Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 432
Filtrar
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884414

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Higher levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are associated with increased risk of cancers and higher mortality. Therapies that reduce IGF-1 have considerable appeal as means to prevent recurrence. DESIGN: Randomized, 3-parallel-arm controlled clinical trial. INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOMES: Cancer survivors with overweight or obesity were randomized to 1) self-directed weight loss (comparison), 2) coach-directed weight loss, or 3) metformin treatment. Main outcomes were changes in IGF-1 and IGF-1:IGFBP3 molar ratio at six months. The trial duration was 12 months. RESULTS: Of the 121 randomized participants, 79% were women, 46% were African Americans, and the mean age was 60 years. At baseline, the average BMI was 35 kg/m 2; mean IGF-1 was 72.9 (SD, 21.7) ng/ml; and mean IGF1:IGFBP3 molar ratio was 0.17 (SD, 0.05). At 6 months, weight changes were -1.0% (p=0.07), -4.2% (p<0.0001), and -2.8% (p<0.0001) in self-directed, coach-directed, and metformin groups, respectively. Compared to the self-directed group, participants in metformin had significant decreases on IGF-1 (mean difference in change: -5.50 ng/ml, p=0.02) and IGF1:IGFBP3 molar ratio (mean difference in change: -0.0119, p=0.011) at 3 months. The significant decrease of IGF-1 remained in participants with obesity at 6 months (mean difference in change: -7.2 ng/ml; 95% CI: -13.3 to -1.1), but not in participants with overweight (p-for interaction=0.045). There were no significant differences in changes between the coach-directed and self-directed groups. There were no differences in outcomes at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: In cancer survivors with obesity, metformin may have a short-term effect on IGF-1 reduction that wanes over time.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804870

RESUMO

In China, a major source of sodium is salt added during cooking. In this context, use of a salt-restriction spoon (SRS) has been promoted in public health campaigns and by health care providers. To describe use of and factors associated with SRS use, knowledge of correct use, and actual correct use. This study is a population-based, representative survey of 7512 residents, aged 18 to 69 years, of China's Zhejiang Province. The survey, which was conducted in 2017 using a multistage random sampling strategy, collected demographic information, SRS use, and physical measurements; a 24-h urine collection was obtained from 1,496 of the participants. The mean age of the participants was 44.8 years, 50.1% were females, and over 1/3 (35.3%) were classified as hypertensive. Mean 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretions were 167.3(72.2) mmol/24 h and 38.2(18.2) mmol/24 h, respectively. Only 12.0% (899/7512) of participants once used or were currently using SRS; of the 899 users, 73.4% knew how to use the SRS correctly, and just 46.5% actually used it correctly. SRS use was more commonly associated with behavioral factors rather than socio-demographic factors. Initiation of SRS use by health care providers was associated with correct technical knowledge of SRS. Lower sodium-to-potassium ratio was associated with SRS use, while SRS use was not associated with urinary sodium and potassium excretion. Use of SRS was uncommon in Zhejiang Province of China. Given that a common source of sodium in China is salt added during cooking, use of SRS is an appealing strategy, ideally as part of a multi-component campaign.

4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary recommendations to prevent gout emphasize a low-purine diet. Recent evidence suggests that the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet reduces serum urate while also improving blood pressure and lipids. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of DASH-style diets emphasizing different macronutrient proportions on serum urate reduction. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Optimal Macronutrient Intake Trial to Prevent Heart Disease feeding study, a 3-period, crossover design, randomized trial of adults with prehypertension or hypertension. Participants were provided with 3 DASH-style diets in random order, each for 6 wk. Each DASH-style diet emphasized different macronutrient proportions: a carbohydrate-rich (CARB) diet, a protein-rich (PROT) diet, and an unsaturated fat-rich (UNSAT) diet. In the PROT diet, approximately half of the protein came from plant sources. We compared the effects of these diets on serum urate at weeks 4 and 6 of each feeding period. RESULTS: Of the 163 individuals included in the final analysis, the mean serum urate at baseline was 5.1 mg/dL. Only the PROT diet reduced serum urate from baseline at the end of the 6-wk feeding period (-0.16 mg/dL; 95% CI: -0.28, -0.04; P = 0.007). Neither the CARB diet (-0.03 mg/dL; 95% CI: -0.14, 0.09; P = 0.66) nor the UNSAT diet (-0.01 mg/dL; 95% CI: -0.12, 0.09; P = 0.78) reduced serum urate from baseline. The PROT diet lowered serum urate by 0.12 mg/dL (95% CI: -0.20, -0.03; P = 0.006) compared with CARB and by 0.12 mg/dL (95% CI: -0.20, -0.05; P = 0.002) compared with UNSAT. CONCLUSIONS: A DASH-style diet emphasizing plant-based protein lowered serum urate compared with those emphasizing carbohydrates or unsaturated fat. Future trials should test the ability of a DASH-style diet emphasizing plant-based protein to lower serum urate and prevent gout flares in patients with gout. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00051350.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562216

RESUMO

The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet reduces serum urate (SU); however, the impact of the DASH diet has not been previously evaluated among patients with gout. We conducted a randomized, controlled, crossover pilot study to test the effects of ~$105/week ($15/day) of dietitian-directed groceries (DDG), patterned after the DASH diet, on SU, compared with self-directed grocery shopping (SDG). Participants had gout and were not taking urate lowering therapy. Each intervention period lasted 4 weeks; crossover occurred without a washout period. The primary endpoint was SU. Compliance was assessed by end-of-period fasting spot urine potassium and sodium measurements and self-reported consumption of daily servings of fruit and vegetables. We randomized 43 participants (19% women, 49% black, mean age 59 years) with 100% follow-up. Mean baseline SU was 8.1 mg/dL (SD, 0.8). During Period 1, DDG lowered SU by 0.55 mg/dL (95% CI: 0.07, 1.04) compared to SDG by 0.0 mg/dL (95% CI: -0.44, 0.44). However, after crossover (Period 2), the SU difference between groups was the opposite: SDG reduced SU by -0.48 mg/dL (95% CI: -0.98, 0.01) compared to DDG by -0.05 mg/dL (95% CI: -0.48, 0.38; P for interaction by period = 0.11). Nevertheless, DDG improved self-reported intake of fruit and vegetables (3.1 servings/day; 95% CI: 1.5, 4.8) and significantly reduced total spot urine sodium excretion by 22 percentage points (95% CI: -34.0, -8.6). Though relatively small in scale, this pilot study suggests that dietitian-directed, DASH-patterned groceries may lower SU among gout patients not on urate-lowering drugs. However, behavior intervention crossover trials without a washout period are likely vulnerable to strong carryover effects. Definitive evaluation of the DASH diet as a treatment for gout will require a controlled feeding trial, ideally with a parallel-design.

6.
Trials ; 22(1): 108, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Strong evidence supports the importance of diet and other lifestyle factors in preventing T2DM. Among individuals with T2DM, low-carbohydrate diets lead to decreases in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). However, research on the effects of low-carbohydrate diets on glycemic outcomes among individuals not currently on glucose-lowering medications who have elevated HbA1c is limited. METHODS: The objective of this randomized controlled trial is to study the effect of a healthy low-carbohydrate diet achieved through behavioral intervention and key food supplementation compared with usual diet on HbA1c and other metabolic risk factors among individuals with HbA1c from 6.0 to 6.9% who are not on glucose-lowering medications. In this parallel trial, 150 participants will be randomized to the intervention or control group for 6 months. The healthy low-carbohydrate diet target is < 40 g of net carbohydrates during the first 3 months and < 40 to 60 net grams for months 3 to 6. This diet is characterized by abundant unsaturated fat and protein, high-fiber foods such as non-starchy vegetables and nuts, and minimal refined carbohydrates. The primary outcome is the difference in HbA1c change from baseline to 6 months in the intervention compared with usual diet group. Secondary outcomes include differences between groups in 6-month changes in fasting glucose, systolic blood pressure, total-to-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio, and body weight. Exploratory outcomes include differences in 6-month changes in fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. An intention-to-treat analysis will be used. DISCUSSION: We expect that the results from this study will lead to new approaches for developing and implementing dietary approaches (other than the most commonly used reduced fat diet) that will substantially reduce risk of cardiometabolic disease among adults with or at high risk of T2DM. The study intervention involves behavioral counseling and promotes consumption of dietary components thought to reduce risk of cardiometabolic disease and has expected applicability in clinical practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03675360 . Registered on September 18, 2018 (prior to enrolment of the first participant).

7.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388403

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Immune activation is fundamental to the pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. Innate immune molecules such as soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) have been linked to the incidence and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Whether other biomarkers of immune activation are associated with incident kidney failure with replacement therapy (KFRT) in African Americans with nondiabetic kidney disease is unclear. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) participants with available baseline serum samples for biomarker measurement. PREDICTORS: Baseline serum levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1), sTNFR2, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interferon γ (IFN-γ). OUTCOMES: Incident KFRT, all-cause mortality. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Among 500 participants with available samples, mean glomerular filtration rate was 44.7mL/min/1.73m2, and median urinary protein-creatinine ratio was 0.09g/g at baseline. Over a median follow up of 9.6 years, there were 161 (32%) KFRT and 113 (23%) death events. In models adjusted for demographic and clinical factors and baseline kidney function, each 2-fold higher baseline level of sTNFR1, sTNFR2, and TNF-α was associated with 3.66-fold (95% CI, 2.31-5.80), 2.29-fold (95% CI, 1.60-3.29), and 1.35-fold (95% CI, 1.07-1.71) greater risks of KFRT, respectively; in comparison, each doubling of baseline suPAR concentration was associated with 1.39-fold (95% CI, 1.04-1.86) greater risk of KFRT. sTNFR1, sTNFR2, and TNF-α were also significantly associated with death (up to 2.2-fold higher risks per 2-fold higher baseline levels; P≤0.01). IFN-γ was not associated with either outcome. None of the biomarkers modified the association of APOL1 high-risk status (genetic risk factors for kidney disease among individuals of African ancestry) with KFRT (P>0.05 for interaction). LIMITATIONS: Limited generalizability to other ethnic groups or causes of CKD. CONCLUSIONS: Among African Americans with CKD attributed to hypertension, baseline levels of sTNFR1, sTNFR2, and TNF-α but not IFN-γ were associated with KFRT and mortality.

8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(4): 437-449, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509400

RESUMO

Vitamin D and calcium supplements are commonly used, often together, to optimize bone health. Multiple observational studies have linked low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with increased cardiovascular risk. However, subsequent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) failed to demonstrate cardiovascular benefit with vitamin D supplementation. Although vitamin D supplements do not appear to be harmful for cardiovascular health, the lack of benefit in RCTs should discourage their use for this purpose, favoring optimizing vitamin D status through healthy lifestyles such as specific foods and modest sunlight exposure. Furthermore, some (but not all) observational and RCT studies of calcium supplementation have suggested potential for cardiovascular harm. Therefore, calcium supplementation should be used cautiously, striving for recommended intake of calcium predominantly from food sources. In this review, the authors examine the currently available evidence investigating whether vitamin D and calcium supplements are helpful, harmful, or neutral for cardiovascular health.

9.
Hypertension ; 77(2): 265-274, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342238

RESUMO

Elevated blood pressure and blood pressure-related morbidity are extraordinarily common in persons with diabetes. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern and dietary sodium reduction are recommended as lifestyle interventions in individuals with diabetes. However, these recommendations have largely been based on studies conducted in persons without diabetes. In this review, we summarize available evidence from trials that tested the effects of these 2 dietary interventions on blood pressure in people with diabetes. Overall, of the 3 trials (total n=151) that tested the effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern in persons with diabetes, 2 trials documented that the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern lowered blood pressure. While 16 trials (total n=445) tested the effects of sodium reduction in persons with diabetes, results were inconsistent, likely because of design limitations, for example, brief duration, small sample size, and low baseline blood pressure levels, as well as differences in the mode of intervention delivery (behavioral interventions, feeding studies, and sodium supplements). In conclusion, there is a substantial need for additional research on the blood pressure lowering effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet and sodium reduction in people with diabetes and hypertension, given the high prevalence of hypertension and the dearth of high-quality trials in this population.

10.
Ann Intern Med ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D supplementation may prevent falls in older persons, but evidence is inconsistent, possibly because of dosage differences. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of 4 doses of vitamin D3 supplements on falls. DESIGN: 2-stage Bayesian, response-adaptive, randomized trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02166333). SETTING: 2 community-based research units. PARTICIPANTS: 688 participants, aged 70 years and older, with elevated fall risk and a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)D] level of 25 to 72.5 nmol/L. INTERVENTION: 200 (control), 1000, 2000, or 4000 IU of vitamin D3 per day. During the dose-finding stage, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 vitamin D3 doses, and the best noncontrol dose for preventing falls was determined. After dose finding, participants previously assigned to receive noncontrol doses received the best dose, and new enrollees were randomly assigned to receive 200 IU/d or the best dose. MEASUREMENTS: Time to first fall or death over 2 years (primary outcome). RESULTS: During the dose-finding stage, the primary outcome rates were higher for the 2000- and 4000-IU/d doses than for the 1000-IU/d dose, which was selected as the best dose (posterior probability of being best, 0.90). In the confirmatory stage, event rates were not significantly different between participants with experience receiving the best dose (events and observation time limited to the period they were receiving 1000 IU/d; n = 308) and those randomly assigned to receive 200 IU/d (n = 339) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.94 [95% CI, 0.76 to 1.15]; P = 0.54). Analysis of falls with adverse outcomes suggested greater risk in the experience-with-best-dose group versus the 200-IU/d group (serious fall: HR, 1.87 [CI, 1.03 to 3.41]; fall with hospitalization: HR, 2.48 [CI, 1.13 to 5.46]). LIMITATIONS: The control group received 200 IU of vitamin D3 per day, not a placebo. Dose finding ended before the prespecified thresholds for dose suspension and dose selection were reached. CONCLUSION: In older persons with elevated fall risk and low serum 25-(OH)D levels, vitamin D3 supplementation at doses of 1000 IU/d or higher did not prevent falls compared with 200 IU/d. Several analyses raised safety concerns about vitamin D3 doses of 1000 IU/d or higher. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institute on Aging.

11.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2000695, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300290

RESUMO

SCOPE: Serum metabolomic markers of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet were previously reported. We investigated if urine metabolomic markers were similar in an independent clinical trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the DASH-Sodium trial, participants were randomly assigned to the DASH diet or control diet, and received three sodium interventions (high, intermediate, low) within each randomized diet group in random order for 30 days each. Urine samples were collected at the end of the intervention period and analyzed for 938 metabolites. We conducted two comparisons of metabolomic profiles: 1) DASH-high sodium (n = 199) versus control-high sodium (n = 193), and 2) DASH-low sodium (n = 196) versus control-high sodium. We compared significant metabolites identified using multivariable linear regression and the top 10 influential metabolites identified using partial least-squares discriminant analysis to the results from a previous analysis of the DASH trial. Nine out of 10 predictive metabolites of the DASH-high sodium and DASH-low sodium diets were identical. Most candidate biomarkers from the DASH trial replicated. N-methylproline, chiro-inositol, stachydrine, and theobromine replicated as influential metabolites of DASH diets. CONCLUSIONS: Candidate biomarkers of the DASH diet identified in serum replicated in urine. Replicated influential metabolites are likely to be objective biomarkers of the DASH diet. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

12.
Am J Hypertens ; 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2014 hypertension guideline raised treatment goals in older adults. The study objective was to examine changes in blood pressure (BP) control (<140/90 mmHg) from 2011-2013 to 2016-2017 among Black and white older adults with treated hypertension. METHODS: Participants were 1600 white and 650 Black adults aged 71-90 years in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study with treated hypertension in 2011-2013 (baseline) who had BP measured in 2016-2017 (follow up). Factors associated with changes in BP control were examined by race. RESULTS: BP was controlled among 75.3% of white and 65.7% of Black participants at baseline and 59.0% of white and 56.5% of Black participants at follow up. Among those with controlled BP at baseline, risk factors for incident uncontrolled BP included age (RR 1.15 per 5 years, 95% CI 1.07-1.25), female sex (RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.16-1.60), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.40) among white participants, and hypertension duration (RR 1.14 per 5 years, 95% CI 1.03-1.27) and diabetes (RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.15-1.91) among Black participants. Among those with uncontrolled BP at baseline, white females vs males (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.46-0.78) and Black participants with CKD vs without (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.36-0.93) were less likely to have incident controlled BP. CONCLUSIONS: BP control decreased among white and Black older adults. Black individuals with diabetes or CKD were less likely to have controlled BP at follow up. Higher treatment goals may have contributed to these findings and unintended differences by race.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) face risk of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and death, but also decline in kidney function, quality of life (QOL), and mental and physical well-being. This study describes the multidimensional trajectories of CKD using clinical events, kidney function, and patient-reported outcome measures. We hypothesized that more advanced CKD stages would associate with more rapid decline in each outcome. METHODS: Among 3,939 participants enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study, we evaluated multidimensional disease trajectories by G- and A-stages of enrollment eGFR and albuminuria, respectively. These trajectories included clinical events (ESKD, CVD, heart failure, death), eGFR decline, and patient-reported outcome measures (kidney disease QOL [KDQOL] burden, effects, and symptoms questionnaires, as well as the short-form-12 mental and physical composite).We also evaluated a group-based multi-trajectory model to group participants on the basis of longitudinal patient-reported outcome measures and compared group assignments by enrollment G- and A-stage. RESULTS: Mean participant age was 58 years, 45% were women, mean baseline eGFR was 44 mL/min/1.73 m2, and median urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was 52 mg/g. The incidence of all clinical events was greater and eGFR decline was faster with more advanced G- and A-stages. While baseline KDQOL and physical component measures were lower with more advanced G- and A-stage of CKD; changes in patient-reported outcome measures were inconsistently related to the baseline CKD stage. Groups formed on patient-reported outcome measure trajectories were fairly distinct from existing CKD staging (observed agreement, 60.6%) but also were associated with risk of ESKD, CVD, heart failure, and death. CONCLUSIONS: More advanced baseline CKD stage was associated with higher risk of clinical events and faster eGFR decline, but was only weakly related to changes in patient-reported metrics over time.

15.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 457, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) requires lifelong self-management. With the rise in access to the Internet, many CKD patients and their caregivers increasingly use the internet for information on CKD self-management. A recent environmental scan by Smekal et al. identified 11 CKD-related websites that covered the greatest number of content areas. This paper aims to evaluate these 11 selected websites in order to identify those that most effectively address content areas relevant to patients with CKD. METHODS: Each website was assessed for information to 6 content areas: diet, physical activity, financial information, emotional support, general CKD information, and medication adherence. A three-tiered scoring metric was used in which a 0 was given if a content area was completely unaddressed, a (+) was given for a category that was generally addressed, and a (++) was given for a category that was addressed with actionable guidance. RESULTS: While CKD information and diet were very comprehensively covered with scores of 11 (++) and 8 (++), respectively; physical activity, emotional support and medication adherence received the fewest (++) scores (3 for physical activity and five for both emotional support and medication adherence). For each content area, recommendations are made for websites that are particularly useful. Common themes for these highlighted websites include specific instructions, multiple modalities of information, downloadable and printable resources, and contact references for personal inquiries. CONCLUSION: The recommended websites can help CKD patients and caregivers utilize the most applicable information for their specific self-management needs. Website improvements related to physical activity, emotional support, and financial information for persons with CKD are warranted.

16.
Glob Heart ; 15(1): 64, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150129

RESUMO

Background: Whether cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its traditional risk factors predict severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is uncertain, in part, because of potential confounding by age and sex. Methods: We performed a systematic review of studies that explored pre-existing CVD and its traditional risk factors as risk factors of severe COVID-19 (defined as death, acute respiratory distress syndrome, mechanical ventilation, or intensive care unit admission). We searched PubMed and Embase for papers in English with original data (≥10 cases of severe COVID-19). Using random-effects models, we pooled relative risk (RR) estimates and conducted meta-regression analyses. Results: Of the 661 publications identified in our search, 25 papers met our inclusion criteria, with 76,638 COVID-19 patients including 11,766 severe cases. Older age was consistently associated with severe COVID-19 in all eight eligible studies, with RR >~5 in >60-65 versus <50 years. Three studies showed no change in the RR of age after adjusting for covariate(s). In univariate analyses, factors robustly associated with severe COVID-19 were male sex (10 studies; pooled RR = 1.73, [95% CI 1.50-2.01]), hypertension (8 studies; 2.87 [2.09-3.93]), diabetes (9 studies; 3.20 [2.26-4.53]), and CVD (10 studies; 4.97 [3.76-6.58]). RR for male sex was likely to be independent of age. For the other three factors, meta-regression analyses suggested confounding by age. Only four studies reported multivariable analysis, but most of them showed adjusted RR ~2 for hypertension, diabetes, and CVD. No study explored renin-angiotensin system inhibitors as a risk factor for severe COVID-19. Conclusions: Despite the potential for confounding, these results suggest that hypertension, diabetes, and CVD are independently associated with severe COVID-19 and, together with age and male sex, can be informative for predicting the risk of severe COVID-19.

17.
Am J Hypertens ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood pressure (BP) measurement error may lead to under- or overtreatment of hypertension. One common source of error is terminal digit preference, most often a terminal digit of '0'. The objective was to evaluate national trends in terminal digit preference in office BP measurements among adults with treated hypertension. METHODS: Data were from IQVIA's National Disease and Therapeutic Index, a nationally representative, serial cross-sectional survey of office-based physicians. The analysis included office visits from 2015 to 2019 among adults aged ≥18 years receiving antihypertensive treatment. Annual trends were examined in the percent of systolic and diastolic BP measurements ending in zero by patient sex, age, and race/ethnicity, physician specialty, and first or subsequent hypertension treatment visit. RESULTS: From 2015 to 2019, there were ~60 million hypertension treatment visits annually (unweighted N: 5,585-9,085). There was a decrease in the percent of visits with systolic (41.7% to 37.7%) or diastolic (42.7% to 37.8%) BP recordings ending in zero. Trends were similar by patient characteristics. However, a greater proportion of measurements ended in zero among patients aged ≥80 (vs 15-59 or 60-79) years, first (vs subsequent) treatment visits, visits to cardiologists (vs primary care physicians), and visits with systolic BP ≥140 or diastolic BP ≥90 (vs <140/90) mmHg. CONCLUSIONS: Despite modest improvement, terminal digit preference remains a common problem in office BP measurement in the U.S. Without bias, 10-20% of measurements are expected to end in zero. Reducing digit preference is a priority for improving BP measurement accuracy and hypertension management.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099509

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diet is a critical aspect of the management of adults with diabetes. This paper aims to compare dietary intakes of key macronutrients and micronutrients of US adults with and without diabetes and across the spectrum of diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We compared absolute and energy-adjusted dietary intake of major macronutrients and micronutrients among those with and without diabetes and across the spectrum of glycemic control using a 24-hour dietary recall from a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of 9939 US adults, 20+ years old (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2016). Diabetes was defined as an glycohemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)≥6.5%, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, serum glucose at 2 hours following a 75 g glucose load (oral glucose tolerance test) ≥200 mg/dL, any diagnosis of diabetes or use of diabetes medication (self-reported). RESULTS: Percent of calories from macronutrients was similar for those with and without diabetes (p>0.05, energy adjusted and adjusted for age, race, and sex). In both groups, sugar accounted for about 20% of calories. Those with diabetes consumed about 7% more calcium (p=0.033), about 5% more sodium (p=0.026), and had lower diet quality (Healthy Eating Index-2015, p=0.021) than those without diabetes. Among those with diabetes, those with an HbA1c>9.0% consumed about 4% less magnesium (p-analysis of variance=0.007) than those with an HbA1c<6.5%. Results were similar within strata of age, race, and sex. Macronutrient intake did not vary consistently by HbA1c level. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationally representative sample, there were no substantial or consistent differences in the dietary intake of macronutrients or micronutrients between US adults with and without diabetes. Improving the diets of those with diabetes will likely require enhanced targeted efforts to improve the dietary intake of persons with diabetes, as well as broad efforts to improve the dietary intake of the general population.

19.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060449

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Averaging multiple blood pressure (BP) measurements is recommended for hypertension (HTN) screening but can be impractical, especially in resource-constrained settings. We aimed to explore the implications of fewer BP measurements on BP classification and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. METHODS: We studied 8905 middle-aged participants without diagnosed HTN and quantified misclassified HTN (≥140/90 mmHg) by simplified BP approaches (e.g. single 1st BP, single 2nd BP, mainly 1st but 2nd BP if 1st was in a certain range) vs. the reference standard of the average of 2nd and 3rd BP. We also assessed CVD risk related to HTN status. RESULTS: There were 823 participants classified as HTN by the standard approach. With single 1st BP, 2.8% of non-HTN were overidentified as HTN, and 18.3% of HTN were identified as not having HTN. The corresponding estimates with single 2nd BP were 2.1 and 6.4%. Similar estimates were seen when 2nd BP was used if 1st BP at least 130/80 (1.9 and 8.1%), with only 27.8% requiring 2nd BP. Two thousand, one hundred and seventy-eight CVD cases were documented in this population over 30 years. HTN by either the standard approach or any of the simplified approaches conferred higher CVD risk vs. consistent no HTN by both approaches. CONCLUSION: In those without diagnosed HTN, a simplified BP measurement approach using the 2nd BP only when the 1st BP is at least 130/80 could reduce the total number of BP measurements by more than 50%, identify HTN with limited misclassification (2-8%), and predict CVD risks reasonably well.

20.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 383, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney disease and dialysis significantly impact cognitive function across the age spectrum. Cognitive training (CT) and/or exercise training (ET) are promising approaches to preserve cognitive function among community-dwelling older adults, but have not been tested for cognition preservation in hemodialysis patients of all ages. In this manuscript, we summarize the protocol for the Interventions Made to Preserve Cognitive Function Trial (IMPCT). METHODS: We will perform a 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial (RCT) of eligible adult (≥18 years) hemodialysis initiates (n = 200) to test whether intradialytic CT (brain games on a tablet PC), ET (foot peddlers) and combined CT + ET while undergoing hemodialysis preserves executive function compared to standard of care (SC). Participants will engage in the interventions to which they are randomized for 6 months. The primary objective is to compare, among interventions, the 3-month change in executive function measured using the Trail Making Test A (TMTA) and B (TMTB); specifically, executive function is calculated as TMTB-TMTA to account for psychomotor speed. This primary outcome was selected based on findings from our pilot study. The secondary objectives are to compare the risk of secondary cognitive outcomes, ESKD-specific clinical outcomes, and patient-centered outcomes at 3-months and 6-months. All data collection and interventions are conducted in the dialysis center. DISCUSSION: We hypothesize that receiving intradialytic CT or ET will better preserve executive function than SC but receiving combined CT + ET, will be the most effective intervention. The current trial will be an important step in understanding how intradialytic interventions might preserve cognitive health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.Gov (Date: 8/6/18): # NCT03616535 . Protocol Version: 10 (April 2020). FUNDING: NIDDK R01DK114074.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...