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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2043: 1-12, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463898

RESUMO

The ADAMTS superfamily comprises secreted metalloproteases (ADAMTS proteases) as well as structurally related secreted glycoproteins that lack catalytic activity (ADAMTS-like proteins). Members of both families participate in diverse morphogenetic processes during embryonic development, and connective tissue maintenance and hemostasis in the adult. Several ADAMTS proteins are heavily implicated in genetic and acquired human and animal disorders. Despite these indicators of a profound biological and medical importance, detailed knowledge about their molecular structures, substrates, biological pathways, and biochemical mechanisms is significantly limited by unique intrinsic characteristics, which have led to several technical challenges. As a group, they are larger, more heavily modified, and harder to purify than other secreted proteases. In addition, idiosyncratic aspects of individual members are deserving of further investigation but can complicate their analysis. Here, some of the key concepts, challenges, and prospects in ADAMTS research are discussed in the context of the knowledge accumulated over the past two decades. Individual chapters in this volume of Methods in Molecular Biology provide practical solutions for surmounting these challenges. Since the biology of a protease is actually the biology of its substrates, there is considerable emphasis on purification of recombinant ADAMTS proteins, identification of their substrates and assays for their proteolytic activity.

2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2043: 173-178, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463911

RESUMO

RNA in situ hybridization has an important place in matrix biology, as the only method that allows for in situ discrimination of precise spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression. Whereas immunohistochemistry shows where a matrix protein localizes, ISH identifies the cell of origin. Thus, these methods provide complementary information for insights on the life cycle of matrix molecules, including ADAMTS proteases. This protocol encompasses the staining of tissue sections to reveal expression of the gene of interest.

3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2043: 261-264, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463918

RESUMO

The pericellular matrix (PCM), also known as the pericellular coat or glycocalyx, lies between the plasma membrane and the interstitial extracellular matrix (ECM). It can have a dramatic influence on cell function because of its presence at the interface between the cell and its microenvironment. A common tool used to demonstrate the PCM is the particle exclusion assay in which fixed red blood cells are utilized to outline the boundary of the cell together with its PCM. PCM visualization and quantification provide opportunities to uncover the roles of ADAMTS proteases in PCM remodeling in many cell types and processes.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10914, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358852

RESUMO

ADAMTS (A Disintegrin-like and Metalloproteinase domain with Thrombospondin type 1 Motif)-1, -4 and -5 share the abilities to cleave large aggregating proteoglycans including versican and aggrecan. These activities are highly relevant to cardiovascular disease and osteoarthritis and during development. Here, using purified recombinant ADAMTS-1, -4 and -5, we quantify, compare, and define the molecular basis of their versicanase activity. A novel sandwich-ELISA detecting the major versican cleavage fragment was used to determine, for the first time, kinetic constants for versican proteolysis. ADAMTS-5 (kcat/Km 35 × 105 M-1 s-1) is a more potent (~18-fold) versicanase than ADAMTS-4 (kcat/Km 1.86 × 105 M-1 sec-1), whereas ADAMTS-1 versicanase activity is comparatively low. Deletion of the spacer domain reduced versicanase activity of ADAMTS-5 19-fold and that of ADAMTS-4 167-fold. Co-deletion of the ADAMTS-5 cysteine-rich domain further reduced versicanase activity to a total 153-fold reduction. Substitution of two hypervariable loops in the spacer domain of ADAMTS-5 (residues 739-744 and 837-844) and ADAMTS-4 (residues 717-724 and 788-795) with those of ADAMTS-13, which does not cleave proteoglycans, caused spacer-dependent reductions in versicanase activities. Our results demonstrate that these loops contain exosites critical for interaction with and processing of versican. The hypervariable loops of ADAMTS-5 are shown to be important also for its aggrecanase activity. Together with previous work on ADAMTS-13 our results suggest that the spacer domain hypervariable loops may exercise significant control of ADAMTS proteolytic activity as a general principle. Identification of specific exosites also provides targets for selective inhibitors.

5.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(7): 1432-1447, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242033

RESUMO

Objective- The Wnt/ß-catenin pathway orchestrates development of the blood-brain barrier, but the downstream mechanisms involved at different developmental windows and in different central nervous system (CNS) tissues have remained elusive. Approach and Results- Here, we create a new mouse model allowing spatiotemporal investigations of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling by induced overexpression of Axin1, an inhibitor of ß-catenin signaling, specifically in endothelial cells ( Axin1 iEC- OE). AOE (Axin1 overexpression) in Axin1 iEC- OE mice at stages following the initial vascular invasion of the CNS did not impair angiogenesis but led to premature vascular regression followed by progressive dilation and inhibition of vascular maturation resulting in forebrain-specific hemorrhage 4 days post-AOE. Analysis of the temporal Wnt/ß-catenin driven CNS vascular development in zebrafish also suggested that Axin1 iEC- OE led to CNS vascular regression and impaired maturation but not inhibition of ongoing angiogenesis within the CNS. Transcriptomic profiling of isolated, ß-catenin signaling-deficient endothelial cells during early blood-brain barrier-development (E11.5) revealed ECM (extracellular matrix) proteins as one of the most severely deregulated clusters. Among the 20 genes constituting the forebrain endothelial cell-specific response signature, 8 ( Adamtsl2, Apod, Ctsw, Htra3, Pglyrp1, Spock2, Ttyh2, and Wfdc1) encoded bona fide ECM proteins. This specific ß-catenin-responsive ECM signature was also repressed in Axin1 iEC- OE and endothelial cell-specific ß-catenin-knockout mice ( Ctnnb1-KOiEC) during initial blood-brain barrier maturation (E14.5), consistent with an important role of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling in orchestrating the development of the forebrain vascular ECM. Conclusions- These results suggest a novel mechanism of establishing a CNS endothelium-specific ECM signature downstream of Wnt-ß-catenin that impact spatiotemporally on blood-brain barrier differentiation during forebrain vessel development. Visual Overview- An online visual overview is available for this article.

6.
J Biol Chem ; 294(25): 9924-9936, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085586

RESUMO

The secreted metalloprotease ADAMTS9 has dual roles in extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover and biogenesis of the primary cilium during mouse embryogenesis. Its gene locus is associated with several human traits and disorders, but ADAMTS9 has few known interacting partners or confirmed substrates. Here, using a yeast two-hybrid screen for proteins interacting with its C-terminal Gon1 domain, we identified three putative ADAMTS9-binding regions in the ECM glycoprotein fibronectin. Using solid-phase binding assays and surface plasmon resonance experiments with purified proteins, we demonstrate that ADAMTS9 and fibronectin interact. ADAMTS9 constructs, including those lacking Gon1, co-localized with fibronectin fibrils formed by cultured fibroblasts lacking fibrillin-1, which co-localizes with fibronectin and binds several ADAMTSs. We observed no fibrillar ADAMTS9 staining after blockade of fibroblast fibronectin fibrillogenesis with a peptide based on the functional upstream domain of a Staphylococcus aureus adhesin. These findings indicate that ADAMTS9 binds fibronectin dimers and fibrils directly through multiple sites in both molecules. Proteolytically active ADAMTS9, but not a catalytically inactive variant, disrupted fibronectin fibril networks formed by fibroblasts in vitro, and ADAMTS9-deficient RPE1 cells assembled a robust fibronectin fibril network, unlike WT cells. Targeted LC-MS analysis of fibronectin digested by ADAMTS9-expressing cells identified a semitryptic peptide arising from cleavage at Gly2196-Leu2197 We noted that this scissile bond is in the linker between fibronectin modules III17 and I10, a region targeted also by other proteases. These findings, along with stronger fibronectin staining previously observed in Adamts9 mutant embryos, suggest that ADAMTS9 contributes to fibronectin turnover during ECM remodeling.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 953, 2019 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814516

RESUMO

Although hundreds of cytosolic or transmembrane molecules form the primary cilium, few secreted molecules are known to contribute to ciliogenesis. Here, homologous secreted metalloproteases ADAMTS9 and ADAMTS20 are identified as ciliogenesis regulators that act intracellularly. Secreted and furin-processed ADAMTS9 bound heparan sulfate and was internalized by LRP1, LRP2 and clathrin-mediated endocytosis to be gathered in Rab11 vesicles with a unique periciliary localization defined by super-resolution microscopy. CRISPR-Cas9 inactivation of ADAMTS9 impaired ciliogenesis in RPE-1 cells, which was restored by catalytically active ADAMTS9 or ADAMTS20 acting in trans, but not by their proteolytically inactive mutants. Their mutagenesis in mice impaired neural and yolk sac ciliogenesis, leading to morphogenetic anomalies resulting from impaired hedgehog signaling, which is transduced by primary cilia. In addition to their cognate extracellular proteolytic activity, ADAMTS9 and ADAMTS20 thus have an additional proteolytic role intracellularly, revealing an unexpected regulatory dimension in ciliogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAMTS/metabolismo , Proteína ADAMTS9/metabolismo , Cílios/metabolismo , Cílios/ultraestrutura , Proteínas ADAMTS/deficiência , Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Proteína ADAMTS9/deficiência , Proteína ADAMTS9/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Endocitose , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/embriologia , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/genética , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/metabolismo , Proteólise , Transdução de Sinais , Versicanas/genética , Versicanas/metabolismo , Saco Vitelino/embriologia , Saco Vitelino/metabolismo
8.
Matrix Biol ; 82: 38-53, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738849

RESUMO

Geleophysic dysplasia is a rare, frequently lethal condition characterized by severe short stature with progressive joint contractures, cardiac, pulmonary, and skin anomalies. Geleophysic dysplasia results from dominant fibrillin-1 (FBN1) or recessive ADAMTSL2 mutations, suggesting a functional link between ADAMTSL2 and fibrillin microfibrils. Mice lacking ADAMTSL2 die at birth, which has precluded analysis of postnatal limb development and mechanisms underlying the skeletal anomalies of geleophysic dysplasia. Here, detailed expression analysis of Adamtsl2 using an intragenic lacZ reporter shows strong Adamtsl2 expression in limb tendons. Expression in developing and growing bones is present in regions that are destined to become articular cartilage but is absent in growth plate cartilage. Consistent with strong tendon expression, Adamtsl2 conditional deletion in limb mesenchyme using Prx1-Cre led to tendon anomalies, albeit with normal collagen fibrils, and distal limb shortening, providing a mouse model for geleophysic dysplasia. Unexpectedly, conditional Adamtsl2 deletion using Scx-Cre, a tendon-specific Cre-deleter strain, which does not delete in cartilage, also impaired skeletal growth. Recombinant ADAMTSL2 is shown here to colocalize with fibrillin microfibrils in vitro, and enhanced staining of fibrillin-1 microfibrils was observed in Prx1-Cre Adamtsl2 tendons. The findings show that ADAMTSL2 specifically regulates microfibril assembly in tendons and that proper microfibril composition in tendons is necessary for tendon growth. We speculate that reduced bone growth in geleophysic dysplasia may result from external tethering by short tendons rather than intrinsic growth plate anomalies. Taken together with previous work, we suggest that GD results from abnormal microfibril assembly in tissues, and that ADAMTSL2 may limit the assembly of fibrillin microfibrils.

9.
Diabetes ; 68(3): 502-514, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626608

RESUMO

The ADAMTS9 rs4607103 C allele is one of the few gene variants proposed to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes through an impairment of insulin sensitivity. We show that the variant is associated with increased expression of the secreted ADAMTS9 and decreased insulin sensitivity and signaling in human skeletal muscle. In line with this, mice lacking Adamts9 selectively in skeletal muscle have improved insulin sensitivity. The molecular link between ADAMTS9 and insulin signaling was characterized further in a model where ADAMTS9 was overexpressed in skeletal muscle. This selective overexpression resulted in decreased insulin signaling presumably mediated through alterations of the integrin ß1 signaling pathway and disruption of the intracellular cytoskeletal organization. Furthermore, this led to impaired mitochondrial function in mouse muscle-an observation found to be of translational character because humans carrying the ADAMTS9 risk allele have decreased expression of mitochondrial markers. Finally, we found that the link between ADAMTS9 overexpression and impaired insulin signaling could be due to accumulation of harmful lipid intermediates. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and point to inhibition of ADAMTS9 as a potential novel mode of treating insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Proteína ADAMTS9/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proteína ADAMTS9/genética , Alelos , Animais , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Integrina beta1/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 45-54, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609407

RESUMO

Nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies (NPHP-RCs) are a group of inherited diseases that are associated with defects in primary cilium structure and function. To identify genes mutated in NPHP-RC, we performed homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing for >100 individuals, some of whom were single affected individuals born to consanguineous parents and some of whom were siblings of indexes who were also affected by NPHP-RC. We then performed high-throughput exon sequencing in a worldwide cohort of 800 additional families affected by NPHP-RC. We identified two ADAMTS9 mutations (c.4575_4576del [p.Gln1525Hisfs∗60] and c.194C>G [p.Thr65Arg]) that appear to cause NPHP-RC. Although ADAMTS9 is known to be a secreted extracellular metalloproteinase, we found that ADAMTS9 localized near the basal bodies of primary cilia in the cytoplasm. Heterologously expressed wild-type ADAMTS9, in contrast to mutant proteins detected in individuals with NPHP-RC, localized to the vicinity of the basal body. Loss of ADAMTS9 resulted in shortened cilia and defective sonic hedgehog signaling. Knockout of Adamts9 in IMCD3 cells, followed by spheroid induction, resulted in defective lumen formation, which was rescued by an overexpression of wild-type, but not of mutant, ADAMTS9. Knockdown of adamts9 in zebrafish recapitulated NPHP-RC phenotypes, including renal cysts and hydrocephalus. These findings suggest that the identified mutations in ADAMTS9 cause NPHP-RC and that ADAMTS9 is required for the formation and function of primary cilia.

11.
Matrix Biol ; 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201140

RESUMO

Mutations in the secreted metalloproteinase ADAMTS10 cause recessive Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS), comprising ectopia lentis, short stature, brachydactyly, thick skin and cardiac valve anomalies. Dominant WMS caused by FBN1 mutations is clinically similar and affects fibrillin-1 microfibrils, which are a major component of the ocular zonule. ADAMTS10 was previously shown to enhance fibrillin-1 assembly in vitro. Here, Adamts10 null mice were analyzed to determine the impact of ADAMTS10 deficiency on fibrillin microfibrils in vivo. An intragenic lacZ reporter identified widespread Adamts10 expression in the eye, musculoskeletal tissues, vasculature, skin and lung. Adamts10-/- mice had reduced viability on the C57BL/6 background, and although surviving mice were slightly smaller and had stiff skin, they lacked brachydactyly and cardiovascular defects. Ectopia lentis was not observed in Adamts10-/- mice, similar to Fbn1-/- mice, most likely because the mouse zonule contains fibrillin-2 in addition to fibrillin-1. Unexpectedly, in contrast to wild-type eyes, Adamts10-/- zonule fibers were thicker and immunostained strongly with fibrillin-2 antibodies into adulthood, whereas fibrillin-1 staining was reduced. Furthermore, fibrillin-2 staining of hyaloid vasculature remnants persisted post-natally in Adamts10-/- eyes. ADAMTS10 was found to cleave fibrillin-2, providing an explanation for persistence of fibrillin-2 at these sites. Thus, analysis of Adamts10-/- mice led to identification of fibrillin-2 as a novel ADAMTS10 substrate and defined a proteolytic mechanism for clearance of ocular fibrillin-2 at the end of the juvenile period.

12.
Matrix Biol ; 71-72: 225-239, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29885460

RESUMO

ADAMTS proteins are a superfamily of 26 secreted molecules comprising two related, but distinct families. ADAMTS proteases are zinc metalloendopeptidases, most of whose substrates are extracellular matrix (ECM) components, whereas ADAMTS-like proteins lack a metalloprotease domain, reside in the ECM and have regulatory roles vis-à-vis ECM assembly and/or ADAMTS activity. Evolutionary conservation and expansion of ADAMTS proteins in mammals is suggestive of crucial embryologic or physiological roles in humans. Indeed, Mendelian disorders or birth defects resulting from naturally occurring ADAMTS2, ADAMTS3, ADAMTS10, ADAMTS13, ADAMTS17, ADAMTS20, ADAMTSL2 and ADAMTSL4 mutations as well as numerous phenotypes identified in genetically engineered mice have revealed ADAMTS participation in major biological pathways. Important roles have been identified in a few acquired conditions. ADAMTS5 is unequivocally implicated in pathogenesis of osteoarthritis via degradation of aggrecan, a major structural proteoglycan in cartilage. ADAMTS7 is strongly associated with coronary artery disease and promotes atherosclerosis. Autoantibodies to ADAMTS13 lead to a platelet coagulopathy, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, which is similar to that resulting from ADAMTS13 mutations. ADAMTS proteins have numerous potential connections to other human disorders that were identified by genome-wide association studies. Here, we review inherited and acquired human disorders in which ADAMTS proteins participate, and discuss progress and prospects in therapeutics.

13.
Matrix Biol ; 2018 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29758265

RESUMO

The extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates numerous cellular events in addition to providing structural integrity. Among several protein and enzyme families implicated in functions of the ECM, the lysyl oxidases and ADAMTS proteins are known to participate in microfibril and elastic fiber formation as well as ECM-associated signaling. A yeast two-hybrid screen to identify lysyl oxidase (LOX) binding proteins identified ADAMTSL4 as a potential interactor. We demonstrate here that several members of the LOX and ADAMTS families interact with one another. Upon investigating the interaction between LOX and ADAMTSL2 we found that the absence or inhibition of Lox affected ADAMTSL2 molecular forms and reduced its tissue levels. Thus, ADAMTSL2 stability and inter-molecular complexes may depend on the activity of lysyl oxidases.

14.
JCI Insight ; 3(7)2018 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618652

RESUMO

Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a significant clinical problem with incompletely resolved mechanisms. Here, the secreted metalloproteinases ADAMTS7 and ADAMTS12 are shown to comprise a unique proteoglycan class that protects against a tendency toward HO in mouse hindlimb tendons, menisci, and ligaments. Adamts7 and Adamts12 mRNAs were sparsely expressed in murine forelimbs but strongly coexpressed in hindlimb tendons, skeletal muscle, ligaments, and meniscal fibrocartilage. Adamts7-/- Adamts12-/- mice, but not corresponding single-gene mutants, which demonstrated compensatory upregulation of the intact homolog mRNA, developed progressive HO in these tissues after 4 months of age. Adamts7-/- Adamts12-/- tendons had abnormal collagen fibrils, accompanied by reduced levels of the small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) biglycan, fibromodulin, and decorin, which regulate collagen fibrillogenesis. Bgn-/0 Fmod-/- mice are known to have a strikingly similar hindlimb HO to that of Adamts7-/- Adamts12-/- mice, implicating fibromodulin and biglycan reduction as a likely mechanism underlying HO in Adamts7-/- Adamts12-/- mice. Interestingly, degenerated human biceps tendons had reduced ADAMTS7 mRNA compared with healthy biceps tendons, which expressed both ADAMTS7 and ADAMTS12. These results suggest that ADAMTS7 and ADAMTS12 drive an innate pathway protective against hindlimb HO in mice and may be essential for human tendon health.

15.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 17(7): 1410-1425, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669734

RESUMO

Secreted and cell-surface proteases are major mediators of extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover, but their mechanisms and regulatory impact are poorly understood. We developed a mass spectrometry approach using a cell-free ECM produced in vitro to identify fibronectin (FN) as a novel substrate of the secreted metalloprotease ADAMTS16. ADAMTS16 cleaves FN between its (I)5 and (I)6 modules, releasing the N-terminal 30 kDa heparin-binding domain essential for FN self-assembly. ADAMTS16 impairs FN fibrillogenesis as well as fibrillin-1 and tenascin-C assembly, thus inhibiting formation of a mature ECM by cultured fibroblasts. Furthermore ADAMTS16 has a marked morphogenetic impact on spheroid formation by renal tubule-derived MDCKI cells. The N-terminal FN domain released by ADAMTS16 up-regulates MMP3, which cleaves the (I)5-(I)6 linker of FN similar to ADAMTS16, therefore creating a proteolytic feed-forward mechanism. Thus, FN proteolysis not only regulates FN turnover, but also FN assembly, with potential long-term consequences for ECM assembly and morphogenesis.

16.
Cell Rep ; 23(2): 485-498, 2018 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29642006

RESUMO

Focal adhesions anchor cells to extracellular matrix (ECM) and direct assembly of a pre-stressed actin cytoskeleton. They act as a cellular sensor and regulator, linking ECM to the nucleus. Here, we identify proteolytic turnover of the anti-adhesive proteoglycan versican as a requirement for maintenance of smooth muscle cell (SMC) focal adhesions. Using conditional deletion in mice, we show that ADAMTS9, a secreted metalloprotease, is required for myometrial activation during late gestation and for parturition. Through knockdown of ADAMTS9 in uterine SMC, and manipulation of pericellular versican via knockdown or proteolysis, we demonstrate that regulated pericellular matrix dynamics is essential for focal adhesion maintenance. By influencing focal adhesion formation, pericellular versican acts upstream of cytoskeletal assembly and SMC differentiation. Thus, pericellular versican proteolysis by ADAMTS9 balances pro- and anti-adhesive forces to maintain an SMC phenotype, providing a concrete example of the dynamic reciprocity of cells and their ECM.

17.
JCI Insight ; 3(5)2018 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29515038

RESUMO

Proteoglycan accumulation is a hallmark of medial degeneration in thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD). Here, we defined the aortic proteoglycanome using mass spectrometry, and based on the findings, investigated the large aggregating proteoglycans aggrecan and versican in human ascending TAAD and a mouse model of severe Marfan syndrome. The aortic proteoglycanome comprises 20 proteoglycans including aggrecan and versican. Antibodies against these proteoglycans intensely stained medial degeneration lesions in TAAD, contrasting with modest intralamellar staining in controls. Aggrecan, but not versican, was increased in longitudinal analysis of Fbn1mgR/mgR aortas. TAAD and Fbn1mgR/mgR aortas had increased aggrecan and versican mRNAs, and reduced expression of a key proteoglycanase gene, ADAMTS5, was seen in TAAD. Fbn1mgR/mgR mice with ascending aortic dissection and/or rupture had dramatically increased aggrecan staining compared with mice without these complications. Thus, aggrecan and versican accumulation in ascending TAAD occurs via increased synthesis and/or reduced proteolytic turnover, and correlates with aortic dissection/rupture in Fbn1mgR/mgR mice. Tissue swelling imposed by aggrecan and versican is proposed to be profoundly deleterious to aortic wall mechanics and smooth muscle cell homeostasis, predisposing to type-A dissections. These proteoglycans provide potential biomarkers for refined risk stratification and timing of elective aortic aneurysm repair.

18.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 17225, 2017 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29222454

RESUMO

The proteoglycan versican is implicated in growth and metastases of several cancers. Here we investigated a potential contribution of stromal versican to tumor growth and angiogenesis. We initially determined versican expression by several cancer cell lines. Among these, MDA-MB231 and B16F10 had none to minimal expression in contrast to Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC). Notably, tumors arising from these cell lines had higher versican levels than the cell lines themselves suggesting a contribution from the host-derived tumor stroma. In LLC-derived tumors, both the tumor and stroma expressed versican at high levels. Thus, tumor stroma can make a significant contribution to tumor versican content. Versican localized preferentially to the vicinity of tumor vasculature and macrophages in the tumor. However, an ADAMTS protease-generated versican fragment uniquely localized to vascular endothelium. To specifically determine the impact of host/stroma-derived versican we therefore compared growth of tumors from B16F10 cells, which produced littleversican, in Vcan hdf/+ mice and wild-type littermates. Tumors in Vcan hdf/+ mice had reduced growth with a lower capillary density and accumulation of capillaries at the tumor periphery. These findings illustrate the variability of tumor cell line expression of versican, and demonstrate that versican is consistently contributed by the stromal tissue, where it contributes to tumor angiogenesis.

19.
Hum Mutat ; 38(11): 1485-1490, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28722276

RESUMO

Developmental glaucoma can occur as an isolated or syndromic condition and is genetically heterogeneous. We describe a three-generation family affected with developmental glaucoma, myopia, and/or retinal defects associated with variable craniofacial/dental, auditory, brain, renal, and limb anomalies. Whole-exome sequencing identified a heterozygous c.124T> C, p.(Trp42Arg) allele in ADAMTSL1; cosegregation analysis confirmed the presence of this allele in four affected family members. The mutation affects a highly conserved residue and is strongly predicted to have a deleterious effect on protein function. Trp42 is normally modified by protein C-mannosylation, an unusual post-translational modification. Comparison of ADAMTSL1-WT (also known as punctin-1) and ADAMTSL1-p.Trp42Arg in vitro demonstrated that the latter was not secreted from transfected cells but retained intracellularly. Moreover, ADAMTSL1-p.Trp42Arg reduced secretion of cotransfected wild-type ADAMTSL1, suggesting a dominant negative effect for this mutation. These data imply a multisystem role for ADAMTSL1 and present the first disease-associated variant affecting a C-mannosylation motif.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Glaucoma/congênito , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Mutação , Fenótipo , Criança , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 102(5): 1631-1641, 2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28323982

RESUMO

Context: Leiomyomas have abundant extracellular matrix (ECM), with upregulation of versican, a large proteoglycan. Objective: We investigated ADAMTS (a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motifs) protease-mediated versican cleavage in myometrium and leiomyoma and the effect of versican knockdown in leiomyoma cells. Design: We used quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and RNA in situ hybridization for analysis of myometrium, leiomyoma and immortalized myometrium and leiomyoma cells. Short interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to knockdown versican in leiomyoma cells. Setting: This study was performed in an academic laboratory. Patients: Study subjects were women with symptomatic or asymptomatic leiomyoma. Main Outcome Measures: We quantified messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for versican splice variants. We identified ADAMTS-cleaved versican in myometrium and leiomyoma and ADAMTS messenger RNAs and examined the effect of VCAN siRNA on smooth muscle differentiation and expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors. Results: The women in the symptomatic group (n = 7) had larger leiomyoma (P = 0.01), heavy menstrual bleeding (P < 0.01), and lower hemoglobin levels (P = 0.02) compared with the asymptomatic group (n = 7), but were similar in age and menopausal status. Versican V0 and V1 isoforms were upregulated in the leiomyomas of symptomatic versus asymptomatic women (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively). Abundant cleaved versican was detected in leiomyoma and myometrium, as well as in myometrial and leiomyoma cell lines. ADAMTS4 (P = 0.03) and ADAMTS15 (P = 0.04) were upregulated in symptomatic leiomyomas. VCAN siRNA did not effect cell proliferation, apoptosis, or smooth muscle markers, but reduced ESR1 and PR-A expression (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). Conclusions: Versican in myometrium, leiomyomas and in the corresponding immortalized cells is cleaved by ADAMTS proteases. VCAN siRNA suppresses production of estrogen receptor 1 and progesterone receptor-A. These findings have implications for leiomyoma growth.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Proteína ADAMTS4/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Leiomioma/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Neoplasias Uterinas/metabolismo , Versicanas/metabolismo , Proteínas ADAMTS/metabolismo , Proteína ADAMTS4/metabolismo , Adulto , Apoptose/genética , Doenças Assintomáticas , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização In Situ , Leiomioma/patologia , Menorragia/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miométrio/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Proteólise , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Carga Tumoral , Regulação para Cima , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia , Versicanas/genética
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