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Brain Struct Funct ; 219(2): 607-30, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23468089


The tectal longitudinal column (TLC) is a longitudinally oriented, long and narrow nucleus that spans the paramedian region of the midbrain tectum of a large variety of mammals (Saldaña et al. in J Neurosci 27:13108-13116, 2007). Recent analysis of the organization of this region revealed another novel nucleus located immediately dorsal, and parallel, to the TLC. Because the name "tectal longitudinal column" also seems appropriate for this novel nucleus, we suggest the TLC described in 2007 be renamed the "ventral tectal longitudinal column (TLCv)", and the newly discovered nucleus termed the "dorsal tectal longitudinal column (TLCd)". This work represents the first characterization of the rat TLCd. A constellation of anatomical techniques was used to demonstrate that the TLCd differs from its surrounding structures (TLCv and superior colliculus) cytoarchitecturally, myeloarchitecturally, neurochemically and hodologically. The distinct expression of vesicular amino acid transporters suggests that TLCd neurons are GABAergic. The TLCd receives major projections from various areas of the cerebral cortex (secondary visual mediomedial area, and granular and dysgranular retrosplenial cortices) and from the medial pretectal nucleus. It densely innervates the ipsilateral lateral posterior and laterodorsal nuclei of the thalamus. Thus, the TLCd is connected with vision-related neural centers. The TLCd may be unique as it constitutes the only known nucleus made of GABAergic neurons dedicated to providing massive inhibition to higher order thalamic nuclei of a specific sensory modality.

Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios , Teto do Mesencéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Tálamo/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Biotina/análogos & derivados , Biotina/metabolismo , Dextranos/metabolismo , Feminino , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Neurônios/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar , Técnicas Estereotáxicas , Estilbamidinas/metabolismo , Tálamo/metabolismo , Proteína Vesicular 1 de Transporte de Glutamato/genética , Proteína Vesicular 1 de Transporte de Glutamato/metabolismo , Proteína Vesicular 2 de Transporte de Glutamato/genética , Proteína Vesicular 2 de Transporte de Glutamato/metabolismo , Proteínas Vesiculares de Transporte de Aminoácidos Inibidores/genética , Proteínas Vesiculares de Transporte de Aminoácidos Inibidores/metabolismo
Front Neuroanat ; 5: 1, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21373368


The superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON), a prominent GABAergic center of the mammalian auditory brainstem, projects to the ipsilateral inferior colliculus (IC) and sends axons through the commissure of the IC (CoIC). Herein we demonstrate that the SPON is reciprocally connected with the recently discovered tectal longitudinal column (TLC). The TLC is a long and narrow structure that spans nearly the entire midbrain tectum longitudinally, immediately above the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) and very close to the midline. Unilateral injections of biotinylated dextran into the SPON of the rat label abundant terminal fibers in the TLC of both sides, with an ipsilateral predominance. The SPON provides a dense innervation of the entire rostrocaudal extent of the ipsilateral TLC, and a relatively sparser innervation of the caudal and rostral portions of the contralateral TLC. SPON fibers reach the TLC by two routes: as collaterals of axons of the CoIC, and as axons that circumvent the ipsilateral IC before traveling in the deep layers of the superior colliculus (SC). The density of these projections identifies SPON as a significant source of input to the TLC. Other targets of the SPON discovered in this study include the deep layers of the SC and the PAG. The same experiments reveal numerous labeled cell bodies in the TLC, interspersed among the labeled SPON fibers. This observation suggests that the SPON is a significant target of TLC projections. The discovery of novel reciprocal connections between the SPON and the TLC opens unexpected avenues for investigation of sound processing in mammalian brainstem circuits.

J Neurosci ; 27(48): 13108-16, 2007 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18045905


We have identified a novel nucleus of the mammalian brain and termed it the tectal longitudinal column (TLC). Basic histologic stains, tract-tracing techniques and three-dimensional reconstructions reveal that the rat TLC is a narrow, elongated structure spanning the midbrain tectum longitudinally. This paired nucleus is located close to the midline, immediately dorsal to the periaqueductal gray matter. It occupies what has traditionally been considered the most medial region of the deep superior colliculus and the most medial region of the inferior colliculus. The TLC differs from the neighboring nuclei of the superior and inferior colliculi and the periaqueductal gray by its distinct connections and cytoarchitecture. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings show that TLC neurons respond to auditory stimuli with physiologic properties that differ from those of neurons in the inferior or superior colliculi. We have identified the TLC in rodents, lagomorphs, carnivores, nonhuman primates, and humans, which indicates that the nucleus is conserved across mammals. The discovery of the TLC reveals an unexpected level of longitudinal organization in the mammalian tectum and raises questions as to the participation of this mesencephalic region in essential, yet completely unexplored, aspects of multisensory and/or sensorimotor integration.

Neurônios/fisiologia , Teto do Mesencéfalo/citologia , Teto do Mesencéfalo/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Vias Auditivas/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Contagem de Células/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estilbamidinas/metabolismo