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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 759: 143920, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339624

RESUMO

The need for effective water quality models to help guide management and policy, and extend monitoring information, is at the forefront of recent discussions related to watershed management. These models are often calibrated and validated at the basin outlet, which ensures that models are capable of evaluating basin scale hydrology and water quality. However, there is a need to understand where these models succeed or fail with respect to internal process representation, as these watershed-scale models are used to inform management practices and mitigation strategies upstream. We evaluated an ensemble of models-each calibrated to in-stream observations at the basin outlet-against discharge and nutrient observations at the farm field scale to determine the extent to which these models capture field-scale dynamics. While all models performed well at the watershed outlet, upstream performance varied. Models tended to over-predict discharge through surface runoff and subsurface drainage, while under-predicting phosphorus loading through subsurface drainage and nitrogen loading through surface runoff. Our study suggests that while models may be applied to predict impacts of management at the basin scale, care should be taken in applying the models to evaluate field-scale management and processes in the absence of data that can be incorporated at that scale, even with the use of multiple models.

2.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111710, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308931

RESUMO

Reducing harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie, situated between the United States and Canada, requires implementing best management practices to decrease nutrient loading from upstream sources. Bi-national water quality targets have been set for total and dissolved phosphorus loads, with the ultimate goal of reaching these targets in 9-out-of-10 years. Row crop agriculture dominates the land use in the Western Lake Erie Basin thus requiring efforts to mitigate nutrient loads from agricultural systems. To determine the types and extent of agricultural management practices needed to reach the water quality goals, we used five independently developed Soil and Water Assessment Tool models to evaluate the effects of 18 management scenarios over a 10-year period on nutrient export. Guidance from a stakeholder group was provided throughout the project, and resulted in improved data, development of realistic scenarios, and expanded outreach. Subsurface placement of phosphorus fertilizers, cover crops, riparian buffers, and wetlands were among the most effective management options. But, only in one realistic scenario did a majority (3/5) of the models predict that the total phosphorus loading target would be met in 9-out-of-10 years. Further, the dissolved phosphorus loading target was predicted to meet the 9-out-of-10-year goal by only one model and only in three scenarios. In all scenarios evaluated, the 9-out-of-10-year goal was not met based on the average of model predictions. Ensemble modeling revealed general agreement about the effects of several practices although some scenarios resulted in a wide range of uncertainty. Overall, our results demonstrate that there are multiple pathways to approach the established water quality goals, but greater adoption rates of practices than those tested here will likely be needed to attain the management targets.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos , Agricultura , Canadá , Eutrofização , Fósforo/análise , Qualidade da Água
3.
J Environ Manage ; 279: 111803, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341725

RESUMO

Coastal eutrophication is a leading cause of degraded water quality around the world. Identifying the sources and their relative contributions to impaired downstream water quality is an important step in developing management plans to address water quality concerns. Recent mass-balance studies of Total Phosphorus (TP) loads of the Maumee River watershed highlight the considerable phosphorus contributions of non-point sources, including agricultural sources, degrading regional downstream water quality. This analysis builds upon these mass-balance studies by using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool to simulate the movement of phosphorus from manure, inorganic fertilizer, point sources, and soil sources, and respective loads of TP and Dissolved Reactive Phosphorus (DRP). This yields a more explicit estimation of source contribution from the watershed. Model simulations indicate that inorganic fertilizers contribute a greater proportion of TP (45% compared to 8%) and DRP (58% compared to 12%) discharged from the watershed than manure sources in the March-July period, the season driving harmful algal blooms. Although inorganic fertilizers contributed a greater mass of TP and DRP than manure sources, the two sources had similar average delivery fractions of TP (2.7% for inorganic fertilizers vs. 3.0% for manure sources) as well as DRP (0.7% for inorganic fertilizers vs. 1.2% for manure sources). Point sources contributed similar proportions of TP (5%) and DRP (12%) discharged in March-July as manure sources. Soil sources of phosphorus contributed over 40% of the March-July TP load and 20% of the March-July DRP load from the watershed to Lake Erie. Reductions of manures and inorganic fertilizers corresponded to a greater proportion of phosphorus delivered from soil sources of phosphorus, indicating that legacy phosphorus in soils may need to be a focus of management efforts to reach nutrient load reduction goals. In agricultural watersheds aground the world, including the Maumee River watershed, upstream nutrient management should not focus solely on an individual nutrient source; rather a comprehensive approach involving numerous sources should be undertaken.


Assuntos
Lagos , Fósforo , Agricultura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fósforo/análise , Rios , Qualidade da Água
4.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143039, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158527

RESUMO

Waterbodies around the world experience problems associated with elevated phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) loads. While vital for ecosystem functioning, when present in excess amounts these nutrients can impair water quality and create symptoms of eutrophication, including harmful algal blooms. Under a changing climate, nutrient loads are likely to change. While climate models can serve as inputs to watershed models, the climate models often do not adequately represent the distribution of observed data, generating uncertainties that can be addressed to some degree with bias correction. However, the impacts of bias correction on nutrient models are not well understood. This study compares 4 univariate and 3 multivariate bias correction methods, which correct precipitation and temperature variables from 4 climate models in the historical (1980-1999) and mid-century future (2046-2065) time periods. These variables served as inputs to a calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model of Lake Erie's Maumee River watershed. We compared the performance of SWAT outputs driven with climate model outputs that were bias-corrected (BC) and not bias-corrected (no-BC) for dissolved reactive P, total P, and total N. Results based on graphical comparisons and goodness of fit metrics showed that the choice of BC method impacts both the direction of change and magnitude of nutrient loads and hydrological processes. While the Delta method performed best, it should be used with caution since it considers historical variable relationships as the basis for predictions, which may not hold true under future climate. Quantile Delta Mapping (QDM) and Multivariate Bias Correction N-dimensional probability density function transform (MBCn) BC methods also performed well and work well for non-stationary climate scenarios. Furthermore, results suggest that February-July cumulative load in the Maumee basin is likely to decrease in the mid-century as runoff and snowfall decrease, and evapotranspiration increases with warming temperatures.

5.
J Environ Manage ; : 111506, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168300

RESUMO

Watershed-scale hydrologic models are frequently used to inform conservation and restoration efforts by identifying critical source areas (CSAs; alternatively 'hotspots'), defined as areas that export relatively greater quantities of nutrients and sediment. The CSAs can then be prioritized or 'targeted' for conservation and restoration to ensure efficient use of limited resources. However, CSA simulations from watershed-scale hydrologic models may be uncertain and it is critical that the extent and implications of this uncertainty be conveyed to stakeholders and decision makers. We used an ensemble of four independently developed Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) models and a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model to simulate CSA locations for flow, phosphorus, nitrogen, and sediment within the ~17,000-km2 Maumee River watershed at the HUC-12 scale. We then assessed uncertainty in CSA simulations determined as the variation in CSA locations across the models. Our application of an ensemble of models - differing with respect to inputs, structure, and parameterization - facilitated an improved accounting of CSA prediction uncertainty. We found that the models agreed on the location of a subset of CSAs, and that these locations may be targeted with relative confidence. However, models more often disagreed on CSA locations. On average, only 16%-46% of HUC-12 subwatersheds simulated as a CSA by one model were also simulated as a CSA by a different model. Our work shows that simulated CSA locations are highly uncertain and may vary substantially across models. Hence, while models may be useful in informing conservation and restoration planning, their application to identify CSA locations would benefit from comprehensive uncertainty analyses to avoid inefficient use of limited resources.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143487, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218797

RESUMO

In response to increased harmful algal blooms (HABs), hypoxia, and nearshore algae growth in Lake Erie, the United States and Canada agreed to phosphorus load reduction targets. While the load targets were guided by an ensemble of models, none of them considered the effects of climate change. Some watershed models developed to guide load reduction strategies have simulated climate effects, but without extending the resulting loads or their uncertainties to HAB projections. In this study, we integrated an ensemble of four climate models, three watershed models, and four HAB models. Nutrient loads and HAB predictions were generated for historical (1985-1999), current (2002-2017), and mid-21st-century (2051-2065) periods. For the current and historical periods, modeled loads and HABs are comparable to observations but exhibit less interannual variability. Our results show that climate impacts on watershed processes are likely to lead to reductions in future loading, assuming land use and watershed management practices are unchanged. This reduction in load should help reduce the magnitude of future HABs, although increases in lake temperature could mitigate that decrease. Using Monte-Carlo analysis to attribute sources of uncertainty from this cascade of models, we show that the uncertainty associated with each model is significant, and that improvements in all three are needed to build confidence in future projections.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 724: 138004, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408425

RESUMO

Hydrologic models are applied increasingly with climate projections to provide insights into future hydrologic conditions. However, both hydrologic models and climate models can produce a wide range of predictions based on model inputs, assumptions, and structure. To characterize a range of future predictions, it is common to use multiple climate models to drive hydrologic models, yet it is less common to also use a suite of hydrologic models. It is also common for hydrologic models to report riverine discharge and assume that nutrient loading will follow similar patterns, but this may not be the case. In this study, we characterized uncertainty from both climate models and hydrologic models in predicting riverine discharge and nutrient loading. Six climate models drawn from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 ensemble were used to drive five independently developed and calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool models to assess hydrology and nutrient loadings for mid-century (2046-2065) in the Maumee River Watershed,the largest watershedsdraining to the Laurentian Great Lakes. Under those conditions, there was no clear agreement on the direction of change in future nutrient loadings or discharge. Analysis of variance demonstrated that variation among climate models was the dominant source of uncertainty in predicting future total discharge, tile discharge (i.e. subsurface drainage), evapotranspiration, and total nitrogen loading, while hydrologic models were the main source of uncertainty in predicted surface runoff and phosphorus loadings. This innovative study quantifies the importance of hydrologic model in the prediction of riverine nutrient loadings under a future climate.

8.
Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ) ; 43(1): 25-8, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24490182

RESUMO

The use and development of biologic implants such as autogenous bone grafts and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) remain on the rise in orthopedic surgery. Apart from the differences in efficacies seen between the different methods, there is also a difference in the cost associated with each. We generated a questionnaire inquiring about current use of osteobiologics and cost perceptions, and distributed it to 30 orthopedic surgeons. When answers were compared to operating room pricing data from each institution, surgeons grossly over and underestimated the costs associated with each of the osteobiologics in the questionnaire. More than 25% of those questioned did not know the cost of the osteobiologics they had used in the last 3 months. Furthermore, none of the participating institutions had a committee with physician participation concerning the use of these techniques. As the use and cost of osteobiologics by orthopedic surgeons continues to increase, so should the importance of educating those surgeons on the financial outcomes so as to assuage extraneous and unnecessary economic ramifications.


Assuntos
Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/economia , Padrões de Prática Médica/economia , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Eur J Radiol ; 60(3): 460-4, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17055683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Comparison of cleansing effects and colonic distension observed with two polyethyleneglycol-solution (PEG) containing bowel preparation techniques prior to CT-colonography (CTC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and three patients that received CTC in our institution were retrospectively evaluated. Fifty-one patients received preparation 1 (BP1; based on a GoLytely formulation+bisacodyl), 52 preparation 2 (BP2; based on a NuLytely formulation+bisacodyl). On multi-planar-reformatted (MPR) images, fluid residuals and colon distension were assessed in five colonic segments, from the ascending colon to the rectum. RESULTS: On average, significantly (p<0.001) lower fluid residuals were assesses when using BP2 regardless of the patient position. In prone position, a significantly lower fluid level was observed in the sigmoid using bowel preparation 2. The average maximum diameter measured for the whole colon was 5.2+/-0.6 cm in prone position and 4.8+/-0.6 cm in the supine position in BP1 (p<0.01). In BP2 the average maximum diameter measured for the whole colon was 5.3+/-0.6 cm in prone position and 4.7+/-0.5 cm in supine position, respectively (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Overall, lower fluid residuals were scored using BP2. In both preparation groups we achieved better colonic distension in prone position. We were not able to distend the sigmoid better when insufflating air during patient repositioning.


Assuntos
Bisacodil/administração & dosagem , Catárticos/administração & dosagem , Colonografia Tomográfica Computadorizada , Eletrólitos/administração & dosagem , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Tensoativos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Decúbito Ventral , Estudos Retrospectivos , Soluções , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Decúbito Dorsal
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