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Sci Total Environ ; 694: 133709, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394332


This study focuses on the climate growth drivers of Quercus robur L. (pedunculate oak) and Q. robur subsp. pedunculiflora K. Koch. (greyish oak), occurring in the biodiversity of three sites in southern Romania. We determined the degree of tolerance of the greyish oak, between the tardive and praecox varieties, to environmental stress, between 1951 and 2016. Total tree ring-width (RW), and earlywood (EW) and latewood (LW) measurements were subject of periodical and monthly climate-growth analysis. Our results revealed a moderate relationship between climate and tree-growth. A significant and positive relationship was observed between RW and previous growing season precipitation. Mean and minimum temperatures affected both positive and negative tree-rings during the growing season. We also observed that winter and spring represent key seasons for differentiating tardive from praecox varieties, affecting the intra-annual variability of ring-width, and EW and LW parameters. The correlation between the tree-ring measurements and daily climate data shows a clear offset of the starting growth between greyish oak varieties. A weak influence of stressors on tree-growth at the sites was observed through pointer year and resilience components analysis.

Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Quercus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clima , Romênia
Int J Biometeorol ; 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352524


Leaf phenology is a major driver of ecosystem functioning in temperate forests and a robust indicator of climate change. Both the inter-annual and inter-population variability of leaf phenology have received much attention in the literature; in contrast, the within-population variability of leaf phenology has been far less studied. Beyond its impact on individual tree physiological processes, the within-population variability of leaf phenology can affect the estimation of the average budburst or leaf senescence dates at the population scale. Here, we monitored the progress of spring and autumn leaf phenology over 14 tree populations (9 tree species) in six European forests over the period of 2011 to 2018 (yielding 16 site-years of data for spring, 14 for autumn). We monitored 27 to 512 (with a median of 62) individuals per population. We quantified the within-population variability of leaf phenology as the standard deviation of the distribution of individual dates of budburst or leaf senescence (SDBBi and SDLSi, respectively). Given the natural variability of phenological dates occurring in our tree populations, we estimated from the data that a minimum sample size of 28 (resp. 23) individuals, are required to estimate SDBBi (resp. SDLSi) with a precision of 3 (resp. 7) days. The within-population of leaf senescence (average SDLSi = 8.5 days) was on average two times larger than for budburst (average SDBBi = 4.0 days). We evidenced that warmer temperature during the budburst period and a late average budburst date were associated with a lower SDBBi, as a result of a quicker spread of budburst in tree populations, with a strong species effect. Regarding autumn phenology, we observed that later senescence and warm temperatures during the senescence period were linked with a high SDLSi, with a strong species effect. The shares of variance explained by our models were modest suggesting that other factors likely influence the within-population variation in leaf phenology. For instance, a detailed analysis revealed that summer temperatures were negatively correlated with a lower SDLSi.

Sci Total Environ ; 689: 980-990, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280179


The study aims to analyse the stability of the narrow crowned Norway spruce (pendula form) compared to the normal spruce form (pyramidalis form) and the hybrids of the two forms, in 5 field trials (Comandau, Lepsa 1&2, Ilva Mica and Voineasa) located in the Romanian Carpathians. Trees height (Th), breast height diameter (Dbh), height growth of the last year, crown diameter (Cd), number of branches per whorl (Nbw) and dominant branch diameter (Dbd) traits were measured and survival rate (Sr) was determined, at 20 years old. Also, branches finesse (Bf), trees volume (Tv) and trees slenderness (Ts) were calculated. In order to compare the wood density (Cwd) there were collected cores. In all trials ANOVA revealed significant (p < 0.05) differences between the two forms of spruce and the hybrids (mainly between those that have a different crown form mother), especially for the stability and quality traits. Factorial ANOVA revealed a high influence (p < 0.001) of the locality and also a significant influence (p < 0.05) of the locality × spruce form interaction. The factor "form" was significant for some traits involved in Norway spruce stability (Ts, Cd, Nbw). The pendula trees present higher values for Sr, Dbh and Tv, and lower values for Ts, Cd, Nbw, Dbd and Bf, compared to pyramidalis spruce form, which showed a higher stability. Heritability was in generally low (h2 < 0.4), with exceptions of Ts which presents a medium rate of heritage. For the same trait, different heritability was registered in different environmental conditions. The Cwd was higher only with 2% for the pendula form in Lepsa trial, while in Comandau trial the pyramidalis registered a higher value (7%). In the new breeding programme, the selection strategy may be pursued with the pendula trees selection based on Ts and branches traits.

Hibridização Genética , Picea/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Picea/anatomia & histologia , Picea/genética , Romênia , Especificidade da Espécie , Madeira/análise
Sci Total Environ ; 678: 721-727, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078863


In the last years, large-scale mass forest withering and dieback have been reported for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) across eastern Europe, particularly in Romania. In these regions, the climate models forecast an increase in intensity and frequency of extreme climate events such as drought. Taking into account these aspects, the exact identification of the influences of drought on the loss of radial growth and vitality in Scots pine stands becomes mandatory. To achieve this aim, we developed the first country-wide Scots pine dendrochronological network in Romania consisting of 34 chronologies of basal area increment (BAI), and including 1401 individual tree-ring width series. Romanian Scots pine forests were severely impacted by the 2000 and 2012 droughts. The high temperatures and low precipitation from April to August were the main climatic causes of radial-growth reduction and large-scale withering in some areas. By mapping post-drought growth resilience, we identified locations where resilience was low and could identify foci of future forest dieback and high tree mortality. The projected appearance of similar prolonged and severe droughts in the future will lead to the damage or local extinction of some Scots pine forests in Romania, regardless of their age, composition or spatial location. The elaboration of adaptive forest management strategies to the impact of climate changes, specifically designed for the Scots pine stands, is not possible without knowing and understanding these aspects.

Mudança Climática , Secas , Florestas , Pinus sylvestris/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Romênia , Estações do Ano , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Sci Total Environ ; 609: 497-505, 2017 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28755599


Even though pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and grayish oak (Quercus pedunculiflora K. Koch) have different ecological requirements, they have been considered as having low differentiation at the level of morphological traits and genetic variation. The leaf morphology for 862 trees has been assessed in 16 natural populations, seven of Q. robur, eight of Q. pedunculiflora and a mixed forest were both taxa coexist. In total, fifteen descriptors have been analysed by using discriminant analysis, while it was found that with only four out of the fifteen leaf traits (abaxial pubescence, abaxial colour of the leaf, petiole length and basal shape of lamina) the two taxa could be clearly differentiated. A dendrogram has been constructed on the basis of these traits, where the populations of each taxon have been clustered together. PU and CL traits of Q. pedunculiflora were discussed for their adaptive value for drought resistance in the steppe habitats occupied by this taxon. Using the leaves' morphological descriptors and data from the literature, intra-taxonomic units (varieties, forms and sub-forms) have been identified in all analysed populations. Eight intraspecific units for Q. robur and six for Q. pedunculiflora have been identified in the investigated area. An analysis of spatial distribution of the two taxa and of their intraspecific units has been performed using maps of ecoregions for the study area.

Genética Populacional , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Quercus/classificação , Variação Genética , Romênia , Árvores