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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 283, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712607

RESUMO

Infections and mental disorders are two of the major global disease burdens. While correlations between mental disorders and infections have been reported, the possible genetic links between them have not been assessed in large-scale studies. Moreover, the genetic basis of susceptibility to infection is largely unknown, as large-scale genome-wide association studies of susceptibility to infection have been lacking. We utilized a large Danish population-based sample (N = 65,534) linked to nationwide population-based registers to investigate the genetic architecture of susceptibility to infection (heritability estimation, polygenic risk analysis, and a genome-wide association study (GWAS)) and examined its association with mental disorders (comorbidity analysis and genetic correlation). We found strong links between having at least one psychiatric diagnosis and the occurrence of infection (P = 2.16 × 10-208, OR = 1.72). The SNP heritability of susceptibility to infection ranged from ~2 to ~7% in samples of differing psychiatric diagnosis statuses (suggesting the environment as a major contributor to susceptibility), and polygenic risk scores moderately but significantly explained infection status in an independent sample. We observed a genetic correlation of 0.496 (P = 2.17 × 10-17) between a diagnosis of infection and a psychiatric diagnosis. While our GWAS did not identify genome-wide significant associations, we found 90 suggestive (P ≤ 10-5) associations for susceptibility to infection. Our findings suggest a genetic component in susceptibility to infection and indicate that the occurrence of infections in individuals with mental illness may be in part genetically driven.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3927, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477735

RESUMO

The duration of pregnancy is influenced by fetal and maternal genetic and non-genetic factors. Here we report a fetal genome-wide association meta-analysis of gestational duration, and early preterm, preterm, and postterm birth in 84,689 infants. One locus on chromosome 2q13 is associated with gestational duration; the association is replicated in 9,291 additional infants (combined P = 3.96 × 10-14). Analysis of 15,588 mother-child pairs shows that the association is driven by fetal rather than maternal genotype. Functional experiments show that the lead SNP, rs7594852, alters the binding of the HIC1 transcriptional repressor. Genes at the locus include several interleukin 1 family members with roles in pro-inflammatory pathways that are central to the process of parturition. Further understanding of the underlying mechanisms will be of great public health importance, since giving birth either before or after the window of term gestation is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.

3.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(3): 353-361, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692689

RESUMO

There is mounting evidence that seemingly diverse psychiatric disorders share genetic etiology, but the biological substrates mediating this overlap are not well characterized. Here we leverage the unique Integrative Psychiatric Research Consortium (iPSYCH) study, a nationally representative cohort ascertained through clinical psychiatric diagnoses indicated in Danish national health registers. We confirm previous reports of individual and cross-disorder single-nucleotide polymorphism heritability for major psychiatric disorders and perform a cross-disorder genome-wide association study. We identify four novel genome-wide significant loci encompassing variants predicted to regulate genes expressed in radial glia and interneurons in the developing neocortex during mid-gestation. This epoch is supported by partitioning cross-disorder single-nucleotide polymorphism heritability, which is enriched at regulatory chromatin active during fetal neurodevelopment. These findings suggest that dysregulation of genes that direct neurodevelopment by common genetic variants may result in general liability for many later psychiatric outcomes.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/embriologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
4.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5296, 2018 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546018

RESUMO

Spatial mapping is a promising strategy to investigate the mechanisms underlying the incidence of psychosis. We analyzed a case-cohort study (n = 24,028), drawn from the 1.47 million Danish persons born between 1981 and 2005, using a novel framework for decomposing the geospatial risk for schizophrenia based on locale of upbringing and polygenic scores. Upbringing in a high environmental risk locale increases the risk for schizophrenia by 122%. Individuals living in a high gene-by-environmental risk locale have a 78% increased risk compared to those who have the same genetic liability but live in a low-risk locale. Effects of specific locales vary substantially within the most densely populated city of Denmark, with hazard ratios ranging from 0.26 to 9.26 for environment and from 0.20 to 5.95 for gene-by-environment. These findings indicate the critical synergism of gene and environment on the etiology of schizophrenia and demonstrate the potential of incorporating geolocation in genetic studies.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Geografia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Fatores de Risco
5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30116032

RESUMO

Family studies have shown an aggregation of suicidal behavior in families. Yet, molecular studies are needed to identify loci accounting for genetic heritability. We conducted a genome-wide association study and estimated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) heritability for a suicide attempt. In a case-cohort study, national data on all individuals born in Denmark after 1981 and diagnosed with severe mental disorders prior to 2013 (n = 57,377) and individuals from the general population (n = 30,000) were obtained. After quality control, the sample consisted of 6024 cases with an incidence of suicide attempt and 44,240 controls with no record of a suicide attempt. Suggestive associations between SNPs, rs6880062 (p-value: 5.4 × 10-8) and rs6880461 (p-value: 9.5 × 10-8), and suicide attempt were identified when adjusting for socio-demographics. Adjusting for mental disorders, three significant associations, all on chromosome 20, were identified: rs4809706 (p-value: 2.8 × 10-8), rs4810824 (p-value: 3.5 × 10-8), and rs6019297 (p-value: 4.7 × 108). Sub-group analysis of cases with affective disorders revealed SNPs associated with suicide attempts when compared to the general population for gene PDE4B. All SNPs explained 4.6% [CI-95: 2.9-6.3%] of the variation in suicide attempt. Controlling for mental disorders reduced the heritability to 1.9% [CI-95: 0.3-3.5%]. Affective and autism spectrum disorders exhibited a SNP heritability of 5.6% [CI-95: 1.9-9.3%] and 9.6% [CI-95: 1.1-18.1%], respectively. Using the largest sample to date, we identified significant SNP associations with suicide attempts and support for a genetic transmission of suicide attempt, which might not solely be explained by mental disorders.

6.
Science ; 359(6376): 693-697, 2018 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29439242

RESUMO

The predisposition to neuropsychiatric disease involves a complex, polygenic, and pleiotropic genetic architecture. However, little is known about how genetic variants impart brain dysfunction or pathology. We used transcriptomic profiling as a quantitative readout of molecular brain-based phenotypes across five major psychiatric disorders-autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and alcoholism-compared with matched controls. We identified patterns of shared and distinct gene-expression perturbations across these conditions. The degree of sharing of transcriptional dysregulation is related to polygenic (single-nucleotide polymorphism-based) overlap across disorders, suggesting a substantial causal genetic component. This comprehensive systems-level view of the neurobiological architecture of major neuropsychiatric illness demonstrates pathways of molecular convergence and specificity.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transcrição Genética
7.
Hum Mutat ; 39(4): 537-549, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29297947

RESUMO

Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are essential cofactors for proteins that participate in fundamental cellular processes including metabolism, DNA replication and repair, transcriptional regulation, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). ISCA2 plays a role in the biogenesis of Fe-S clusters and a recent report described subjects displaying infantile-onset leukodystrophy due to bi-allelic mutation of ISCA2. We present two additional unrelated cases, and provide a more complete clinical description that includes hyperglycinemia, leukodystrophy of the brainstem with longitudinally extensive spinal cord involvement, and mtDNA deficiency. Additionally, we characterize the role of ISCA2 in mitochondrial bioenergetics and Fe-S cluster assembly using subject cells and ISCA2 cellular knockdown models. Loss of ISCA2 diminished mitochondrial membrane potential, the mitochondrial network, basal and maximal respiration, ATP production, and activity of ETC complexes II and IV. We specifically tested the impact of loss of ISCA2 on 2Fe-2S proteins versus 4Fe-4S proteins and observed deficits in the functioning of 4Fe-4S but not 2Fe-2S proteins. Together these data indicate loss of ISCA2 impaired function of 4Fe-4S proteins resulting in a fatal encephalopathy accompanied by a relatively unusual combination of features including mtDNA depletion alongside complex II deficiency and hyperglycinemia that may facilitate diagnosis of ISCA2 deficiency patients.

8.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 4(1): 4-14, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28078310

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders such as ataxia and Parkinson's disease. We describe an extended Belgian pedigree where seven individuals presented with adult-onset cerebellar ataxia, axonal peripheral ataxic neuropathy, and tremor, in variable combination with parkinsonism, seizures, cognitive decline, and ophthalmoplegia. We sought to identify the underlying molecular etiology and characterize the mitochondrial pathophysiology of this neurological syndrome. METHODS: Clinical, neurophysiological, and neuroradiological evaluations were conducted. Patient muscle and cultured fibroblasts underwent extensive analyses to assess mitochondrial function. Genetic studies including genome-wide sequencing were conducted. RESULTS: Hallmarks of mitochondrial dysfunction were present in patients' tissues including ultrastructural anomalies of mitochondria, mosaic cytochrome c oxidase deficiency, and multiple mtDNA deletions. We identified a splice acceptor variant in POLG2, c.970-1G>C, segregating with disease in this family and associated with a concomitant decrease in levels of POLG2 protein in patient cells. INTERPRETATION: This work extends the clinical spectrum of POLG2 deficiency to include an overwhelming, adult-onset neurological syndrome that includes cerebellar syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, tremor, and parkinsonism. We therefore suggest to include POLG2 sequencing in the evaluation of ataxia and sensory neuropathy in adults, especially when it is accompanied by tremor or parkinsonism with white matter disease. The demonstration that deletions of mtDNA resulting from autosomal-dominant POLG2 variant lead to a monogenic neurodegenerative multicomponent syndrome provides further evidence for a major role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathomechanism of nonsyndromic forms of the component neurodegenerative disorders.

9.
Mol Genet Metab ; 116(4): 298-304, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26643207

RESUMO

Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis (CTX) is a treatable inborn error of metabolism caused by recessive variants in CYP27A1. Clinical presentation varies, but typically includes infant-onset chronic diarrhea, juvenile-onset bilateral cataracts, and later-onset tendinous xanthomas and progressive neurological dysfunction. CYP27A1 plays an essential role in side-chain oxidation of cholesterol necessary for the synthesis of the bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and perturbations in this gene that reduce enzyme activity result in elevations of cholestanol. It is commonly held that CTX is exceedingly rare, but epidemiological studies are lacking. In order to provide an accurate incidence estimate of CTX, we studied the ExAC cohort of ~60,000 unrelated adults from global populations to determine the allele frequency of the 57 variants in CYP27A1 reported pathogenic for CTX. In addition, we conducted bioinformatics analyses on these CTX-causing variants and determined a bioinformatics profile to predict variants that may be pathogenic but have not yet been reported in the CTX patient literature. An additional 29 variants were identified that met bioinformatics criteria for being potentially pathogenic. Incidence was estimated based allele frequencies of pathogenic CTX variants plus those determined to be potentially pathogenic. One variant, p.P384L, previously reported in three unrelated CTX families had an allele frequency ≥ 1% in European, Latino and Asian populations. Three additional mutations had a frequency of ≥ 0.1% in Asian populations. CTX disease incidence was calculated excluding the high frequency p.P384L and separately using a genetic paradigm where this high frequency variant only causes classic CTX when paired in trans with a null variant. These calculations place CTX incidence ranging from 1:134,970 to 1:461,358 in Europeans, 1:263,222 to 1:468,624 in Africans, 1:71,677 to 1:148,914 in Americans, 1:64,267 to 1:64,712 in East Asians and 1:36,072 to 1:75,601 in South Asians. This work indicates CTX is under-diagnosed and improved patient screening is needed as early intervention prevents disease progression.


Assuntos
Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Exoma , Mutação , Xantomatose Cerebrotendinosa/diagnóstico , Xantomatose Cerebrotendinosa/epidemiologia , Xantomatose Cerebrotendinosa/genética , África/epidemiologia , Alelos , Américas/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Catarata/patologia , Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/metabolismo , Colestanol/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Doença Crônica , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Diarreia/patologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Frequência do Gene , Genes Recessivos , Humanos , Incidência , Xantomatose/patologia , Xantomatose Cerebrotendinosa/patologia
10.
Cancer Res ; 75(24): 5341-54, 2015 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26627007

RESUMO

Large-scale sequencing efforts are uncovering the complexity of cancer genomes, which are composed of causal "driver" mutations that promote tumor progression along with many more pathologically neutral "passenger" events. The majority of mutations, both in known cancer drivers and uncharacterized genes, are generally of low occurrence, highlighting the need to functionally annotate the long tail of infrequent mutations present in heterogeneous cancers. Here we describe a mutation assessment pipeline enabled by high-throughput engineering of molecularly barcoded gene variant expression clones identified by tumor sequencing. We first used this platform to functionally assess tail mutations observed in PIK3CA, which encodes the catalytic subunit alpha of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) frequently mutated in cancer. Orthogonal screening for PIK3CA variant activity using in vitro and in vivo cell growth and transformation assays differentiated driver from passenger mutations, revealing that PIK3CA variant activity correlates imperfectly with its mutation frequency across breast cancer populations. Although PIK3CA mutations with frequencies above 5% were significantly more oncogenic than wild-type in all assays, mutations occurring at 0.07% to 5.0% included those with and without oncogenic activities that ranged from weak to strong in at least one assay. Proteomic profiling coupled with therapeutic sensitivity assays on PIK3CA variant-expressing cell models revealed variant-specific activation of PI3K signaling as well as other pathways that include the MEK1/2 module of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Our data indicate that cancer treatments will need to increasingly consider the functional relevance of specific mutations in driver genes rather than considering all mutations in drivers as equivalent.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Immunoblotting , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Transdução Genética
11.
Mol Genet Metab ; 115(4): 161-7, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26026795

RESUMO

PURPOSE: 3-Hydroxyisobutryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH) deficiency is a rare disorder of valine metabolism. We present a family with the oldest reported subjects with HIBCH deficiency and provide support that HIBCH deficiency should be included in the differential for elevated hydroxy-C4-carnitine in newborn screening (NBS). METHODS: Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed on one affected sibling. HIBCH enzymatic activity was measured in patient fibroblasts. Acylcarnitines were measured by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Disease incidence was estimated using a cohort of 61,434 individuals. RESULTS: Two siblings presented with infantile-onset, progressive neurodegenerative disease. WES identified a novel homozygous variant in HIBCH c.196C>T; p.Arg66Trp. HIBCH enzymatic activity was significantly reduced in patients' fibroblasts. Acylcarnitine analysis showed elevated hydroxy-C4-carnitine in blood spots of both affected siblings, including in their NBS cards, while plasma acylcarnitines were normal. Estimates show HIBCH deficiency incidence as high as 1 in ~130,000 individuals. CONCLUSION: We describe a novel family with HIBCH deficiency at the biochemical, enzymatic and molecular level. Disease incidence estimates indicate HIBCH deficiency may be under-diagnosed. This together with the elevated hydroxy-C4-carnitine found in the retrospective analysis of our patient's NBS cards suggests that this disorder could be screened for by NBS programs and should be added to the differential diagnosis for elevated hydroxy-C4-carnitine which is already measured in most NBS programs using MS/MS.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/diagnóstico , Doença de Leigh/metabolismo , Triagem Neonatal , Tioléster Hidrolases/deficiência , Anormalidades Múltiplas/metabolismo , Adolescente , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Carnitina/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Exoma , Feminino , Fibroblastos/enzimologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doença de Leigh/enzimologia , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Irmãos , Tioléster Hidrolases/química , Tioléster Hidrolases/metabolismo
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