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1.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(6): 1814-1822, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29232439

RESUMO

Background: There is increasing evidence that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced survival for women with breast cancer. However, the underlying reasons remain unclear. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate a possible causal role of BMI in survival from breast cancer. Methods: We used individual-level data from six large breast cancer case-cohorts including a total of 36 210 individuals (2475 events) of European ancestry. We created a BMI genetic risk score (GRS) based on genotypes at 94 known BMI-associated genetic variants. Association between the BMI genetic score and breast cancer survival was analysed by Cox regression for each study separately. Study-specific hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: BMI genetic score was found to be associated with reduced breast cancer-specific survival for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cases [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.11, per one-unit increment of GRS, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.22, P = 0.03). We observed no association for ER-negative cases (HR = 1.00, per one-unit increment of GRS, 95% CI 0.89-1.13, P = 0.95). Conclusions: Our findings suggest a causal effect of increased BMI on reduced breast cancer survival for ER-positive breast cancer. There is no evidence of a causal effect of higher BMI on survival for ER-negative breast cancer cases.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Causalidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metanálise como Assunto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
2.
Am J Epidemiol ; 185(6): 487-500, 2017 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28399571

RESUMO

The ability to classify people according to their underlying genetic susceptibility to a disease is increasing with new knowledge, better family data, and more sophisticated risk prediction models, allowing for more effective prevention and screening. To do so, however, we need to know whether risk associations are the same for people with different genetic susceptibilities. To illustrate one way to estimate such gene-environment interactions, we used prospective data from 3 Australian family cancer cohort studies, 2 enriched for familial risk of breast cancer. There were 288 incident breast cancers in 9,126 participants from 3,222 families. We used Cox proportional hazards models to investigate whether associations of breast cancer with body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) at age 18-21 years, BMI at baseline, and change in BMI differed according to genetic risk based on lifetime breast cancer risk from birth, as estimated by BOADICEA (Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm) software, adjusted for age at baseline data collection. Although no interactions were statistically significant, we have demonstrated the power with which gene-environment interactions can be investigated using a cohort enriched for persons with increased genetic risk and a continuous measure of genetic risk based on family history.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Saúde da Família/estatística & dados numéricos , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , História Reprodutiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Womens Health ; 17(1): 26, 2017 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28381301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A breast cancer diagnosis and an abortion can each be pivotal moments in a woman's life. Research on abortion and breast cancer deals predominantly with women diagnosed during pregnancy who might be advised to have an abortion. The other-discredited but persistent-association is that abortions cause breast cancer. The aim here was to understand some of the ways in which women themselves might experience the convergence of abortion and breast cancer. METHODS: Among 50 women recruited from the Australian Breast Cancer Family Study and interviewed in depth about what it meant to have a breast cancer diagnosis before the age of 41, five spontaneously told of having or contemplating an abortion. The transcripts of these five women were analysed to identify what abortion meant in the context of breast cancer, studying each woman's account as an individual "case" and interpreting it within narrative theory. RESULTS: It was evident that each woman understood abortion as playing a different role in her life. One reported an abortion that she did not link to her cancer, the second was relieved not to have to abort a mid-treatment pregnancy, the third represented abortion as saving her life by making her cancer identifiable, the fourth grieved an abortion that had enabled her to begin chemotherapy, and the fifth believed that her cancer was caused by an earlier abortion. CONCLUSIONS: The women's accounts illustrate the different meanings of abortion in women's lives, with concomitant need for diverse support, advice, and information.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes/psicologia
4.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(2): 652-661, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28338721

RESUMO

Background: Mammographic density defined by the conventional pixel brightness threshold, and adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI), is a well-established risk factor for breast cancer. We asked if higher thresholds better separate women with and without breast cancer. Methods: We studied Australian women, 354 with breast cancer over-sampled for early-onset and family history, and 944 unaffected controls frequency-matched for age at mammogram. We measured mammographic dense area and percent density using the CUMULUS software at the conventional threshold, which we call Cumulus , and at two increasingly higher thresholds, which we call Altocumulus and Cirrocumulus , respectively. All measures were Box-Cox transformed and adjusted for age and BMI. We estimated the odds per adjusted standard deviation (OPERA) using logistic regression and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: Altocumulus and Cirrocumulus were correlated with Cumulus (r ∼ 0.8 and 0.6 , respectively) . For dense area, the OPERA was 1.62, 1.74 and 1.73 for Cumulus, Altocumulus and Cirrocumulus , respectively (all P < 0.001). After adjusting for Altocumulus and Cirrocumulus , Cumulus was not significant ( P > 0.6). The OPERAs for percent density were less but gave similar findings. The mean of the standardized adjusted Altocumulus and Cirrocumulus dense area measures was the best predictor; OPERA = 1.87 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.64-2.14] and AUC = 0.68 (0.65-0.71). Conclusions: The areas of higher mammographically dense regions are associated with almost 30% stronger breast cancer risk gradient, explain the risk association of the conventional measure and might be more aetiologically important. This has substantial implications for clinical translation and molecular, genetic and epidemiological research.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mamografia , Adulto , Austrália , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Software
5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(4): 651-660, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28062399

RESUMO

Background: After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), mammographic measures-dense area (DA), percent dense area (PDA), and nondense area (NDA)-are associated with breast cancer risk. Our aim was to use longitudinal data to estimate the extent to which these risk-predicting measures track over time.Methods: We collected 4,320 mammograms (age range, 24-83 years) from 970 women in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study and the Australian Breast Cancer Family Registry. Women had on average 4.5 mammograms (range, 1-14). DA, PDA, and NDA were measured using the Cumulus software and normalized using the Box-Cox method. Correlations in the normalized risk-predicting measures over time intervals of different lengths were estimated using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling of Gompertz curves.Results: Mean normalized DA and PDA were constant with age to the early 40s, decreased over the next two decades, and were almost constant from the mid-60s onward. Mean normalized NDA increased nonlinearly with age. After adjusting for age and BMI, the within-woman correlation estimates for normalized DA were 0.94, 0.93, 0.91, 0.91, and 0.91 for mammograms taken 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 years apart, respectively. Similar correlations were estimated for the age- and BMI-adjusted normalized PDA and NDA.Conclusions: The mammographic measures that predict breast cancer risk are highly correlated over time.Impact: This has implications for etiologic research and clinical management whereby women at increased risk could be identified at a young age (e.g., early 40s or even younger) and recommended appropriate screening and prevention strategies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(4); 651-60. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Mamografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Breast Cancer Res ; 18(1): 63, 2016 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27316945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk of screen-detected breast cancer mostly reflects inherent risk, while risk of interval cancer reflects inherent risk and risk of masking (risk of the tumor not being detected due to increased dense tissue). Therefore the predictors of whether a breast cancer is interval or screen-detected include those that predict masking. Our aim was to investigate the associations between mammographic measures and (1) inherent risk, and (2) masking. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested within the Melbourne collaborative cohort study of 244 screen-detected cases (192 small tumors (<2 cm)) matched to 700 controls and 148 interval cases (76 small tumors) matched to 446 controls. Dense area (DA), percent dense area (PDA), and non-dense area (NDA) were measured using the Cumulus software. Conditional and unconditional logistic regression were applied as appropriate to estimate the odds per adjusted standard deviation (OPERA) adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI), allowing for the association with BMI to be a function of age at diagnosis. Tests of fit were performed using the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: For screen-detected cancer, the association with BMI had a marginally significant dependence on age at diagnosis, and after adjustment both DA and PDA were associated with risk (OPERA approximately 1.2) and gave a similar fit. NDA was not associated with risk. For interval cancer, the BMI risk association was not dependent on age at diagnosis and the best fitting model was PDA alone (OPERA = 2.24, 95 % confidence interval 1.75, 2.86). Prediction of interval versus screen-detected cancer was best achieved by PDA alone (OPERA = 1.76, 95 % confidence interval 1.39, 2.22) with no association with BMI. When the analysis was restricted to small tumors to reduce the influence of tumor growth, we obtained similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Inherent breast cancer risk is predicted by BMI and DA or PDA, but not NDA. Masking is predicted by PDA, and not by BMI. Understanding risk and masking could help tailor mammographic screening.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Mamografia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Carga Tumoral
7.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 156(1): 163-70, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26907766

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is to determine if body mass index (BMI) during childhood is associated with the breast cancer risk factor 'adult mammographic density adjusted for age and BMI'. In 1968, the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study studied every Tasmanian school child born in 1961. We obtained measured heights and weights from annual school medical records across ages 7-15 years and imputed missing values. Between 2009 and 2012, we administered to 490 women a questionnaire that asked current height and weight and digitised at least one mammogram per woman. Absolute and percent mammographic densities were measured using the computer-assisted method CUMULUS. We used linear regression and adjusted for age at interview and log current BMI. The mammographic density measures were negatively associated: with log BMI at each age from 7 to 15 years (all p < 0.05); with the average of standardised log BMIs across ages 7-15 years (p < 0.0005); and more strongly with standardised log BMI measures closer to age 15 years (p < 0.03). Childhood BMI measures explained 7 and 10 % of the variance in absolute and percent mammographic densities, respectively, and 25 and 20 % of the association between current BMI and absolute and percent mammographic densities, respectively. Associations were not altered by adjustment for age at menarche. There is a negative association between BMI in late childhood and the adult mammographic density measures that predict breast cancer risk. This could explain, at least in part, why BMI in adolescence is negatively associated with breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Criança , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Tasmânia
8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 25(2): 359-65, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26677205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The extent to which clinical breast cancer risk prediction models can be improved by including information on known susceptibility SNPs is not known. METHODS: Using 750 cases and 405 controls from the population-based Australian Breast Cancer Family Registry who were younger than 50 years at diagnosis and recruitment, respectively, Caucasian and not BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, we derived absolute 5-year risks of breast cancer using the BOADICEA, BRCAPRO, BCRAT, and IBIS risk prediction models and combined these with a risk score based on 77 independent risk-associated SNPs. We used logistic regression to estimate the OR per adjusted SD for log-transformed age-adjusted 5-year risks. Discrimination was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Calibration was assessed using the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. We also constructed reclassification tables and calculated the net reclassification improvement. RESULTS: The ORs for BOADICEA, BRCAPRO, BCRAT, and IBIS were 1.80, 1.75, 1.67, and 1.30, respectively. When combined with the SNP-based score, the corresponding ORs were 1.96, 1.89, 1.80, and 1.52. The corresponding AUCs were 0.66, 0.65, 0.64, and 0.57 for the risk prediction models, and 0.70, 0.69, 0.66, and 0.63 when combined with the SNP-based score. CONCLUSIONS: By combining a 77 SNP-based score with clinical models, the AUC for predicting breast cancer before age 50 years improved by >20%. IMPACT: Our estimates of the increased performance of clinical risk prediction models from including genetic information could be used to inform targeted screening and prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Gynecol Oncol ; 141(2): 386-401, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25940428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Clinical genetic testing is commercially available for rs61764370, an inherited variant residing in a KRAS 3' UTR microRNA binding site, based on suggested associations with increased ovarian and breast cancer risk as well as with survival time. However, prior studies, emphasizing particular subgroups, were relatively small. Therefore, we comprehensively evaluated ovarian and breast cancer risks as well as clinical outcome associated with rs61764370. METHODS: Centralized genotyping and analysis were performed for 140,012 women enrolled in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (15,357 ovarian cancer patients; 30,816 controls), the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (33,530 breast cancer patients; 37,640 controls), and the Consortium of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (14,765 BRCA1 and 7904 BRCA2 mutation carriers). RESULTS: We found no association with risk of ovarian cancer (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.94-1.04, p=0.74) or breast cancer (OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.94-1.01, p=0.19) and results were consistent among mutation carriers (BRCA1, ovarian cancer HR=1.09, 95% CI 0.97-1.23, p=0.14, breast cancer HR=1.04, 95% CI 0.97-1.12, p=0.27; BRCA2, ovarian cancer HR=0.89, 95% CI 0.71-1.13, p=0.34, breast cancer HR=1.06, 95% CI 0.94-1.19, p=0.35). Null results were also obtained for associations with overall survival following ovarian cancer (HR=0.94, 95% CI 0.83-1.07, p=0.38), breast cancer (HR=0.96, 95% CI 0.87-1.06, p=0.38), and all other previously-reported associations. CONCLUSIONS: rs61764370 is not associated with risk of ovarian or breast cancer nor with clinical outcome for patients with these cancers. Therefore, genotyping this variant has no clinical utility related to the prediction or management of these cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/enzimologia , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Feminino , Humanos
11.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 18(6): 720-6, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26527295

RESUMO

The disease- and mortality-related difference between biological age based on DNA methylation and chronological age (Δage) has been found to have approximately 40% heritability by assuming that the familial correlation is only explained by additive genetic factors. We calculated two different Δage measures for 132 middle-aged female twin pairs (66 monozygotic and 66 dizygotic twin pairs) and their 215 sisters using DNA methylation data measured by the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays. For each Δage measure, and their combined measure, we estimated the familial correlation for MZ, DZ and sibling pairs using the multivariate normal model for pedigree analysis. We also pooled our estimates with those from a former study to estimate weighted average correlations. For both Δage measures, there was familial correlation that varied across different types of relatives. No evidence of a difference was found between the MZ and DZ pair correlations, or between the DZ and sibling pair correlations. The only difference was between the MZ and sibling pair correlations (p < .01), and there was marginal evidence that the MZ pair correlation was greater than twice the sibling pair correlation (p < .08). For weighted average correlation, there was evidence that the MZ pair correlation was greater than the DZ pair correlation (p < .03), and marginally greater than twice the sibling pair correlation (p < .08). The varied familial correlation of Δage is not explained by additive genetic factors alone, implying the existence of shared non-genetic factors explaining variation in Δage for middle-aged women.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Breast Cancer Res ; 17: 110, 2015 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26275715

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mammographic density is an established breast cancer risk factor with a strong genetic component and can be increased in women using menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). Here, we aimed to identify genetic variants that may modify the association between MHT use and mammographic density. METHODS: The study comprised 6,298 postmenopausal women from the Mayo Mammography Health Study and nine studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We selected for evaluation 1327 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing the lowest P-values for interaction (P int) in a meta-analysis of genome-wide gene-environment interaction studies with MHT use on risk of breast cancer, 2541 SNPs in candidate genes (AKR1C4, CYP1A1-CYP1A2, CYP1B1, ESR2, PPARG, PRL, SULT1A1-SULT1A2 and TNF) and ten SNPs (AREG-rs10034692, PRDM6-rs186749, ESR1-rs12665607, ZNF365-rs10995190, 8p11.23-rs7816345, LSP1-rs3817198, IGF1-rs703556, 12q24-rs1265507, TMEM184B-rs7289126, and SGSM3-rs17001868) associated with mammographic density in genome-wide studies. We used multiple linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders to evaluate interactions between SNPs and current use of MHT on mammographic density. RESULTS: No significant interactions were identified after adjustment for multiple testing. The strongest SNP-MHT interaction (unadjusted P int <0.0004) was observed with rs9358531 6.5kb 5' of PRL. Furthermore, three SNPs in PLCG2 that had previously been shown to modify the association of MHT use with breast cancer risk were found to modify also the association of MHT use with mammographic density (unadjusted P int <0.002), but solely among cases (unadjusted P int SNP×MHT×case-status <0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The study identified potential interactions on mammographic density between current use of MHT and SNPs near PRL and in PLCG2, which require confirmation. Given the moderate size of the interactions observed, larger studies are needed to identify genetic modifiers of the association of MHT use with mammographic density.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Mama/patologia , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/anormalidades , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Pós-Menopausa/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Densidade da Mama , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos , Humanos , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/patologia , Mamografia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 97(1): 22-34, 2015 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26073781

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified SNPs near ZNF365 at 10q21.2 that are associated with both breast cancer risk and mammographic density. To identify the most likely causal SNPs, we fine mapped the association signal by genotyping 428 SNPs across the region in 89,050 European and 12,893 Asian case and control subjects from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We identified four independent sets of correlated, highly trait-associated variants (iCHAVs), three of which were located within ZNF365. The most strongly risk-associated SNP, rs10995201 in iCHAV1, showed clear evidence of association with both estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (OR = 0.85 [0.82-0.88]) and ER-negative (OR = 0.87 [0.82-0.91]) disease, and was also the SNP most strongly associated with percent mammographic density. iCHAV2 (lead SNP, chr10: 64,258,684:D) and iCHAV3 (lead SNP, rs7922449) were also associated with ER-positive (OR = 0.93 [0.91-0.95] and OR = 1.06 [1.03-1.09]) and ER-negative (OR = 0.95 [0.91-0.98] and OR = 1.08 [1.04-1.13]) disease. There was weaker evidence for iCHAV4, located 5' of ADO, associated only with ER-positive breast cancer (OR = 0.93 [0.90-0.96]). We found 12, 17, 18, and 2 candidate causal SNPs for breast cancer in iCHAVs 1-4, respectively. Chromosome conformation capture analysis showed that iCHAV2 interacts with the ZNF365 and NRBF2 (more than 600 kb away) promoters in normal and cancerous breast epithelial cells. Luciferase assays did not identify SNPs that affect transactivation of ZNF365, but identified a protective haplotype in iCHAV2, associated with silencing of the NRBF2 promoter, implicating this gene in the etiology of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 10/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Transativadores/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores Etários , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Luciferases , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Análise de Regressão , Transativadores/metabolismo
14.
Cancer Res ; 75(12): 2457-67, 2015 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25862352

RESUMO

Mammographic density measures adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI) are heritable predictors of breast cancer risk, but few mammographic density-associated genetic variants have been identified. Using data for 10,727 women from two international consortia, we estimated associations between 77 common breast cancer susceptibility variants and absolute dense area, percent dense area and absolute nondense area adjusted for study, age, and BMI using mixed linear modeling. We found strong support for established associations between rs10995190 (in the region of ZNF365), rs2046210 (ESR1), and rs3817198 (LSP1) and adjusted absolute and percent dense areas (all P < 10(-5)). Of 41 recently discovered breast cancer susceptibility variants, associations were found between rs1432679 (EBF1), rs17817449 (MIR1972-2: FTO), rs12710696 (2p24.1), and rs3757318 (ESR1) and adjusted absolute and percent dense areas, respectively. There were associations between rs6001930 (MKL1) and both adjusted absolute dense and nondense areas, and between rs17356907 (NTN4) and adjusted absolute nondense area. Trends in all but two associations were consistent with those for breast cancer risk. Results suggested that 18% of breast cancer susceptibility variants were associated with at least one mammographic density measure. Genetic variants at multiple loci were associated with both breast cancer risk and the mammographic density measures. Further understanding of the underlying mechanisms at these loci could help identify etiologic pathways implicated in how mammographic density predicts breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/anormalidades , Idoso , Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 107(5)2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25890600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survival after a diagnosis of breast cancer varies considerably between patients, and some of this variation may be because of germline genetic variation. We aimed to identify genetic markers associated with breast cancer-specific survival. METHODS: We conducted a large meta-analysis of studies in populations of European ancestry, including 37954 patients with 2900 deaths from breast cancer. Each study had been genotyped for between 200000 and 900000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the genome; genotypes for nine million common variants were imputed using a common reference panel from the 1000 Genomes Project. We also carried out subtype-specific analyses based on 6881 estrogen receptor (ER)-negative patients (920 events) and 23059 ER-positive patients (1333 events). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified one new locus (rs2059614 at 11q24.2) associated with survival in ER-negative breast cancer cases (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.55 to 2.47, P = 1.91 x 10(-8)). Genotyping a subset of 2113 case patients, of which 300 were ER negative, provided supporting evidence for the quality of the imputation. The association in this set of case patients was stronger for the observed genotypes than for the imputed genotypes. A second locus (rs148760487 at 2q24.2) was associated at genome-wide statistical significance in initial analyses; the association was similar in ER-positive and ER-negative case patients. Here the results of genotyping suggested that the finding was less robust. CONCLUSIONS: This is currently the largest study investigating genetic variation associated with breast cancer survival. Our results have potential clinical implications, as they confirm that germline genotype can provide prognostic information in addition to standard tumor prognostic factors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Mama/química , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Prognóstico , Receptores Estrogênicos/análise , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
Breast Cancer Res ; 17: 58, 2015 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25897948

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have identified common germline variants nominally associated with breast cancer survival. These associations have not been widely replicated in further studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of previously reported SNPs with breast cancer-specific survival using data from a pooled analysis of eight breast cancer survival genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. METHODS: A literature review was conducted of all previously published associations between common germline variants and three survival outcomes: breast cancer-specific survival, overall survival and disease-free survival. All associations that reached the nominal significance level of P value <0.05 were included. Single nucleotide polymorphisms that had been previously reported as nominally associated with at least one survival outcome were evaluated in the pooled analysis of over 37,000 breast cancer cases for association with breast cancer-specific survival. Previous associations were evaluated using a one-sided test based on the reported direction of effect. RESULTS: Fifty-six variants from 45 previous publications were evaluated in the meta-analysis. Fifty-four of these were evaluated in the full set of 37,954 breast cancer cases with 2,900 events and the two additional variants were evaluated in a reduced sample size of 30,000 samples in order to ensure independence from the previously published studies. Five variants reached nominal significance (P <0.05) in the pooled GWAS data compared to 2.8 expected under the null hypothesis. Seven additional variants were associated (P <0.05) with ER-positive disease. CONCLUSIONS: Although no variants reached genome-wide significance (P <5 x 10(-8)), these results suggest that there is some evidence of association between candidate common germline variants and breast cancer prognosis. Larger studies from multinational collaborations are necessary to increase the power to detect associations, between common variants and prognosis, at more stringent significance levels.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Prognóstico
17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 24(10): 2966-84, 2015 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25652398

RESUMO

We recently identified a novel susceptibility variant, rs865686, for estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer at 9q31.2. Here, we report a fine-mapping analysis of the 9q31.2 susceptibility locus using 43 160 cases and 42 600 controls of European ancestry ascertained from 52 studies and a further 5795 cases and 6624 controls of Asian ancestry from nine studies. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs676256 was most strongly associated with risk in Europeans (odds ratios [OR] = 0.90 [0.88-0.92]; P-value = 1.58 × 10(-25)). This SNP is one of a cluster of highly correlated variants, including rs865686, that spans ∼14.5 kb. We identified two additional independent association signals demarcated by SNPs rs10816625 (OR = 1.12 [1.08-1.17]; P-value = 7.89 × 10(-09)) and rs13294895 (OR = 1.09 [1.06-1.12]; P-value = 2.97 × 10(-11)). SNP rs10816625, but not rs13294895, was also associated with risk of breast cancer in Asian individuals (OR = 1.12 [1.06-1.18]; P-value = 2.77 × 10(-05)). Functional genomic annotation using data derived from breast cancer cell-line models indicates that these SNPs localise to putative enhancer elements that bind known drivers of hormone-dependent breast cancer, including ER-α, FOXA1 and GATA-3. In vitro analyses indicate that rs10816625 and rs13294895 have allele-specific effects on enhancer activity and suggest chromatin interactions with the KLF4 gene locus. These results demonstrate the power of dense genotyping in large studies to identify independent susceptibility variants. Analysis of associations using subjects with different ancestry, combined with bioinformatic and genomic characterisation, can provide strong evidence for the likely causative alleles and their functional basis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 96(1): 5-20, 2015 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25529635

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed SNP rs889312 on 5q11.2 to be associated with breast cancer risk in women of European ancestry. In an attempt to identify the biologically relevant variants, we analyzed 909 genetic variants across 5q11.2 in 103,991 breast cancer individuals and control individuals from 52 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Multiple logistic regression analyses identified three independent risk signals: the strongest associations were with 15 correlated variants (iCHAV1), where the minor allele of the best candidate, rs62355902, associated with significantly increased risks of both estrogen-receptor-positive (ER(+): odds ratio [OR] = 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21-1.27, ptrend = 5.7 × 10(-44)) and estrogen-receptor-negative (ER(-): OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.05-1.15, ptrend = 3.0 × 10(-4)) tumors. After adjustment for rs62355902, we found evidence of association of a further 173 variants (iCHAV2) containing three subsets with a range of effects (the strongest was rs113317823 [pcond = 1.61 × 10(-5)]) and five variants composing iCHAV3 (lead rs11949391; ER(+): OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.87-0.93, pcond = 1.4 × 10(-4)). Twenty-six percent of the prioritized candidate variants coincided with four putative regulatory elements that interact with the MAP3K1 promoter through chromatin looping and affect MAP3K1 promoter activity. Functional analysis indicated that the cancer risk alleles of four candidates (rs74345699 and rs62355900 [iCHAV1], rs16886397 [iCHAV2a], and rs17432750 [iCHAV3]) increased MAP3K1 transcriptional activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed diminished GATA3 binding to the minor (cancer-protective) allele of rs17432750, indicating a mechanism for its action. We propose that the cancer risk alleles act to increase MAP3K1 expression in vivo and might promote breast cancer cell survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 1/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 1/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Risco
19.
Int J Cancer ; 136(6): E685-96, 2015 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25227710

RESUMO

A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative BC risk are modified by 13 environmental risk factors for BC. Data from 22 studies participating in BCAC were pooled, comprising up to 26,633 cases and 30,119 controls. Interactions between SNPs and environmental factors were evaluated using an empirical Bayes-type shrinkage estimator. Six SNPs showed interactions with associated p-values (pint ) <1.1 × 10(-3) . None of the observed interactions was significant after accounting for multiple testing. The Bayesian False Discovery Probability was used to rank the findings, which indicated three interactions as being noteworthy at 1% prior probability of interaction. SNP rs6828523 was associated with increased ER-negative BC risk in women ≥170 cm (OR = 1.22, p = 0.017), but inversely associated with ER-negative BC risk in women <160 cm (OR = 0.83, p = 0.039, pint = 1.9 × 10(-4) ). The inverse association between rs4808801 and overall BC risk was stronger for women who had had four or more pregnancies (OR = 0.85, p = 2.0 × 10(-4) ), and absent in women who had had just one (OR = 0.96, p = 0.19, pint = 6.1 × 10(-4) ). SNP rs11242675 was inversely associated with overall BC risk in never/former smokers (OR = 0.93, p = 2.8 × 10(-5) ), but no association was observed in current smokers (OR = 1.07, p = 0.14, pint = 3.4 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, recently identified BC susceptibility loci are not strongly modified by established risk factors and the observed potential interactions require confirmation in independent studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias da Mama/química , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Estrogênicos/análise , Fatores de Risco
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 24(1): 285-98, 2015 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25168388

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that polymorphisms in CASP8 on chromosome 2 are associated with breast cancer risk. To clarify the role of CASP8 in breast cancer susceptibility, we carried out dense genotyping of this region in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning a 1 Mb region around CASP8 were genotyped in 46 450 breast cancer cases and 42 600 controls of European origin from 41 studies participating in the BCAC as part of a custom genotyping array experiment (iCOGS). Missing genotypes and SNPs were imputed and, after quality exclusions, 501 typed and 1232 imputed SNPs were included in logistic regression models adjusting for study and ancestry principal components. The SNPs retained in the final model were investigated further in data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising in total 10 052 case and 12 575 control subjects. The most significant association signal observed in European subjects was for the imputed intronic SNP rs1830298 in ALS2CR12 (telomeric to CASP8), with per allele odds ratio and 95% confidence interval [OR (95% confidence interval, CI)] for the minor allele of 1.05 (1.03-1.07), P = 1 × 10(-5). Three additional independent signals from intronic SNPs were identified, in CASP8 (rs36043647), ALS2CR11 (rs59278883) and CFLAR (rs7558475). The association with rs1830298 was replicated in the imputed results from the combined GWAS (P = 3 × 10(-6)), yielding a combined OR (95% CI) of 1.06 (1.04-1.08), P = 1 × 10(-9). Analyses of gene expression associations in peripheral blood and normal breast tissue indicate that CASP8 might be the target gene, suggesting a mechanism involving apoptosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Caspase 8/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Proteínas/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Proteína Reguladora de Apoptosis Semelhante a CASP8 e FADD/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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