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1.
Oncology ; 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35551139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is one of the most frequently adverse events observed with taxanes use, whose disability often required modification or treatment discontinuation. The aim of this study was to assess the value of several variables as risk factors for CIPN development. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eligible patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer receiving chemotherapy with nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine were assessed in a multicenter study. Peripheral neuropathy was categorized used the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria scale, version 4.02 and a physical/neurological examination. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were used to identify blood-based and clinical factors associated with CIPN. RESULTS: Data were available from 153 patients from five Italian centers. Key risk factors of CIPN in univariate regression models included age, number of chemotherapy cycles, statin assumption and concomitant comorbidities. However, in the multivariate analysis, only for age (OR 1.0 p<0.01 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) and number of cycles (OR 1.22, p<0.01, 95% CI: 1.09-1.36) the correlation with CIPN development, has been confirmed. CONCLUSION: Our study confirms age and number of chemotherapy cycles as CIPN risk factors. The identification and validation of different risk factors could be advantageous to prevent or optimize management of CIPN which outstandingly affect the patient's quality of life.

2.
Oncologist ; 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-world (RW) evidence on nivolumab in pretreated patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by matching data from administrative health flows (AHFs) and clinical records (CRs) may close the gap between pivotal trials and clinical practice. METHODS: This multicenter RW study aims at investigating median time to treatment discontinuation (mTTD), overall survival (mOS) of nivolumab in pretreated patients with NSCLC both from AHF and CR; clinical-pathological features predictive of early treatment discontinuation (etd), budget impact (BI), and cost-effectiveness analysis were investigated; mOS in patients receiving nivolumab and docetaxel was assessed. RESULTS: Overall, 237 patients with NSCLC treated with nivolumab were identified from AHFs; mTTD and mOS were 4.2 and 9.8 months, respectively; 141 (59%) received at least 6 treatment cycles, 96 (41%) received < 6 (etd). Median overall survival in patients with and without etd were 3.3 and 19.6 months, respectively (P < .0001). Higher number, longer duration, and higher cost of hospitalizations were observed in etd cases. Clinical records were available for 162 patients treated with nivolumab (cohort 1) and 83 with docetaxel (cohort 2). Median time to treatment discontinuation was 4.8 and 2.6 months, respectively (P < .0001); risk of death was significantly higher in cohort 2 or cohort 1 with etd compared with cohort 1 without etd (P < .0001). Predictors of etd were body mass index <25, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status >1, neutrophile-to-lymphocyte ratio >2.91, and concomitant treatment with antibiotics and glucocorticoids. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of nivolumab was 3323.64 euros ($3757.37) in all patients and 2805.75 euros ($3171.47) for patients without etd. Finally, the BI gap (real-theoretical) was 857â188 euros ($969â050.18). CONCLUSION: We defined predictors and prognostic-economic impact of nivolumab in etd patients.

3.
Eur J Cancer ; 167: 81-91, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398759

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We analyzed a cohort of patients with cancer and Sars-Cov-2 infection from the Veneto Oncology Network registry across two pandemic time periods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 761 patients with cancer and SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. RESULTS: 198 patients were diagnosed during the first pandemic time period (TP1; February 2020 September 2020), 494 during TP2 before the vaccination campaign (TP2/pre-vaccination; September 2020-21 February 2021) and 69 in TP2/post-vaccination (22 February 2021-15 May 2021). TP2 vs TP1 patients were younger (p = 0.004), showed more frequently a good performance status (p < 0.001) and <2 comorbidities (p = 0.002), were more likely to be on active anticancer therapy (p = 0.006). Significantly fewer patients in TP2 (3-4%) vs TP1 (22%) had an in-hospital potential source of infection (p < 0.001). TP2 patients were more frequently asymptomatic (p = 0.003). Significantly fewer patients from TP2 were hospitalized (p < 0.001) or admitted to intensive care unit (p = 0.006). All-cause mortality decreased from 30.3% in TP1, to 8.9% and 8.7% in the two TP2 periods (p < 0.001), reflected by a significant reduction in Sars-Cov-2-related mortality (15.2%, 7.5% and 5.8% in the three consecutive time periods, p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in clinical characteristics and features of Sars-Cov-2 infection between TP1 and TP2 reflect the effects of protective measures and increased testing capacity. The lower mortality in TP2 is in line with a less frail population. However, the vast majority of death events in TP2 were related to COVID-19, reinforcing the priority to protect cancer patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Chemother ; : 1-7, 2022 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156913

RESUMO

Biliary tract cancer's (BTC) treatment main stone for advanced stages is constituted by chemotherapy. Surgical centralization and physicians' confidence in the use of new technologies and molecular analysis turned out to be of interest and potentially influencing survival. After applying a random-effect model, the relationship between each clinical variable on the main outcome was investigated through multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression. The risk-standardized outcomes were calculated for each centre involved. In the unadjusted cohort the median survival was 8.6 months (95%C.I.: 7.8-9.3) with a 9-month survival rate of 48.3% (95%C.I.: 45.0-51.5). A substantial heterogeneity across hospitals was found (I2: 70.3%). In multilevel mixed effect logistic regression, male, being treated for gallbladder cancer, higher ECOG, increased NLR, CEA and Ca 19.9 and low value of haemoglobin showed to increase the odds for 9-month mortality. The model estimated that the residual variance observed in 9-month mortality was attributable for the 2.6% to the treating hospital. Through a multilevel mixed effect model, average risk-standardized mortality within 9 months was 50.1%. As noticeable, all hospital's risk-standardized mortality falls within 95%C.I., thus all participating centres provided similar outcomes when adjusted for patient case-mix. Heterogenicity between hospital did not affect the outcome in term of overall survival.

6.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 13(3): 302-307, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the toxicity patterns and effectiveness of doublet chemotherapy when administered at reduced doses of 20% (FOLFOX or FOLFIRI) in combination with anti-EGFR antibodies (cetuximab or panitumumab) in old, vulnerable patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study of RAS and BRAF wild-type, vulnerable patients aged ≥70 years with previously untreated mCRC. The primary endpoint was safety, and secondary endpoints were overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: One hundred and eighteen patients were collected from 14 selected Italian centres. The median age was 75 (range, 70-85). Geriatric screening by G8 tool gave a score ≤ 14 in all patients. In total, 75 and 43 patients received FOLFOX or FOLFIRI, respectively, in combination with panitumumab (53%) or cetuximab (47%). The overall incidence of grade (G) 3-4 neutropenia was 11.8%, and for skin rash 11%. The most frequent adverse events were G1-2 skin rash (49.1%), G1-2 diarrhea (21.1%) and G1-2 nausea (17.7%). The ORR was 57.3%. Stable disease was observed in 29.1% of patients, with a disease control rate of 86.4%. With a median follow-up of 18 months, the median PFS was 10.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.5-11.4), while the median OS was 18.0 months (95% CI: 16.0-19.9). No statistically significant difference was observed between the regimens in terms of ORR, PFS (p = 0.908), and OS (p = 0.832). CONCLUSION: This study shows that with an appropriate design, including reduced doses, vulnerable older patients best tolerate chemotherapy when combined with anti-EGFR antibodies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Exantema , Neoplasias Retais , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Cetuximab/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Exantema/induzido quimicamente , Exantema/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoruracila , Humanos , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Panitumumabe/uso terapêutico
7.
J Chemother ; 34(2): 123-132, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313188

RESUMO

Advanced biliary tract cancer (aBTC) comprises a heterogeneous group of rare malignancies with dismal prognosis. Given the scarcity of prospective evidence, the aim of this study was to derive clinically useful insights and prognostic factors from a large, real-world series of aBTC. Clinicopathologic variables and treatment outcomes were retrospectively collected involving 940 patients diagnosed with aBTC between 2001 and 2017, and treated with first-line chemotherapy (CT1) at 14 Italian medical oncology institutions. Median overall survival (OS) was 10.3 months (CI95% 9.5-11.1). CT1 with gemcitabine-Platinum salts doublets achieved OS of 11.7 months vs 7.5 with gemcitabine alone (HR 0.67, p < 0.001). However, a clear temporal trend towards improved OS could not be demonstrated. Radical surgery of recurrent disease achieved a relapse-free survival of 5.9 months. A substantial minority (44.5%) of patients were able to receive a second-line chemotherapy, which achieved a response rate of 7.6%, and disease control in 30% of patients with no significant differences between combination regimens and monotherapies. In a large retrospective series of real-world aBTC, outcomes of standard CT1 closely resembled those of the registrational trials. A limited set of easily retrievable independent prognostic factors was defined. Further research is needed on second-line regimens.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/patologia , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 71(4): 865-874, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic relevance of early immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in patients affected by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) upon immunotherapy is not fully understood. METHODS: The Leading to Treatment Discontinuation cohort included 24 patients experiencing severe irAEs after one of two administrations of single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting for metastatic NSCLC between November 2015 and June 2019. The control cohort was composed of 526 patients treated with single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting with no severe irAE reported. The primary end points were median progression-free survival, overall survival, objective response rate, risk of progression of disease and risk of death. The correlation of clinic pathological features with early severe irAEs represented the secondary end point. RESULTS: Median PFS was 9.3 and 8.4 months, median OS was 12.0 months and 14.2 months at a median follow-up of 18.1 and 22.6 months in the LTD cohort and in the control cohort, respectively. The ORR was 40% (95% CI 17.2-78.8) in the LTD cohort and 32.7% (95% CI 27.8-38.2) in the control cohort. The risk of disease progression was higher in the LTD cohort (HR 2.52 [95% 1.10-5.78], P = .0288). CONCLUSIONS: We found no survival benefit in LTD cohort compared to the control cohort. However, early and severe irAEs might underly an immune anti-tumor activation. We identified a significant association with first-line immune checkpoints inhibitors treatment and good PS. Further studies on risk prediction and management of serious and early irAEs in NSCLC patients are needed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1 , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(2): 271-279, 2022 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumors with homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) show high sensitivity to platinum salts and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-inhibitors in several malignancies. In colorectal cancer (CRC), the role of HRD alterations is mostly unknown. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing, whole transcriptome sequencing, and whole exome sequencing were conducted using CRC samples submitted to a commercial Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments certified laboratory. Tumors with pathogenic and/or presumed pathogenic mutations in 33 genes involved in the homologous recombination pathway were considered HRD, the others were homologous recombination proficient (HRP). Furthermore, tumor samples from patients enrolled in the phase III TRIBE2 study comparing upfront FOLFOXIRI+bevacizumab vs FOLFOX+bevacizumab were analyzed with next-generation sequencing. The analyses were separately conducted in microsatellite stable or proficient mismatch repair (MSS/pMMR) and microsatellite instable-high or deficient mismatch repair (MSI-H/dMMR) groups. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: Of 9321 CRC tumors, 1270 (13.6%) and 8051 (86.4%) were HRD and HRP, respectively. HRD tumors were more frequent among MSI-H/dMMR than MSS/pMMR tumors (73.4% vs 9.5%; P < .001; q < 0.001). In MSS/pMMR group, HRD tumors were more frequently tumor mutational burden high (8.1% vs 2.2%; P < .001; q < 0.001) and PD-L1 positive (5.0% vs 2.4%; P < .001; q = 0.001), enriched in all immune cell and fibroblast populations and genomic loss of heterozygosity-high (16.2% vs 9.5%; P = .03). In the TRIBE2 study, patients with MSS/pMMR and HRD tumors (10.7%) showed longer overall survival compared with MSS/pMMR and HRP tumors (40.2 vs 23.8 months; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.45 to 0.98; P = .04). Consistent results were reported in the multivariable model (HR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.45 to 1.02; P = .07). No interaction effect was evident between homologous recombination groups and treatment arm. CONCLUSIONS: HRD tumors are a distinctive subgroup of MSS/pMMR CRCs with specific molecular and prognostic characteristics. The potential efficacy of agents targeting the homologous recombination system and immune checkpoint inhibitors in this subgroup is worthy of clinical investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Recombinação Homóloga , Humanos , Prognóstico
10.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 18(1): e20-e27, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242052

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Novel organization models ensure early management of treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) of new anticancer drugs. The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the impact of the introduction of a nurse-led telephone triage (NTT) in reducing hospitalization of patients with cancer (CPs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: CPs on active medical treatment were educated to call the NTT in case of symptoms or TRAEs. Assessment of TRAEs was performed by trained oncology nurses according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grading scales and subsequent actions were taken according to the severity of the events. The primary end point of the study was to compare the rate of hospitalization of CPs on anticancer treatment after the introduction of NTT with that of the 2017-2018 period. RESULTS: From September 2018 to September 2019, a total of 1,075 patients received systemic anticancer treatment (v 936 patients in the same 2017-2018 period). Total consultations at NTT were 429 and 581 TRAEs were reported. Notably, 117 patients reported more than one TRAE. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events were graded as G1 (237, 40.8%), G2 (231, 39.8%), or G3-4 (113, 19.4%). In the observation period, 109 CPs on treatment were hospitalized versus 138 in the 2017-2018 period with a normalized hospitalization rate of 10.1% versus 14.7% (P = .002 chi-square) with a reduction in normalized number of hospitalization of 44 and an estimated cost savings of 345,246 euros. CONCLUSION: The implementation of the NTT system in the clinical practice may help reducing the rates of hospitalization through the emergency room of CPs receiving modern medical treatments.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Triagem , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Telefone
11.
Biologics ; 15: 451-462, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764633

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is a complex and heterogeneous disease with poor prognosis and limited available treatment options. During recent years, several molecular stratifications have been proposed to optimize the overall treatment strategy for GC patients. Breakthroughs in cancer biology and in molecular profiling through DNA and RNA sequencing are now opening novel landscapes, leading to the personalization of molecular matched therapy. In particular, therapies against HER2, Claudine 18.2, Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors (FGFR), and other molecular alterations could significantly improve survival outcomes in the advance phase of the disease. Furthermore, immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors also represents a promising option in a selected population. Hoping that precision oncology will enter soon in clinical practice, our review describes the state of the art of many novel pathways and the current evidence supporting the use of monoclonal antibodies implicated in GC treatment.

12.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 15(12): 1367-1383, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669536

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Biliary tract cancer represents a heterogeneous group of malignancies characterized by dismal prognosis and scarce therapeutic options. AREA COVERED: In the last years, a growing interest in BTC pathology has emerged, thus highlighting a significant heterogeneity of the pathways underlying the carcinogenesis process, from both a molecular and genomic point of view. A better understanding of these differences is mandatory to deepen the behavior of this complex disease, as well as to identify new targetable target mutations, with the aim to improve the survival outcomes. The authors decided to provide a comprehensive overview of the recent highlights on BTCs, with a special focus on the genetic, epigenetic and molecular alterations, which may have an interesting clinical application in the next future. EXPERT OPINION: In the last years, the efforts resulted from international collaborations have led to the identification of new promising targets for precision medicine approaches in the BTC setting. Further investigations and prospective trials are needed, but the hope is that these new knowledge in cooperation with the new technologies and procedures, including bio-molecular and genomic analysis as well radiomic studies, will enrich the therapeutic armamentarium thus improving the survival outcomes in a such lethal and complex disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/terapia , Colangiocarcinoma/terapia , Epigenômica , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Prognóstico
13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200267

RESUMO

In resectable gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer (GC/GEJC), the powerful positive prognostic effect and the potential predictive value for a lack of benefit from the combination of adjuvant/peri-operative chemotherapy for the MSI-high status was demonstrated. Given the high sensitivity of MSI-high tumors for immunotherapy, exploratory trials showed that combination immunotherapy induces a high rate of complete pathological response (pCR), potentially achieving cancer cure without surgery. INFINITY is an ongoing phase II, multicentre, single-arm, multi-cohort trial investigating the activity and safety of tremelimumab and durvalumab as neoadjuvant (Cohort 1) or potentially definitive (Cohort 2) treatment for MSI-high/dMMR/EBV-negative, resectable GC/GEJC. About 310 patients will be pre-screened, to enroll a total of 31 patients, 18 and 13 in Cohort 1 and 2, at 25 Italian Centres. The primary endpoint of Cohort 1 is rate of pCR (ypT0N0) and negative ctDNA after neoadjuvant immunotherapy, of Cohort 2 is 2-year complete response rate, defined as absence of macroscopic or microscopic residual disease (locally/regionally/distantly) at radiological examinations, tissue and liquid biopsy, during non-operative management without salvage gastrectomy. The ongoing INFINITY proof-of-concept study may provide evidence on immunotherapy and the potential omission of surgery in localized/locally advanced GC/GEJC patients selected for dMMR/MSI-high status eligible for radical resection.

14.
Acta Oncol ; 60(10): 1317-1324, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standard treatment of advanced biliary tract cancer (aBTC) is represented by first-line chemotherapy (CT1). However, some patients do not gain any benefit from CT1, contributing to the overall dismal prognosis of aBTC. The present study aimed to devise a prognostic model in aBTC patients receiving CT1. METHODS: A large panel of clinical, laboratory, and pathology variables, available before the start of CT1, were retrospectively assessed in a multi-centric cohort to determine their prognostic value on univariate and multivariate regression analysis. The variables that showed a significant correlation with overall survival (OS) were computed in a three-tier prognostic score. External validation of the prognostication performance was carried out. RESULTS: Clinical histories of 935 patients (median OS 10.3 months), with diagnosis dates ranging from 2001 to 2017, were retrieved from 14 institutions. According to multivariate analysis, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, carbohydrate antigen 19.9, albumin levels, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio were strongly associated with OS (p <0.01). The prognostic score could generate a highly significant stratification (all between-group p values ≤0.001) into groups of favorable (comprising 51.5% of the sample), intermediate (39.2%), and poor prognosis (9.3%): median OS was 12.7 (CI95% 11.0-14.4), 7.1 (CI95% 5.8-8.4), and 3.2 months (CI95% 1.7-4.7), respectively. This OS gradient was replicated in the validation set (129 patients), with median OS of 12.7 (CI95% 11.0-14.3), 7.5 (CI95% 6.1-8.9), and 1.4 months (CI95% 0.1-2.7), respectively (all between-group p values ≤0.05). CONCLUSION: A prognostic score, derived from a limited set of easily-retrievable variables, efficiently stratified a large population of unselected aBTC patients undergoing CT1. This tool could be useful to clinicians, to ascertain the potential benefit from CT1 at the start of treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Linfócitos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298718

RESUMO

Different de-escalation strategies have been proposed to limit the risk of cumulative toxicity and guarantee quality of life during the treatment trajectory of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Programmed treatment interruptions, defined as drug holidays (DHs), have been implemented in clinical practice. We evaluated the association between DHs and overall survival (OS). This was a retrospective study, conducted at the University Hospital of Udine and the IRCCS CRO of Aviano. We retrieved records of 608 consecutive patients treated for mCRC from 1 January 2005 to 15 March 2017 and evaluated the impact of different de-escalation strategies (maintenance, DHs, or both) on OS through uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses. We also looked at attrition rates across treatment lines according to the chosen strategy. In our study, 19.24% of patients received maintenance therapy, 16.12% DHs, and 9.87% both, while 32.07% continued full-intensity first-line treatment up to progression or death. In uni- and multivariate analyses first-line continuous treatment and early discontinuation (treatment for less than 3 months) were associated to worse OS compared to non-continuous strategies (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.22-2.32; p = 0.002 and HR,4.89; 95% CI, 3.33-7.19; p < 0.001, respectively). Attrition rates were 22.8%, 20.61%, and 19.64% for maintenance, DHs, or both, respectively. For continuous therapy and for treatment of less than 3 months it was 21.57% and 49%. De-escalation strategies are safe and effective options. DHs after initial induction chemotherapy may be considered in clinically selected patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

16.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 14(10): 1221-1232, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114518

RESUMO

Introduction: Although standard doublet chemotherapy represents the upfront gold standard to increase survival and improve quality of life of gastric cancer patients, overall improvements in long-term outcomes are modest and novel treatments are urgently needed. Among these, immunotherapy is an increasingly attractive option.Areas covered: A number of clinical trials have shown that checkpoint inhibitors may be of value, but many unclear issues remain controversial and should be promptly untangled. In our short review, we offer the current available data regarding immunotherapies in gastric cancers, discuss potential limits of the reported trials, compare outcomes of checkpoints inhibitor to those of standard chemotherapy or other novel treatments, and present basic principles of immune surveillance and immune escape that may be embraced in the near future with novel drug combinations.Expert opinion: Gastric cancer patients may benefit from immunotherapy, both given alone in advanced lines and upfront in combination with chemotherapy. We believe that appropriate patients' and tumor's selection are crucial issues to maximize its potential efficacy. In addition, we think that assay standardization, biomarker agreement, and translational studies will improve the benefit-to-risk ratio of these agents in the clinical practice.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Seleção de Pacientes , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias Gástricas/imunologia , Sobrevida
17.
Eur J Cancer ; 153: 16-26, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent data from the TRIBE2 study have failed to suggest a higher magnitude of benefit from upfront FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab in patients with BRAF-mutant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) as previously reported in the TRIBE study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical characteristics and gene expression signatures of patients with BRAF-mutant mCRC enrolled in the TRIBE2 study were evaluated with the aim of understanding that patients may derive benefit from the intensification of the upfront chemotherapy. RESULTS: Of 46 BRAF-mutant tumour samples analysed, 24 (52%) and 22 (48%) were classified as BM1 and BM2, respectively, and 27 (59%) and 19 (41%) were assigned to ligand-independent (LI) and ligand-dependent (LD) Wnt pathway subgroups, respectively. No prognostic impact was shown for both BM1/BM2 and LI/LD subtypes. No interaction was evident between BM1/BM2 or LI/LD signatures and the benefit provided by FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab. Significant interaction effect was evident in terms of progression-free survival between treatment arm and primary tumour sidedness (P = 0.05) and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG-PS; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Gene expression analysis failed to identify patients with BRAF-mutant mCRC candidate to upfront FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab. ECOG-PS >0 and left-sidedness seem associated with no benefit from the intensified treatment.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Expressão Gênica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Bevacizumab/farmacologia , Camptotecina/farmacologia , Camptotecina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucovorina/farmacologia , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Compostos Organoplatínicos/farmacologia , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico
18.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until now, no robust data supported the efficacy, safety and recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with cancer receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). METHODS: The prospective multicenter observational INfluenza Vaccine Indication During therapy with Immune checkpoint inhibitors (INVIDIa-2) study investigated the clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving ICIs, enrolled in 82 Italian centers from October 2019 to January 2020. The primary endpoint was the time-adjusted incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) until April 30, 2020. Secondary endpoints regarded ILI severity and vaccine safety. RESULTS: The study enrolled 1279 patients; 1188 patients were evaluable for the primary endpoint analysis. Of them, 48.9% (581) received influenza vaccination. The overall ILI incidence was 8.2% (98 patients). Vaccinated patients were significantly more frequently elderly (p<0.0001), males (p=0.004), with poor European Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (p=0.009), affected by lung cancer (p=0.01), and by other non-cancer comorbidities (p<0.0001) when compared with unvaccinated. ILI incidence was not different basing on influenza vaccination: the time-to-ILI was similar in vaccinated and unvaccinated patients (p=0.62). ILI complications were significantly less frequent for patients receiving the vaccination (11.8% vs 38.3% in unvaccinated, p=0.002). ILI-related intravenous therapies were significantly less frequent in vaccinated patients than in unvaccinated (11.8% vs 29.8%, p=0.027). ILI lethality was, respectively, 0% in vaccinated and 4.3% in unvaccinated patients. Vaccine-related adverse events were rare and mild (1.5%, grades 1-2). CONCLUSION: The INVIDIa-2 study results support a positive recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The need to estimate prognosis of advanced BTC (aBTC) patients treated with first-line chemotherapy is compelling. The aim of the study is to evaluate the ECSIPOT (psECogSIiPnigOT) index, influenced by PECS (PsECogSii) index, prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and GOT. METHODS: This international study was conducted on a training cohort of 126 patients and in three validation cohorts, both European and Korean. ECSIPOT index formula: (PECS:0 = 1 point; PECS:1 = 1.4 points; PECS:2 = 3.2 points) + (PNI > 36.7 = 1 point; PNI < 36.7 = 2 points) + (GOT < 100 = 1 point; GOT > 100 = 2 points). Event-time distributions were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: In the training cohort, mOS was 12.9, 6.3, and 2.8 months for patients with ECSIPOT-0, ECSIPOT-1, and ECSIPOT-2, respectively (ECSIPOT-0: HR 1; ECSIPOT-1: HR 2.11; ECSIPOT-2: HR 4.93; p < 0.0001). In the first validation cohort, mOS was 11.5, 7.3, and 3.3 months for ECSIPOT-0, ECSIPOT-1, and ECSIPOT-2, respectively (ECSIPOT-0: HR 1; ECSIPOT-1: HR 1.74; ECSIPOT-2: HR 3.41; p < 0.0001). In the second validation cohort, mOS was 25.2, 12.5, and 3.0 months for ECSIPOT-0, ECSIPOT-1, and ECSIPOT-2, respectively (ECSIPOT-0: HR = 1; ECSIPOT-1: HR 2.33; ECSIPOT-2: HR 8.46; p < 0.0001). In the third validation cohort, mOS was 11.8, 8.1, and 4.6 months for ECSIPOT-0, ECSIPOT-1, and ECSIPOT-2, respectively (ECSIPOT-0: HR = 1; ECSIPOT-1: HR 1.47; ECSIPOT-2: HR 3.17; p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis in all cohorts confirmed the ECSIPOT index as an independent prognostic factor for OS. CONCLUSION: The easy assessment and good risk-stratification performance make the ECSIPOT index a promising tool to comprehensively estimate the prognosis of aBTC patients.

20.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922821

RESUMO

The combination of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine demonstrated greater efficacy than gemcitabine alone but resulted in higher rates of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CINP) in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer (mPC). We aimed to evaluate the correlation between the development of treatment-related peripheral neuropathy and the efficacy of nab-P/Gem combination in these patients. mPC patients treated with nab-paclitaxel 125 mg/m2 and gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 as a first-line therapy were included. Treatment-related adverse events, mainly peripheral neuropathy, were categorized using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria scale, version 4.02. Efficacy outcomes, including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PSF), and disease control rate (DCR), were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier model. A total of 153 patients were analyzed; of these, 47 patients (30.7%) developed grade 1-2 neuropathy. PFS was 7 months (95% CI (6-7 months)) for patients with grade 1-2 neuropathy and 6 months (95% CI (5-6 months)) for patients without peripheral neuropathy (p = 0.42). Median OS was 13 months (95% CI (10-18 months)) and 10 months (95% CI (8-13 months)) in patients with and without peripheral neuropathy, respectively (p = 0.04). DCR was achieved by 83% of patients with grade 1-2 neuropathy and by 58% of patients without neuropathy (p = 0.03). In the multivariate analysis, grade 1-2 neuropathy was independently associated with OS (HR 0.65; 95% CI, 0.45-0.98; p = 0.03). nab-P/Gem represents an optimal first-line treatment for mPC patients. Among possible treatment-related adverse events, peripheral neuropathy is the most frequent, with different grades and incidence. Our study suggests that patients experiencing CINP may have a more favorable outcome, with a higher disease control rate and prolonged median survival compared to those without neuropathy.

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