Society were invited to submit cases of any non-neoplastic dermatosis developing in patients with Fitzpatrick Phototypes V-VI whose diagnosis had been confirmed by the corresponding gold standard diagnostic test. A standardized assessment of the dermoscopic images and a comparative analysis according to clinical presentation were performed. Seven clinical categories were identified: (I) papulosquamous dermatoses; (II) facial hyperpigmented dermatoses; (III) extra-facial hyperpigmented dermatoses; (IV) hypopigmented dermatoses; (V) granulomatous dermatoses; (VI) sclerotic dermatoses; and (VII) facial inflammatory dermatoses. RESULTS: A total of 653 patients (541 and 112 with Phototype V and VI, respectively) were recruited for the analysis. Thirty-six statistically significant dermoscopic features were identified for papulosquamous dermatoses, 24 for facial hyperpigmented disorders, 12 for extra-facial hyperpigmented disorders, 17 for hypopigmented disorders, eight for granulomatous dermatoses, four for sclerotic dermatoses and 17 for facial inflammatory diseases. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that dermoscopy might be a useful tool in assisting the diagnosis of clinically similar non-neoplastic dermatoses in dark phototypes by revealing characteristic clues. Study limitations include the retrospective design, the lack of a direct dermoscopic-histological correlation analysis and the small sample size for less common diseases.


Assuntos
Dermoscopia , Dermatopatias/patologia , Pigmentação da Pele , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sociedades Médicas
11.
Dermatol Ther ; : e14514, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166029

RESUMO

The skin is the most common organ of involvement during the course of lupus erythematosus (LE). The literature data concerning the dermatoscopic patterns of the different clinical variants of cutaneous LE (CLE), namely chronic (CCLE), subacute (SCLE), and acute (ACLE), are scarce. To determine the dermatoscopic spectrum of CLE and to correlate the dermatoscopic features with the histological findings. This was a retrospective, observational, multicenter, cohort study. We evaluated the dermatoscopic features in a cohort of patients diagnosed with CLE. Furthermore, we investigated their frequency per clinical subtype and correlated them with the anatomic alterations. We included 79 patients. The most prevalent dermatoscopic features of CCLE included follicular plugs (86.4%, P < .01), patchy distribution (75%, P = .1) of mostly linear curved vessels (56.8%, P = .8), white scales (68.2%, P < .01), and structureless white color (68.2%, P < .01). The most common criteria of SCLE were patchy distribution (90%, P = .1) of mostly linear curved vessels (53.3%, P = .8) and fine white scales (60%, P < .01), while ACLE was characterized by erythema (100%, P < .05) and patchy distribution (100%, P = .1) of mostly dotted vessels (60%, P = .4). Follicular plugs/rosettes in dermatoscopy strongly correlated with follicular plugs in histology (rho = 0.919). Hyperkeratosis significantly correlated with white (rho = 0.644) and yellow/brown scales (rho = 0.225), telangiectasia with linear curved vessels (rho = 0.321) and white color with dermal fibrosis (rho = 0.623). Depending on CLE subtype, distinct dermatoscopic patterns are recognized. In CLE there is a high correlation between certain dermatoscopic criteria and the underneath anatomic alteration.

12.
Dermatol Ther ; : e14414, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064345

RESUMO

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer in white skin individuals. The treatment of choice is surgical excision, but several other therapeutic choices are available and might also be efficient and cost-effective in selected cases of low-risk BCC or when surgery is complicate or contraindicated. The aim of the current study was to analyze the applied treatments for BCC in the real-life practice of a tertiary hospital, and investigate factors associated to the tumor and the patients that might influence the treatment selection of clinicians. Data on all BCCs treated from 1st January 2018 to 31st December 2019 were extracted. A total of 751 BCCs from 585 patients were included. The baseline characteristics of patients and tumors, the type of applied treatment and the histopathologic report when available were analyzed. Most tumors were located on the head/neck (64.2%). The most frequently applied treatment was surgical excision (580/751, 77.2%). In 22.8% of tumors a nonsurgical treatment was selected. The most frequently selected alternative treatments were, imiquimod, cryosurgery, their combination (immunocryosurgery), and vismodegib. A pretreatment diagnosis of superficial BCC was associated with a 12-fold increased probability of selecting a nonsurgical treatment except of vismodegib. Every added year of age increased the probability of selecting a nonsurgical treatment by 3-fold. Every added mm of diameter increased the possibility of vismodegib use by 4%. Surgery is the most frequently applied BCC treatment, but nonsurgical modalities do also have an essential role in real settings.

13.
Dermatology ; : 1-6, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermoscopy is useful for the evaluation of juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG). The classical "setting sun" pattern is characteristic of JXG, but its sensibility appears to be limited. An extensive description of other dermoscopic findings is not available in the literature. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to valuate and describe the clinical and dermoscopic characteristics of a series of JXG cases. METHODS: This is a retrospective descriptive study, including cases with histopathologic diagnosis of JXG, and the availability of clinical and dermoscopic images, assessed for the presence of dermoscopic features based on the available literature. RESULTS: A total of 17 lesions were analyzed. 70.6% showed global symmetry, 35.3% presented the typical "setting sun" pattern. All lesions showed yellow-orange and/or pink-red structureless color. Other dermoscopic features were yellow globules (35.3%), shiny white streaks (23.5%), brown globules (17.6%), pale-brown network (11.8%), negative network (11.8%), erosion/ulceration (11.8%), rosettes (5.9%), and hemorrhage (5.9%). Scales were seen in 64.7% of patients. Vascular structures were observed in all the lesions, mostly in an irregular distribution (76.5%). The observed vessel types were dotted (52.9%), linear (52.9%), branching-arboriform (29.4%), comma-like (23.5%), hairpin-like (17.6%), globular (17.6%), coiled (11.8%), and milky-red globules (5.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Symmetry, yellow/orange-pink/red color, yellow globules, shiny white streaks, and irregularly distributed different types of vascular structures are the main dermoscopic features of JXG. This is the largest dermoscopic registry of JXG published to date.

14.
Dermatol Ther ; : e14478, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128323

RESUMO

Dermoscopy of mucosal surface termed "mucoscopy" is an upcoming offshoot of dermatological imaging. However, the literature on mucoscopy is limited to individual cases and small case series. An organized review or systematic analysis of mucoscopy is lacking. The aim of this review was to summarize the published literature on mucoscopic features of benign conditions affecting the oral mucosa and semi-mucosa. Additionally, the results of mucoscopic features of diseases, which have not been described before have been presented.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914354

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Introduction of cyclin-dependent inhibitors was a milestone in therapeutics for patients with estrogen receptor+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer. Despite the wide use of such agents and remarkable improvement of survival rates, drug-related adverse events are not yet fully characterized. We describe vitiligo-like lesions as a new adverse event occurring in patients with advanced breast cancer treated with cyclin-dependent inhibitors. METHODS: We performed an international retrospective study including patients with advanced breast cancer who developed vitiligo-like lesions during treatment with cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 inhibitors, in the period January 2018-December 2019. Patients > 18 years, both males and females, were recruited at six Dermatology Departments located in Italy (3), France (1) and Greece (2). We evaluated epidemiological and clinical characteristics, impact on quality of life and outcome of vitiligo-like lesions in patients treated with cyclin-dependent 4 and 6 inhibitors. The percentage of skin involved by vitiligo-like lesions was assessed using the Body Surface Area (BSA) score. Changes in patients' quality of life were investigated through the evaluation of the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire. RESULTS: Sixteen women (median age: 62.5 years; range 40-79 years) treated with cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 inhibitors for advanced breast cancer presented with vitiligo-like lesions during follow-up visits. Cutaneous lesions consisted of white, irregular macules and patches located mainly on sun-exposed areas in 11/16 patients or diffuse to the entire body surface in 5/16. Cutaneous lesions clearly impaired the quality of life of patients tested (DLQI ≥ 10). CONCLUSIONS: We present for the first time, to our knowledge, a case series of vitiligo-like lesions developing in patients with advanced breast cancer treated with cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 inhibitors. We showed that such lesions further impair the patients' quality of life and their treatment is challenging.

20.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Digital dermoscopy monitoring (DDM) helps to recognize melanomas lacking specific dermoscopic features at baseline, but the number of melanomas eventually developing specific features is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess how many melanomas are identified because they develop melanoma-specific criteria over time compared with melanomas recognized by side-by-side image comparison. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted collecting 206 melanomas: 103 melanomas diagnosed during DDM follow-up and 103 melanomas diagnosed at baseline. The control group was composed of 309 benign lesions consisting of 103 nevi excised for diagnostic reasons, 103 not excised nevi, and 103 not excised seborrheic keratoses. Dermoscopic images of all 515 lesions were randomly presented to 2 blinded experts to give a diagnosis and to score the criteria of the 7-point checklist. RESULTS: Of the 103 melanomas diagnosed at baseline, 78.6% (n = 81) were correctly identified compared with only 40.8% (n = 42) of melanomas diagnosed after DDM (P < .001). Of the 103 melanomas excised after DDM, 59.2% (n = 61), did not develop melanoma-specific criteria and were identified only because of the side-by-side image comparison. LIMITATIONS: The type of morphologic changes considered as suspicious on DDM was not assessed. CONCLUSIONS: Most melanomas are diagnosed with DDM by side-by-side image comparison.

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