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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 941, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503508

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite prioritization, routine antenatal influenza vaccine coverage is < 16% in South Africa. We aimed to describe maternal influenza vaccine coverage in 27 antenatal clinics (ANCs) in Gauteng and Western Cape (WC) Provinces, where in collaboration with the Department of Health (DoH), we augmented the annual influenza vaccination programme among pregnant women. METHODS: From 2015 through 2018, 40,230 additional doses of influenza vaccine were added to the available stock and administered as part of routine antenatal care. Educational talks were given daily and data were collected on women attending ANCs. We compared characteristics of vaccinated and unvaccinated women using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: We screened 62,979 pregnant women during the period when Southern Hemisphere influenza vaccines were available (27,068 in Gauteng and 35,911 in WC). Vaccine coverage at the targeted clinics was 78.7% (49,355/62682), although pregnant women in WC were more likely to be vaccinated compared to those in the Gauteng (Odds ratio (OR) =3.7 p < 0.001). Women aged 25-29 and > 35 years were less likely to be vaccinated than women aged 18-24 years (OR = 0.9 p = 0.053; OR = 0.9 p < 0.001). HIV positive status was not associated with vaccination (OR = 1.0 p = 0.266). Reasons for not vaccinating included: vaccine stock-outs where ANCs depleted available stock of vaccines and/or were awaiting delivery of vaccines (54.6%, 6949/12723), refusal/indecision (25.8%, 3285), and current illness that contraindicated vaccination (19.6%, 2489). CONCLUSION: Antenatal vaccination uptake was likely improved by the increased vaccine supply and vaccine education offered during our campaign.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Gestantes , África do Sul , Vacinação
2.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999850

RESUMO

Invasive Salmonella infection is a common cause of acute febrile illness (AFI) among children in sub-Saharan Africa; however, diagnosing Salmonella bacteremia is challenging in settings without blood culture. The Uganda AFI surveillance system includes blood culture-based surveillance for etiologies of bloodstream infection (BSIs) in hospitalized febrile children in Uganda. We analyzed demographic, clinical, blood culture, and antimicrobial resistance data from hospitalized children at six sentinel AFI sites from July 2016 to January 2019. A total of 47,261 children were hospitalized. Median age was 2 years (interquartile range, 1-4) and 26,695 (57%) were male. Of 7,203 blood cultures, 242 (3%) yielded bacterial pathogens including Salmonella (N = 67, 28%), Staphylococcus aureus (N = 40, 17%), Escherichia spp. (N = 25, 10%), Enterococcus spp. (N = 18, 7%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (N = 17, 7%). Children with BSIs had longer median length of hospitalization (5 days versus 4 days), and a higher case-fatality ratio (13% versus 2%) than children without BSI (all P < 0.001). Children with Salmonella BSIs did not differ significantly in length of hospitalization or mortality from children with BSI resulting from other organisms. Serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility results were available for 49 Salmonella isolates, including 35 (71%) non-typhoidal serotypes and 14 Salmonella serotype Typhi (Typhi). Among Typhi isolates, 10 (71%) were multi-drug resistant and 13 (93%) had decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility. Salmonella strains, particularly non-typhoidal serotypes and drug-resistant Typhi, were the most common cause of BSI. These data can inform regional Salmonella surveillance in East Africa and guide empiric therapy and prevention in Uganda.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever in the United States is acquired primarily through international travel by unvaccinated travelers. There is currently no typhoid vaccine licensed in the United States for use in children <2 years. METHODS: We reviewed Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi infections reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and antimicrobial-resistance data on Typhi isolates in CDC's National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System from 1999 through 2015. RESULTS: 5131 cases of typhoid fever were diagnosed and 5004 Typhi isolates tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Among 1992 pediatric typhoid fever patients, 1616 (81%) had traveled internationally within 30 days of illness onset, 1544 (81%) of 1906 were hospitalized (median duration, 6 days; range, 0-50), and none died. Forty percent (799) were <6 years old; 12% were <2 years old. Based on age and travel destination, 1435 (83%) of 1722 pediatric patients were vaccine-eligible; only 68 (5%) of 1361 were known to be vaccinated. Of 2003 isolates tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, 1216 (61%) were fluoroquinolone-nonsusceptible, of which 272 (22%) were also resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (multidrug-resistant [MDR]). All were susceptible to ceftriaxone and azithromycin. MDR and fluoroquinolone-nonsusceptible isolates were more common in children than adults (16% vs 9%, P < .001, and 61% vs 54%, P < .001, respectively). Fluoroquinolone nonsusceptibility was more common among travel-associated than domestically acquired cases (70% vs 17%, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 95% of currently vaccine-eligible pediatric travelers were unvaccinated, and antimicrobial-resistant infections were common. New public health strategies are needed to improve coverage with currently licensed vaccines. Introduction of an effective pretravel typhoid vaccine for children <2 years could reduce disease burden and prevent drug-resistant infections.

4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 1020-1031, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700668

RESUMO

Typhoid fever transmission occurs through ingestion of food or water contaminated with Salmonella Typhi, and case-control studies are often conducted to identify outbreak sources and transmission vehicles. However, there is no current summary of the associations among water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH); and food exposures and typhoid from case-control studies. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies to evaluate the associations among typhoid fever and predicted WASH or food exposure risk factors (13), and protective factors (7). Overall, 19 manuscripts describing 22 case-control studies were included. Two studies were characterized as having low risk of bias, one as medium risk, and 19 as high risk. In total, nine of 13 predicted risk factors were associated with increased odds of typhoid (odds ratio [OR] = 1.4-2.4, I 2 = 30.5-74.8%.), whereas five of seven predicted protective factors were associated with lower odds of typhoid (OR = 0.52-0.73, I 2 = 38.7-84.3%). In five types of sensitivity analyses, two (8%) of 26 summary associations changed significance from the original analysis. Results highlight the following: the importance of household hygiene transmission pathways, the need for further research around appropriate food interventions and the risk of consuming specific foods and beverages outside the home, and the absence of any observed association between sanitation exposures and typhoid fever. We recommend that typhoid interventions focus on interrupting household transmission routes and that future studies provide more detailed information about WASH and food exposures to inform better targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Desinfecção das Mãos , Salmonella typhi/patogenicidade , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Saneamento/métodos , Febre Tifoide/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água/métodos
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(20): 618-622, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437343

RESUMO

Ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Typhi), the bacterium that causes typhoid fever, is a growing public health threat. Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Typhi is resistant to ceftriaxone and other antibiotics used for treatment, including ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1). In March 2018, CDC began enhanced surveillance for ceftriaxone-resistant Typhi in response to an ongoing outbreak of XDR typhoid fever in Pakistan. CDC had previously reported the first five cases of XDR Typhi in the United States among patients who had spent time in Pakistan (2). These illnesses represented the first cases of ceftriaxone-resistant Typhi documented in the United States (3). This report provides an update on U.S. cases of XDR typhoid fever linked to Pakistan and describes a new, unrelated cluster of ceftriaxone-resistant Typhi infections linked to Iraq. Travelers to areas with endemic Typhi should receive typhoid vaccination before traveling and adhere to safe food and water precautions (4). Treatment of patients with typhoid fever should be guided by antimicrobial susceptibility testing whenever possible (5), and clinicians should consider travel history when selecting empiric therapy.


Assuntos
Ceftriaxona/farmacologia , Surtos de Doenças , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Salmonella typhi/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Iraque/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(6): 1296-1305, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228795

RESUMO

Typhoid fever remains an important public health problem in low- and middle-income countries, with large outbreaks reported from Africa and Asia. Although the WHO recommends typhoid vaccination for control of confirmed outbreaks, there are limited data on the epidemiologic characteristics of outbreaks to inform vaccine use in outbreak settings. We conducted a literature review for typhoid outbreaks published since 1990. We found 47 publications describing 45,215 cases in outbreaks occurring in 25 countries from 1989 through 2018. Outbreak characteristics varied considerably by WHO region, with median outbreak size ranging from 12 to 1,101 cases, median duration from 23 to 140 days, and median case fatality ratio from 0% to 1%. The largest number of outbreaks occurred in WHO Southeast Asia, 13 (28%), and African regions, 12 (26%). Among 43 outbreaks reporting a mode of disease transmission, 24 (56%) were waterborne, 17 (40%) were foodborne, and two (5%) were by direct contact transmission. Among the 34 outbreaks with antimicrobial resistance data, 11 (32%) reported Typhi non-susceptible to ciprofloxacin, 16 (47%) reported multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains, and one reported extensively drug-resistant strains. Our review showed a longer median duration of outbreaks caused by MDR strains (148 days versus 34 days for susceptible strains), although this difference was not statistically significant. Control strategies focused on water, sanitation, and food safety, with vaccine use described in only six (13%) outbreaks. As typhoid conjugate vaccines become more widely used, their potential role and impact in outbreak control warrant further evaluation.


Assuntos
Febre Tifoide/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas/imunologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Saúde Global , Humanos , Salmonella typhi/efeitos dos fármacos , Febre Tifoide/microbiologia , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas/administração & dosagem
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(1): 11-13, 2019 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629573

RESUMO

In February 2018, a typhoid fever outbreak caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Typhi), resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones, and third-generation cephalosporins, was reported in Pakistan. During November 2016-September 2017, 339 cases of this extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Typhi strain were reported in Pakistan, mostly in Karachi and Hyderabad; one travel-associated case was also reported from the United Kingdom (1). More cases have been detected in Karachi and Hyderabad as surveillance efforts have been strengthened, with recent reports increasing the number of cases to 5,372 (2). In the United States, in response to the reports from Pakistan, enhanced surveillance identified 29 patients with typhoid fever who had traveled to or from Pakistan during 2016-2018, including five with XDR Typhi. Travelers to areas with endemic disease, such as South Asia, should be vaccinated against typhoid fever before traveling and follow safe food and water practices. Clinicians should be aware that most typhoid fever infections in the United States are fluoroquinolone nonsusceptible and that the XDR Typhi outbreak strain associated with travel to Pakistan is only susceptible to azithromycin and carbapenems.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Salmonella typhi/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Salmonella typhi/isolamento & purificação , Febre Tifoide/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 13(2): 133-137, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408341

RESUMO

Over five seasons, we determined the proportion of outpatients with laboratory-confirmed, influenza-associated illness who were hospitalized within 30 days following the outpatient visit. Overall, 136 (1.7%) of 7813 influenza-positive patients were hospitalized a median of 4 days after an outpatient visit. Patients aged ≥ 65 years and those with high-risk conditions were at increased risk of hospitalization. After controlling for age and high-risk conditions, vaccination status and infecting influenza virus type were not associated with hospitalization risk among adults.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Potência de Vacina , Adulto Jovem
10.
Health Secur ; 16(S1): S76-S86, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480504

RESUMO

Global health security depends on effective surveillance for infectious diseases. In Uganda, resources are inadequate to support collection and reporting of data necessary for an effective and responsive surveillance system. We used a cross-cutting approach to improve surveillance and laboratory capacity in Uganda by leveraging an existing pediatric inpatient malaria sentinel surveillance system to collect data on expanded causes of illness, facilitate development of real-time surveillance, and provide data on antimicrobial resistance. Capacity for blood culture collection was established, along with options for serologic testing for select zoonotic conditions, including arboviral infection, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. Detailed demographic, clinical, and laboratory data for all admissions were captured through a web-based system accessible at participating hospitals, laboratories, and the Uganda Public Health Emergency Operations Center. Between July 2016 and December 2017, the expanded system was activated in pediatric wards of 6 regional government hospitals. During that time, patient data were collected from 30,500 pediatric admissions, half of whom were febrile but lacked evidence of malaria. More than 5,000 blood cultures were performed; 4% yielded bacterial pathogens, and another 4% yielded likely contaminants. Several WHO antimicrobial resistance priority pathogens were identified, some with multidrug-resistant phenotypes, including Acinetobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. Leptospirosis and arboviral infections (alphaviruses and flaviviruses) were documented. The lessons learned and early results from the development of this multisectoral surveillance system provide the knowledge, infrastructure, and workforce capacity to serve as a foundation to enhance the capacity to detect, report, and rapidly respond to wide-ranging public health concerns in Uganda.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional/métodos , Saúde Global , Laboratórios/normas , Vigilância da População/métodos , Medidas de Segurança , Criança , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Hospitais , Humanos , Pediatria , Saúde Pública , Uganda/epidemiologia
11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 99(5): 1321-1326, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226143

RESUMO

When introduced into a naïve population, chikungunya virus generally spreads rapidly, causing large outbreaks of fever and severe polyarthralgia. We randomly selected households in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) to estimate seroprevalence and symptomatic attack rate for chikungunya virus infection at approximately 1 year following the introduction of the virus. Eligible household members were administered a questionnaire and tested for chikungunya virus antibodies. Estimated proportions were calibrated to age and gender of the population. We enrolled 509 participants. The weighted infection rate was 31% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 26-36%). Among those with evidence of chikungunya virus infection, 72% (95% CI: 65-80%) reported symptomatic illness and 31% (95% CI: 23-38%) reported joint pain at least once per week approximately 1 year following the introduction of the virus to USVI. Comparing rates from infected and noninfected study participants, 70% (95% CI: 62-79%) of fever and polyarthralgia and 23% (95% CI: 9-37%) of continuing joint pain in patients infected with chikungunya virus were due to their infection. Overall, an estimated 43% (95% CI: 33-52%) of the febrile illness and polyarthralgia in the USVI population during the outbreak was attributable to chikungunya virus and only 12% (95% CI: 7-17%) of longer term joint pains were attributed to chikungunya virus. Although the rates of infection, symptomatic disease, and longer term joint symptoms identified in USVI are similar to other outbreaks of the disease, a lower proportion of acute fever and joint pain was found to be attributable to chikungunya virus.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/imunologia , Vírus Chikungunya/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artralgia/epidemiologia , Artralgia/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças , Características da Família , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ilhas Virgens Americanas/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 64(3): 364-367, 2017 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28013261

RESUMO

(See the Editorial Commentary by Martin on pages 368-9.)Using population-based surveillance data, we analyzed antiviral treatment among hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Treatment increased after the influenza A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic from 72% in 2010-2011 to 89% in 2014-2015 (P < .001). Overall, treatment was higher in adults (86%) than in children (72%); only 56% of cases received antivirals on the day of admission.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 64(21): 583-90, 2015 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26042650

RESUMO

During the 2014-15 influenza season in the United States, influenza activity increased through late November and December before peaking in late December. Influenza A (H3N2) viruses predominated, and the prevalence of influenza B viruses increased late in the season. This influenza season, similar to previous influenza A (H3N2)-predominant seasons, was moderately severe with overall high levels of outpatient illness and influenza-associated hospitalization, especially for adults aged ≥65 years. The majority of circulating influenza A (H3N2) viruses were different from the influenza A (H3N2) component of the 2014-15 Northern Hemisphere seasonal vaccines, and the predominance of these drifted viruses resulted in reduced vaccine effectiveness. This report summarizes influenza activity in the United States during the 2014-15 influenza season (September 28, 2014-May 23, 2015) and reports the recommendations for the components of the 2015-16 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccine.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Mortalidade da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variação Genética , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vacinas contra Influenza/química , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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