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1.
PLoS Med ; 19(1): e1003887, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV have poor virological suppression and high prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs). In Zimbabwe, the Zvandiri adolescent peer support programme is effective at improving virological suppression. We assessed the effect of training Zvandiri peer counsellors known as Community Adolescent Treatment Supporters (CATS) in problem-solving therapy (PST) on virological suppression and mental health outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sixty clinics were randomised 1:1 to either normal Zvandiri peer counselling or a peer counsellor trained in PST. In January to March 2019, 842 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years and living with HIV who screened positive for CMDs were enrolled (375 (44.5%) male and 418 (49.6%) orphaned of at least one parent). The primary outcome was virological nonsuppression (viral load ≥1,000 copies/mL). Secondary outcomes were symptoms of CMDs measured with the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ ≥8) and depression measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 ≥10) and health utility score using the EQ-5D. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression adjusting for clinic-level clustering. Case reviews and focus group discussions were used to determine feasibility of intervention delivery. At baseline, 35.1% of participants had virological nonsuppression and 70.3% had SSQ≥8. After 48 weeks, follow-up was 89.5% for viral load data and 90.9% for other outcomes. Virological nonsuppression decreased in both arms, but there was no evidence of an intervention effect (prevalence of nonsuppression 14.7% in the Zvandiri-PST arm versus 11.9% in the Zvandiri arm; AOR = 1.29; 95% CI 0.68, 2.48; p = 0.44). There was strong evidence of an apparent effect on common mental health outcomes (SSQ ≥8: 2.4% versus 10.3% [AOR = 0.19; 95% CI 0.08, 0.46; p < 0.001]; PHQ-9 ≥10: 2.9% versus 8.8% [AOR = 0.32; 95% CI 0.14, 0.78; p = 0.01]). Prevalence of EQ-5D index score <1 was 27.6% versus 38.9% (AOR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.31, 1.03; p = 0.06). Qualitative analyses found that CATS-observed participants had limited autonomy or ability to solve problems. In response, the CATS adapted the intervention to focus on empathic problem discussion to fit adolescents' age, capacity, and circumstances, which was beneficial. Limitations include that cost data were not available and that the mental health tools were validated in adult populations, not adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: PST training for CATS did not add to the benefit of peer support in reducing virological nonsuppression but led to improved symptoms of CMD and depression compared to standard Zvandiri care among adolescents living with HIV in Zimbabwe. Active involvement of caregivers and strengthened referral structures could increase feasibility and effectiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201810756862405.

2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1234, 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND : Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) are the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) worldwide. In the absence of affordable point-of-care STI tests, WHO recommends STI testing based on risk factors. This study aimed to develop a prediction tool with a sensitivity of > 90% and efficiency (defined as the percentage of individuals that are eligible for diagnostic testing) of < 60%. METHODS: This study offered CT/NG testing as part of a cluster-randomised trial of community-based delivery of sexual and reproductive health services to youth aged 16-24 years in Zimbabwe. All individuals accepting STI testing completed an STI risk factor questionnaire. The outcome was positivity for either CT or NG. Backwards-stepwise logistic regression was performed with p ≥ 0.05 as criteria for exclusion. Coefficients of variables included in the final multivariable model were multiplied by 10 to generate weights for a STI risk prediction tool. A maximum likelihood Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) model was fitted, with the continuous variable score divided into 15 categories of equal size. Sensitivity, efficiency and number needed to screen were calculated for different cut-points. RESULTS: From 3 December 2019 to 5 February 2020, 1007 individuals opted for STI testing, of whom 1003 (99.6%) completed the questionnaire. CT/NG prevalence was 17.5% (95% CI 15.1, 19.8) (n = 175). CT/NG positivity was independently associated with being female, number of lifetime sexual partners, relationship status, HIV status, self-assessed STI risk and past or current pregnancy. The STI risk prediction score including those variables ranged from 2 to 46 with an area under the ROC curve of 0.72 (95% CI 0.68, 0.76). Two cut-points were chosen: (i) 23 for optimised sensitivity (75.9%) and specificity (59.3%) and (ii) 19 to maximise sensitivity (82.4%) while keeping efficiency at < 60% (59.4%). CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of STIs among youth, even in those with no or one reported risk factor, may preclude the use of risk prediction tools for selective STI testing. At a cut-point of 19 one in six young people with STIs would be missed.

3.
PLoS Med ; 18(11): e1003836, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Integration of HIV services with other health services has been proposed as an important strategy to boost the sustainability of the global HIV response. We conducted a systematic and comprehensive synthesis of the existing scientific evidence on the impact of service integration on the HIV care cascade, health outcomes, and cost-effectiveness. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We reviewed the global quantitative empirical evidence on integration published between 1 January 2010 and 10 September 2021. We included experimental and observational studies that featured both an integration intervention and a comparator in our review. Of the 7,118 unique peer-reviewed English-language studies that our search algorithm identified, 114 met all of our selection criteria for data extraction. Most of the studies (90) were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, primarily in East Africa (55) and Southern Africa (24). The most common forms of integration were (i) HIV testing and counselling added to non-HIV services and (ii) non-HIV services added to antiretroviral therapy (ART). The most commonly integrated non-HIV services were maternal and child healthcare, tuberculosis testing and treatment, primary healthcare, family planning, and sexual and reproductive health services. Values for HIV care cascade outcomes tended to be better in integrated services: uptake of HIV testing and counselling (pooled risk ratio [RR] across 37 studies: 1.67 [95% CI 1.41-1.99], p < 0.001), ART initiation coverage (pooled RR across 19 studies: 1.42 [95% CI 1.16-1.75], p = 0.002), time until ART initiation (pooled RR across 5 studies: 0.45 [95% CI 0.20-1.00], p = 0.050), retention in HIV care (pooled RR across 19 studies: 1.68 [95% CI 1.05-2.69], p = 0.031), and viral suppression (pooled RR across 9 studies: 1.19 [95% CI 1.03-1.37], p = 0.025). Also, treatment success for non-HIV-related diseases and conditions and the uptake of non-HIV services were commonly higher in integrated services. We did not find any significant differences for the following outcomes in our meta-analyses: HIV testing yield, ART adherence, HIV-free survival among infants, and HIV and non-HIV mortality. We could not conduct meta-analyses for several outcomes (HIV infections averted, costs, and cost-effectiveness), because our systematic review did not identify sufficient poolable studies. Study limitations included possible publication bias of studies with significant or favourable findings and comparatively weak evidence from some world regions and on integration of services for key populations in the HIV response. CONCLUSIONS: Integration of HIV services and other health services tends to improve health and health systems outcomes. Despite some scientific limitations, the global evidence shows that service integration can be a valuable strategy to boost the sustainability of the HIV response and contribute to the goal of 'ending AIDS by 2030', while simultaneously supporting progress towards universal health coverage.

4.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(9): e25815, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569710

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In sub-Saharan Africa, less than half of young people know their HIV status. HIV self-testing (HIVST) is a testing strategy with the potential to offer privacy and autonomy. We aimed to understand the uptake and acceptability of different HIV testing options for youth in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: This study was nested within a cluster randomized trial of a youth-friendly community-based integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health intervention for youth aged 16-24 years. Three HIV testing options were offered: (1) provider-delivered testing; (2) HIVST on site in a private booth without a provider present; and (3) provision of a test kit to test off site. Descriptive statistics and proportions were used to investigate the uptake of HIV testing in a client sample. A focus group discussion (FGD) with intervention providers alongside in-depth interviews, paired interviews and FGDs with a selected sample of youth clients explored uptake and acceptability of the different HIV testing strategies. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data. RESULTS: Between April and June 2019, 951 eligible clients were tested for HIV: 898 (94.4%) chose option 1, 30 (3.25%) chose option 2 and 23 (2.4%) chose option 3. Option 1 clients cited their trust in the service and a desire for immediate counselling, support and guidance from trusted providers as the reasons for their choice. Young people were not confident in their expertise to conduct HIVST. Concerns about limited privacy, confidentiality and lack of support in the event of an HIV-positive result were barriers for off-site HIVST. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of supportive, trusted and youth-friendly providers, youth clients overwhelmingly preferred provider-delivered HIV testing over client-initiated HIVST or HIVST off site. This highlights the importance of listening to youth to improve engagement in testing. While young people want autonomy in choosing when, where and how to test, they do not want to necessarily test on their own. They desire quality in-person counselling, guidance and support, alongside privacy and confidentiality. To increase the appeal of HIVST for youth, greater provision of access to private spaces is required, and accessible pre- and post-test counselling and support may improve uptake.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Autoteste , Adolescente , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Zimbábue
5.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256291, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407129

RESUMO

Zimbabwe has made large strides in addressing HIV. To ensure a continued robust response, a clear understanding of costs associated with its HIV program is critical. We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation in 2017 to estimate the annual average patient cost for accessing Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) services (through antenatal care) and Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) services in Zimbabwe. Twenty sites representing different types of public health facilities in Zimbabwe were included. Data on patient costs were collected through in-person interviews with 414 ART and 424 PMTCT adult patients and through telephone interviews with 38 ART and 47 PMTCT adult patients who had missed their last appointment. The mean and median annual patient costs were examined overall and by service type for all participants and for those who paid any cost. Potential patient costs related to time lost were calculated by multiplying the total time to access services (travel time, waiting time, and clinic visit duration) by potential earnings (US$75 per month assuming 8 hours per day and 5 days per week). Mean annual patient costs for accessing services for the participants was US$20.00 [standard deviation (SD) = US$80.42, median = US$6.00, range = US$0.00-US$12,18.00] for PMTCT and US$18.73 (SD = US$58.54, median = US$8.00, range = US$0.00-US$ 908.00) for ART patients. The mean annual direct medical costs for PMTCT and ART were US$9.78 (SD = US$78.58, median = US$0.00, range = US$0.00-US$ 90) and US$7.49 (SD = US$60.00, median = US$0.00) while mean annual direct non-medical cost for US$10.23 (SD = US$17.35, median = US$4.00) and US$11.23 (SD = US$25.22, median = US$6.00, range = US$0.00-US$ 360.00). The PMTCT and ART costs per visit based on time lost were US$3.53 (US$1.13 to US$8.69) and US$3.43 (US$1.14 to US$8.53), respectively. The mean annual patient costs per person for PMTCT and ART in this evaluation will impact household income since PMTCT and ART services in Zimbabwe are supposed to be free.

6.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(8): e25773, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402199

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adolescents are at increased risk of HIV virological non-suppression compared to adults and younger children. Common mental disorders such as anxiety and depression are a barrier to adherence and virological suppression. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with virological non-suppression among adolescents living with HIV (ALWH) in Zimbabwe who had symptoms of common mental disorders. METHODS: We utilized baseline data from a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a problem-solving therapy intervention to improve mental health and HIV viral suppression of ALWH. Sixty clinics within 10 districts were randomized 1:1 to either the intervention or control arm, with the aim to recruit 14 adolescents aged 10 to 19 per clinic. Adolescents were eligible if they scored ≥7 on the Shona Symptom Questionnaire measuring symptoms of common mental disorders. Multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for factors associated with non-suppression, defined as viral load ≥1000 copies/mL. RESULTS: Between 2 January and 21 March 2019 the trial enrolled 842 participants aged 10 to 19 years (55.5% female, 58.8% aged <16). Most participants (N = 613) were taking an NNRTI-based ART regimen (13 PI-based, 216 unknown) and median duration on ART was six years (IQR three to nine years, 240 unknown). Of the 833 with viral load data 292 (35.1%) were non-suppressed. Virological non-suppression was independently associated with male sex (adjusted OR (aOR) = 1.43, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.97), and with not knowing one's own HIV status (aOR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.88), or knowing one's status but not disclosing it to anyone (aOR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.36 to 2.93), compared to adolescents who knew their status and had disclosed it to someone. CONCLUSIONS: ALWH with symptoms of common mental disorders have high prevalence of virological non-suppression in Zimbabwe, especially if they do not know their status or have not disclosed it. In general adolescents should be informed of their HIV status, with encouragement on the beneficial health and social effects of viral suppression, to incentivise adherence. Efforts to strengthen the operationalization of disclosure guidelines for adolescents should now be prioritized.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Carga Viral , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
7.
J Glob Infect Dis ; 13(2): 85-90, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194175

RESUMO

Introduction: Routine viral load (VL) testing is fraught with challenges in resource-limited settings which lead to longer turnaround times for the return of VL results. We assessed the turnaround times for VL testing and factors associated with long turnaround (>30 days) in Marondera, Zimbabwe, between January and September 2018. Methods: This was an analytical study of routine program data. Data were extracted from electronic records and paper-based reports at two laboratories and at antiretroviral therapy (ART) facilities. The unit of analysis was the VL sample. Duration (in days) between sample collection and sample testing (pre-test turnaround time), duration between sample testing and receipt of VL result at ART the site (post-test turnaround time), and duration between sample collection and receipt of result at the ART site (overall turnaround time) were calculated. Days on which the VL testing machine was not functional, and workload (number of tests done per month) were used to assess associations. We used binomial log models to assess the factors associated with longer turnaround time. Results: A total of 3348 samples were received at the two VL testing laboratories, and 3313 were tested, of these, 1111 were analyzed for overall turnaround time. Pre-test, post-test, and overall turnaround times were 22 days (interquartile range (IQR): 11-41), 51 days (IQR: 30-89), and 67 days (IQR: 46-100), respectively. Laboratory workload (relative risk [RR]: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-1.14) and machine break down (RR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.14-1.17) were associated with long turnaround time. Conclusions: Routine VL turnaround time was long. Decentralizing VL testing and enhancing laboratory capacity may help shorten the turnaround time.

8.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072803

RESUMO

When COVID-19 was declared a pandemic, there was concern that TB and HIV services in Zimbabwe would be severely affected. We set up real-time monthly surveillance of TB and HIV activities in 10 health facilities in Harare to capture trends in TB case detection, TB treatment outcomes and HIV testing and use these data to facilitate corrective action. Aggregate data were collected monthly during the COVID-19 period (March 2020-February 2021) using EpiCollect5 and compared with monthly data extracted for the pre-COVID-19 period (March 2019-February 2020). Monthly reports were sent to program directors. During the COVID-19 period, there was a decrease in persons with presumptive pulmonary TB (40.6%), in patients registered for TB treatment (33.7%) and in individuals tested for HIV (62.8%). The HIV testing decline improved in the second 6 months of the COVID-19 period. However, TB case finding deteriorated further, associated with expiry of diagnostic reagents. During the COVID-19 period, TB treatment success decreased from 80.9 to 69.3%, and referral of HIV-positive persons to antiretroviral therapy decreased from 95.7 to 91.7%. Declining trends in TB and HIV case detection and TB treatment outcomes were not fully redressed despite real-time monthly surveillance. More support is needed to transform this useful information into action.

9.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(4): 559-565, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956657

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Health care workers (HCWs), especially from sub-Saharan Africa, are at risk of occupational exposure to HIV. Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) can reduce this risk. There is no published information from Zimbabwe, a high HIV burden country, about how PEP works. We therefore assessed how the PEP programme performed at the Parirenyatwa Hospital, Harare, Zimbabwe, from 2017-2018. METHODOLOGY: This was a cohort study using secondary data from the staff clinic paper-based register. The chi square test and relative risks were used to assess associations. RESULTS: There were 154 HCWs who experienced occupational injuries. The commonest group was medical doctors (36%) and needle sticks were the most frequent type of occupational injury (74%). The exposure source was identified in 114 (74%) occupational injuries: 91% of source patients were HIV-tested and 77% were HIV-positive. All but two HCWs were HIV-tested, 148 were eligible for PEP and 142 (96%) started triple therapy, all within 48 hours of exposure. Of those starting PEP, 15 (11%) completed 28 days, 13 (9%) completed < 28 days and in the remainder PEP duration was not recorded. There were no HCW characteristics associated with not completing PEP. Of those starting PEP, 9 (6%) were HIV-tested at 6-weeks, 3 (2%) were HIV-tested at 3-months and 1 (< 1%) was HIV-tested at 6-months: all HIV-tests were negative. CONCLUSIONS: While uptake of PEP was timely and high, the majority of HCWs failed to complete the 28-day treatment course and even fewer attended for follow-up HIV-tests. Various changes are recommended to promote awareness of PEP and improve adherence to guidelines.

10.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(2): 781-788, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children encounter multiple barriers in accessing facilities. HIV self-testing using oral mucosal transudate (OMT) tests has been shown to be effective in reaching hard-to-reach populations. We evaluated the feasibility and accuracy of caregivers conducting HIV testing using OMTs in children in Zimbabwe. METHODS: We offered OMTs to caregivers (>18 years) living with HIV to test children (2-18 years) living in their households. All caregivers were provided with manufacturer instructions. In Phase 1 (January-December 2018, 9 clinics), caregivers additionally received a demonstration by a provider using a test kit and video. In Phase 2 (January-May 2019, 3 clinics), caregivers did not receive a demonstration. We collected demographic data and assessed caregiver's ability to perform the test and interpret results. Caregiver performance was assessed by direct observation and scored using a predefined checklist. Factors associated with obtaining a full score were analyzed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall 400 caregivers (83.0% female, median age 38 years) who were observed tested 786 children (54.6% female, median age 8 years). For most tests, caregivers correctly collected oral fluid [87.1% without provider demonstrations (n = 629) and 96.8% with demonstrations (n = 157), P = 0.002]. The majority correctly used a timer (90.3% without demonstrations and 96.8% with demonstrations, P = 0.02). In multivariate logistic regression caregivers who obtained a full score for performance were more likely to have received a demonstration (odds ratio 4.14, 95% confidence interval: 2.01 to 8.50). CONCLUSIONS: Caregiver-provided testing using OMTs is a feasible and accurate HIV testing strategy for children. We recommend operational research to support implementation at scale.


Assuntos
Exsudatos e Transudatos/virologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Teste de HIV/métodos , Mucosa Bucal/virologia , Autoteste , Adolescente , Adulto , Cuidadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
11.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245720, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481931

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Routine viral load (VL) testing among persons living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV) enables earlier detection of sub-optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and for appropriate management of treatment failure. Since adoption of this policy by Zimbabwe in 2016, the extent of implementation is unclear. Therefore we set out to determine among PLHIV ever enrolled on ART from 2004-2017 and in ART care for ≥12 months at health facilities providing ART in Zimbabwe: numbers (proportions) with VL testing uptake, VL suppression and subsequently switched to 2nd-line ART following confirmed virologic failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used retrospective data from the electronic Patient Monitoring System (ePMS) in which PLHIV on ART are registered at 525 public and 4 private health facilities. RESULTS: Among the 392,832 PLHIV in ART care for ≥12 months, 99,721 (25.4%) had an initial VL test done and results available of whom 81,932 (82%) were virally suppressed. Among those with a VL>1000 copies/mL; 6,689 (37.2%) had a follow-up VL test and 4,086 (61%) had unsuppressed VLs of whom only 1,749 (42.8%) were switched to 2nd-line ART. Lower age particularly adolescents (10-19 years) were more likely (ARR 1.34; 95%CI: 1.25-1.44) to have virologic failure. CONCLUSION: The study findings provide insights to implementation gaps including limitations in VL testing; low identification of high- risk PLHIV in care and lack of prompt utilization of test results. The use of electronic patient-level data has demonstrated its usefulness in assessing the performance of the national VL testing program. By end of 2017 implementation of VL testing was sub-optimal, and virological failure was relatively common, particularly among adolescents. Of concern is evidence of failure to act on VL test results that were received. A quality improvement initiative has been planned in response to these findings and its effect on patient management will be monitored.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Carga Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
12.
AIDS Behav ; 25(2): 397-413, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812124

RESUMO

Differentiated service delivery holds great promise for streamlining the delivery of health services for HIV. This study used a discrete choice experiment to assess preferences for differentiated HIV treatment delivery model characteristics among 500 virally suppressed adults on antiretroviral therapy in Harare, Zimbabwe. Treatment model characteristics included location, consultation type, healthcare worker cadre, operation times, visit frequency and duration, and cost. A mixed effects logit model was used for parameter estimates to identify potential preference heterogeneity among participants, and interaction effects were estimated for sex and age as potential sources of divergence in preferences. Results indicated that participants preferred health facility-based services, less frequent visits, individual consultations, shorter waiting times, lower cost and, delivered by respectful and understanding healthcare workers. Some preference heterogeneity was found, particularly for location of service delivery and group vs. individual models; however, this was not fully explained by sex and age characteristics of participants. In urban areas, facility-based models, such as the Fast Track model requiring less frequent clinic visits, are likely to better align with patient preferences than some of the other community-based or group models that have been implemented. As Zimbabwe scales up differentiated treatment models for stable patients, a clear understanding of patient preferences can help in designing services that will ensure optimal utilization and improve the efficiency of service delivery.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/terapia , Preferência do Paciente , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial , Comportamento de Escolha , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Zimbábue
13.
Lancet HIV ; 8(3): e138-e148, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Index-linked HIV testing, whereby children of individuals with HIV are targeted for testing, increases HIV yield but relies on uptake. Community-based testing might address barriers to testing access. In the Bridging the Gap in HIV testing and care for children in Zimbabwe (B-GAP) study, we investigated the uptake and yield of index-linked testing in children and the uptake of community-based vs facility-based HIV testing in Zimbabwe. METHODS: B-GAP was an interventional study done in the city of Bulawayo and the province of Matabeleland South between Jan 29 and Dec 12, 2018. All HIV-positive attendees (index patients) at six urban and three rural primary health-care clinics were offered facility-based or community-based HIV testing for children (age 2-18 years) living in their households who had never been tested or had tested as HIV-negative more than 6 months ago. Community-based options involved testing in the home by either a trained lay worker with a blood-based rapid diagnostic test (used in facility-based testing), or by the child's caregiver with an oral HIV test. Among consenting individuals, the primary outcome was testing uptake in terms of the proportion of eligible children tested. Secondary outcomes were uptake of the different HIV testing methods, HIV yield (proportion of eligible children who tested positive), and HIV prevalence (proportion of HIV-positive children among those tested). Logistic regression adjusting for within-index clustering was used to investigate index patient and child characteristics associated with testing uptake, and the uptake of community-based versus facility-based testing. FINDINGS: Overall, 2870 index patients were linked with 6062 eligible children (3115 [51·4%] girls [sex unknown in seven], median age 8 years [IQR 5-13]). Testing was accepted by index patients for 5326 (87·9%) children, and 3638 were tested with a known test outcome, giving an overall testing uptake among 6062 eligible children of 60·0%. 39 children tested positive for HIV, giving an HIV prevalence among the 3638 children of 1·1% and an HIV yield among 6062 eligible children of 0·6%. Uptake was positively associated with female sex in the index patient (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1·56 [95% CI 1·38-1·77], p<0·0001) and child (aOR 1·10 [1·03-1·19], p=0·0080), and negatively associated with any financial cost of travel to a clinic (aOR 0·86 [0·83-0·88], p<0·0001), increased child age (6-9 years: aOR 0·99 (0·89-1·09); 10-15 years: aOR 0·91 [0·83-1·00]; and 16-18 years: aOR 0·75 [0·66-0·85]; p=0·0001 vs 2-5 years), and unknown HIV status of the mother (aOR 0·81 [0·68-0·98], p=0·027 vs HIV-positive status). Additionally, children had increased odds of being tested if community-based testing was chosen over facility-based testing at screening (1320 [73·9%] children tested of 1787 vs 2318 [65·5%] of 3539; aOR 1·49 [1·22-1·81], p=0·0001). INTERPRETATION: The HIV yield of index-linked testing was low compared with blanket testing approaches in similar settings. Index-linked HIV testing can improve testing uptake among children, although strategies that improve testing uptake in older children are needed. Community based testing by lay workers is a feasible strategy that can be used to improve uptake of HTS among children and adolescents. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, UK Department for International Development, Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Teste de HIV/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
14.
Implement Sci Commun ; 1(1): 99, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292817

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Index-linked HIV testing, targeted at sexual contacts or children of individuals with HIV, may improve yield and efficiency. The B-GAP study evaluated index-linked testing approaches in health facility and community-based settings. This paper reports on a qualitative study to understand factors that affect uptake of index-linked HIV testing for children and adolescents. METHODS: We conducted four focus group discussions (FGDs) with caregivers who had their children tested through B-GAP and one FGD with providers who offered index-linked HIV testing to indexes. We aimed to understand enabling and inhibiting factors in the decision-making process. Translated and transcribed transcripts were read for familiarisation. Following initial coding, analytical memos were written to identify emerging key themes across the data. RESULTS: Our findings showed there was inadequate emphasis on paediatric HIV in routine care which had a negative impact on subsequent uptake of testing for children. Once the decision to test had been made, access to facilities was sometimes challenging and alleviated by community-based testing. A key finding was that HIV testing is not a discrete event but a process that was influenced by relationships with other family members and children themselves. These relationships raised complex issues that could prevent or delay the testing process. CONCLUSION: There is a need to improve messaging on the importance of HIV testing for children and adolescents and to provide support to caregivers and their families in order to improve testing uptake. Addressing access barriers through the provision of community-based testing and implementing a family-centred approach can optimise index-linked testing.

15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240865, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the scale-up of the HIV "Treat All" recommendation, evidence on its real-world effect on predictors of attrition (either death or lost to follow-up) is lacking. We conducted a retrospective study using Zimbabwe ART program data to assess the association between "Treat All" and, patient-mix, programmatic characteristics, retention and predictors of attrition. METHODS: We used patient-level data from the electronic patient monitoring system (ePMS) from the nine districts, which piloted the "Treat All" recommendation. We compared patient-mix, programme characteristics, retention and predictors of attrition (lost to follow-up, death or stopping ART) in two cohorts; before (April/May 2016) and after (January/February 2017) "Treat All". Retention was estimated using survival analysis. Predictors of attrition were determined using a multivariable Cox regression model. Interactions were used to assess the change in predictors of attrition before and after "Treat All". RESULTS: We analysed 3787 patients, 1738 (45.9%) and 2049 (54.1%) started ART before and after "Treat All", respectively. The proportion of men was higher after "Treat All" (39.4.% vs 36.2%, p = 0.044). Same-day ART initiation was more frequent after "Treat All" (43.2% vs 16.4%; p<0.001) than before. Retention on ART was higher before "Treat All" (p<0.001). Among non-pregnant women and men, the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of attrition after compared to before "Treat All" was 1.73 (95%CI: 1.30-2.31). The observed hazard of attrition for women being pregnant at ART initiation decreased by 17% (aHR: 1.73*0.48 = 0.83) after "Treat All". Being male (vs female; aHR: 1.45; 95%CI: 1.12-1.87) and WHO Stage IV (vs WHO Stage I-III; aHR: 2.89; 95%CI: 1.16-7.11) predicted attrition both before and after "Treat All" implementation. CONCLUSION: Attrition was higher after "Treat All"; being male, WHO Stage 4, and pregnancy predicted attrition in both before and after Treat All. However, pregnancy became a less strong risk factor for attrition after "Treat All" implementation.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida , Zimbábue
16.
F1000Res ; 9: 287, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934801

RESUMO

Background: In Zimbabwe, Harare was the first province to implement "Treat All" for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). Since its roll out in July 2016, no study has been conducted to assess the changes in key programme indicators. We compared antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake, time to ART initiation from diagnosis, and retention before and during "Treat All". Methods: We conducted an ecological study to assess ART uptake among all PLHIV newly diagnosed before and during "Treat All". We conducted a cohort study to assess time to ART initiation and retention in care among all PLHIV newly initiated on ART from all electronic patient management system-supported sites (n=50) before and during "Treat All". Results: ART uptake increased from 65% (n=4619) by the end of quarter one, 2014 to 85% (n=5152) by the end of quarter four, 2018.  A cohort of 2289 PLHIV were newly initiated on ART before (April-June 2015) and 1682 during "Treat all" (April-June 2017). Their age and gender distribution was similar. The proportion of PLHIV in early stages of disease was significantly higher during "Treat all" (73.2% vs. 55.6%, p<0.001). The median time to ART initiation was significantly lower during "Treat All" (31 vs. 88 days, p<0.001). Cummulative retention at three, six and 12 months was consistently lower during "Treat all" and was significant at six months (74.9% vs.78.1% p=0.022). Conclusion: Although there were benefits of early ART initiation during "Treat All", the programme should consider strategies to improve retention.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Zimbábue
17.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(9): e25613, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969602

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gutu, a rural district in Zimbabwe, has been implementing comprehensive HIV care with the support of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) since 2011, decentralizing testing and treatment services to all rural healthcare facilities. We evaluated HIV prevalence, incidence and the cascade of care, in Gutu District five years after MSF began its activities. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was implemented between September and December 2016. Using multistage cluster sampling, individuals aged ≥15 years living in the selected households were eligible. Individuals who agreed to participate were interviewed and tested for HIV at home. All participants who tested HIV-positive had their HIV-RNA viral load (VL) measured, regardless of their antiretroviral therapy (ART) status, and those not on ART with HIV-RNA VL ≥ 1000 copies/mL had Limiting-Antigen-Avidity EIA Assay for cross-sectional estimation of population-level HIV incidence. RESULTS: Among 5439 eligible adults ≥15 years old, 89.0% of adults were included in the study and accepted an HIV test. The overall prevalence was 13.6% (95%: Confidence Interval (CI): 12.6 to 14.5). Overall HIV-positive status awareness was 87.4% (95% CI: 84.7 to 89.8), linkage to care 85.5% (95% CI: 82.5 to 88.0) and participants in care 83.8% (95% CI: 80.7 to 86.4). ART coverage among HIV-positive participants was 83.0% (95% CI: 80.0 to 85.7). Overall, 71.6% (95% CI 68.0 to 75.0) of HIV-infected participants had a HIV-RNA VL < 1000 copies/mL. Women achieved higher outcomes than men in the five stages of the cascade of care. Viral Load Suppression (VLS) among participants on ART was 83.2% (95% CI: 79.7 to 86.2) and was not statistically different between women and men (p = 0.98). The overall HIV incidence was estimated at 0.35% (95% CI 0.00 to 0.70) equivalent to 35 new cases/10,000 person-years. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides population-level evidence that achievement of HIV cascade of care coverage overall and among women is feasible in a context with broad access to services and implementation of a decentralized model of care. However, the VLS was relatively low even among participants on ART. Quality care remains the most critical gap in the cascade of care to further reduce mortality and HIV transmission.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/fisiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963795

RESUMO

Background: Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) experience a high burden of mental health disorder which is a barrier to antiretroviral therapy adherence. In Zimbabwe, trained, mentored peer supporters living with HIV (Community Adolescent Treatment Supporters - CATS) have been found to improve adherence, viral suppression and psychosocial well-being among ALHIV. The Friendship Bench is the largest integrated mental health programme in Africa. We hypothesise that combining the CATS programme and Friendship Bench will improve mental health and virological suppression among ALHIV compared with the CATS programme alone. Methods: We will conduct a cluster-randomised controlled trial in 60 clinics randomised 1:1 in five provinces. ALHIV attending the control arm clinics will receive standard CATS support and clinic support following the Ministry of Health guidelines. Those attending the intervention arm clinics will receive Friendship Bench problem-solving therapy, delivered by trained CATS. Participants with the signs of psychological distress will be referred to the clinic for further assessment and management. The primary outcome is HIV virological failure (≥1000 copies/ml) or death at 48 weeks. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of adolescents with common mental disorder symptoms (defined as Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ-14) score ≥8), proportion with depression symptoms (defined as Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score ≥11), symptom severity (mean SSQ-14 and PHQ-9 scores) and EQ-5D score for health-related quality of life. Conclusions: This trial evaluates the effectiveness of peer-delivery of mental health care on mental health and HIV viral load among ALHIV. If effective this intervention has the potential to be scaled-up to improve these outcomes.Trial registration: PACTR201810756862405. 08 October 2018.

19.
F1000Res ; 9: 191, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399206

RESUMO

Background: Zimbabwe is one of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus. In the "treat all" era, we assessed the gaps in routine viral load (VL) monitoring at six months for children (0-9 years) and adolescents (10-19 years) newly initiated on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) from January 2017 to September 2018 at a large tertiary hospital in Bulawayo. Methods: In this cohort study using secondary data, we considered first VL done within six to nine months of starting therapy as 'undergoing VL test at six months'. We classified repeat VL≥1000 copies/ml despite enhanced adherence counselling as virally unsuppressed. Results: Of 295 patients initiated on ART, 196 (66%) were children and 99 (34%) adolescents. A total 244 (83%) underwent VL test at six months, with 161 (54%) virally suppressed, 52 (18%) unsuppressed and 82 (28%) with unknown status (due to losses in the cascade). Switch to second line was seen in 35% (18/52). When compared to children, adolescents were less likely to undergo a VL test at six months (73% versus 88%, p=0.002) and more likely to have an unknown VL status (40% versus 22%, p=0.001). Conclusion: At six months of ART, viral suppression was low and losses in the cascade high.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Carga Viral , Adolescente , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
20.
BMJ Open ; 10(4): e034721, 2020 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) are known to have a tuberculosis (TB) protective effect at the individual level among people living with HIV (PLHIV). In Zimbabwe where TB is driven by HIV infection, we have assessed whether there is a population-level association between IPT and ART scale-up and annual TB case notification rates (CNRs) from 2000 to 2018. DESIGN: Ecological study using aggregate national data. SETTING: Annual aggregate national data on TB case notification rates (stratified by TB category and type of disease), numbers (and proportions) of PLHIV in ART care and of these, numbers (and proportions) ever commenced on IPT. RESULTS: ART coverage in the public sector increased from <1% (8400 PLHIV) in 2004 to ~88% (>1.1 million PLHIV patients) by December 2018, while IPT coverage among PLHIV in ART care increased from <1% (98 PLHIV) in 2012 to ~33% (373 917 PLHIV) by December 2018. These HIV-related interventions were associated with significant declines in TB CNRs: between the highest CNR prior to national roll-out of ART (in 2004) to the lowest recorded CNR after national IPT roll-out from 2012, these were (1) for all TB case (510 to 173 cases/100 000 population; 66% decline, p<0.001); (2) for those with new TB (501 to 159 cases/100 000 population; 68% decline, p<0.001) and (3) for those with new clinically diagnosed PTB (284 to 63 cases/100 000 population; 77.8% decline, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the population-level impact of the continued scale-up of ART among PLHIV and the national roll-out of IPT among those in ART care in reducing TB, particularly clinically diagnosed TB which is largely associated with HIV. There are further opportunities for continued mitigation of TB with increasing coverage of ART and in particular IPT which still has a low coverage.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
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