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1.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited prospective evidence on the association between physical activity (PA) and inflammation in older adults. Our aim was to assess the associations between changes in PA and changes in the inflammatory profile in older individuals who are overweight or obese. METHODS: This prospective study included 489 men and women, aged 55-75 years, from the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin 18 (IL-18), monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1), C-peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), leptin, and regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted chemokine (RANTES) were obtained from fasting blood samples and a composite inflammatory score based on these biomarkers was calculated. Physical activity was measured by a validated questionnaire. All measures were taken at baseline and one-year follow-up. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression models showed an association between an increase in total PA and a decrease in the inflammatory score (p = 0.012), which was particularly driven by a decrease in C-peptide (p = 0.037). Similarly, the inflammatory score decreased with increasing moderate PA (p = 0.001), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Increases in total PA, moderate and moderate-to-vigorous PA were associated with a decrease in the inflammatory profile of obese or overweight older individuals. This finding is relevant for PA recommendations and public health strategies. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: Clinical trial identifier: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial 89898870.

2.
Circulation ; 141(6): 444-453, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have failed to establish a clear link between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and cardiovascular disease, leading to the hypothesis that the atheroprotective role of HDL lies in its biological activity rather than in its cholesterol content. However, to date, the association between HDL functional characteristics and acute coronary syndrome has not been investigated comprehensively. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested within the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) cohort, originally a randomized trial in which participants followed a Mediterranean or low-fat diet. Incident acute coronary syndrome cases (N=167) were individually matched (1:2) to control patients by sex, age, intervention group, body mass index, and follow-up time. We investigated 2 individual manifestations (myocardial infarction, unstable angina) as secondary outcomes. We measured the following functional characteristics: HDL cholesterol concentration (in plasma); cholesterol efflux capacity; antioxidant ability, measured by the HDL oxidative-inflammatory index; phospholipase A2 activity; and sphingosine-1-phosphate, apolipoproteins A-I and A-IV, serum amyloid A, and complement 3 protein (in apolipoprotein B-depleted plasma). We used conditional logistic regression models adjusted for HDL cholesterol levels and cardiovascular risk factors to estimate odds ratios (ORs) between 1-SD increments in HDL functional characteristics and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Low values of cholesterol efflux capacity (OR1SD, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.83) and low levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate (OR1SD, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.52-0.92) and apolipoprotein A-I (OR1SD, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.42-0.79) were associated with higher odds of acute coronary syndrome. Higher HDL oxidative inflammatory index values were marginally linked to acute coronary syndrome risk (OR1SD, 1.27; 95% CI, 0.99-1.63). Low values of cholesterol efflux capacity (OR1SD, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.18-0.61), sphingosine-1-phosphate (OR1SD: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.40-0.89), and apolipoprotein A-I (OR1SD, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.37-0.93) were particularly linked to myocardial infarction, whereas high HDL oxidative-inflammatory index values (OR1SD, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.33) and low apolipoprotein A-I levels (OR1SD, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.31-0.88) were associated with unstable angina. CONCLUSIONS: Low cholesterol efflux capacity values, pro-oxidant/proinflammatory HDL particles, and low HDL levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate and apolipoprotein A-I were associated with increased odds of acute coronary syndrome and its manifestations in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN35739639. Unique identifier: ISRCTN35739639.

3.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 73(2): 145-152, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482545

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To analyze whether variations in physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors are accompanied by differences in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). METHODS: We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study of 243 participants (82 women), aged 65.0±4.9 years old, with metabolic syndrome and overweight/obesity who performed a maximal exercise test with expired gas analysis. PA was evaluated using subjective methods, the REGICOR and RAPA 1 self-reported questionnaires, and objective methods, the chair test and accelerometry. Sedentariness was analyzed with the Nurses' Health Study questionnaire and accelerometry. RESULTS: VO2max was higher in participants who reported they adhered to the recommendations of the PA guidelines in the REGICOR questionnaire (21.3±4.6 vs 18.0±4.4 mL/kg/min; P <.001) and was 18% higher in those who reported more PA in the RAPA 1 questionnaire than the less active group (P <.001). The chair test (> 15 vs ≤ 15 repetitions) also showed significant differences in VO2max (21.2±4.8 vs 18.7±4.5 ml/kg/min; P <.001). Correlations between PA variables and VO2max were significant but low (r: 0.2 to 0.4). Sedentary activities showed less relationship with VO2max. CONCLUSIONS: Participants with metabolic syndrome and overweight/obesity who reported adhering to PA recommendations achieved higher VO2max. The self-reported questionnaires and the chair test identified significant variations in VO2max. Sedentary activities do not appear to modify VO2max.

4.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 139, 2019 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumption of certain foods is associated with long-term weight gains and abdominal fat accumulation in healthy, middle-aged and young, non-obese participants. Whether the same foods might be associated with changes in adiposity in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk is less known. OBJECTIVE: Using yearly repeated measurements of both food habits and adiposity parameters, we aimed to investigate how changes in the consumption of specific foods were associated with concurrent changes in weight or waist circumference (WC) in the PREDIMED trial. DESIGN: We followed-up 7009 participants aged 55-70 years at high cardiovascular risk for a median time of 4.8 years. A validated 137-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was used for dietary assessment with yearly repeated measurements. We longitudinally assessed associations between yearly changes in food consumption (serving/d) and concurrent changes in weight (kg) or WC (cm). RESULTS: Yearly increments in weight were observed with increased consumption (kg per each additional increase in 1 serving/d) for refined grains (0.32 kg/serving/d), red meat (0.24), potatoes (0.23), alcoholic beverages (0.18), processed meat (0.15), white bread (0.07) and sweets (0.04); whereas inverse associations were detected for increased consumption of low-fat yogurt (- 0.18), and low-fat milk (- 0.06). Annual WC gain (cm per each additional increase in 1 serving/d) occurred with increased consumption of snacks, fast-foods and pre-prepared dishes (0.28), processed meat (0.18), alcoholic beverages (0.13), and sweets (0.08); whereas increased consumption of vegetables (- 0.23), and nuts (- 0.17), were associated with reductions in WC. CONCLUSIONS: In this assessment conducted in high-risk subjects using yearly repeated measurements of food habits and adiposity, some ultra-processed foods, refined carbohydrates (including white bread), potatoes, red meats and alcohol were associated with higher weight and WC gain, whereas increases in consumption of low-fat dairy products and plant foods were associated with less gain in weight and WC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered at controlled-trials.com with International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 35739639. Registration date: 5 October 2005.

5.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 72(11): 925-934, nov. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-4990

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: Los beneficios cardiovasculares de la dieta mediterránea se han evaluado bajo supuestos de ingesta total de energía ad libitum (sin restricción de energía). En el presente trabajo se estudia basalmente la cohorte de un gran ensayo en marcha denominado PREDIMED-Plus y la asociación entre la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea hipocalórica según la escala de 17 puntos (MedDiet) de este ensayo con la prevalencia inicial de factores de riesgo cardiovascular (FRCV). Métodos: Evaluación transversal de los participantes de PREDIMED-Plus (6.874 adultos mayores con sobrepeso/obesidad y síndrome metabólico). Se evaluó a los participantes para determinar la prevalencia de 4 FRCV (hipertensión, obesidad, diabetes, dislipemia). Se estimaron diferencias de medias y razones de prevalencia para FRCV individuales y agrupados con modelos multivariables. Resultados: Una mejor adhesión al patrón MedDiet se asoció significativamente con niveles más bajos de triglicéridos, índice de masa corporal y perímetro abdominal. Comparado con una baja adhesión (≤ 7 puntos en el score de 17 puntos), una mejor adhesión a la MedDiet (11-17 puntos) mostró asociaciones inversas con hipertensión (razón de prevalencia=0,97; IC95%, 0,94-1,00) y obesidad (razón de prevalencia=0,96; IC95% 0,92-1,00), pero se observaron asociaciones positivas con diabetes (razón de prevalencia=1,19; IC95% 1,07-1,32). Comparado con el tercil más bajo de adhesión, las mujeres en el tercil superior mostraron un riesgo menor para la agrupación de 3 o más FRCV (razón de prevalencia=0,91; IC95% 0,83-0,98). Conclusiones: Entre participantes con alto riesgo cardiovascular, la mejor adhesión a MedDiet se asoció a mejores perfiles lipídicos y medidas de adiposidad, y entre las mujeres mostró asociaciones inversas significativas con la agregación de FRCV


Introduction and objectives: The cardiovascular benefits of the Mediterranean diet have usually been assessed under assumptions of ad libitum total energy intake (ie, no energy restriction). In the recently launched PREDIMED-Plus, we conducted exploratory analyses to study the baseline associations between adherence to an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). Methods: Cross-sectional assessment of all PREDIMED-Plus participants (6874 older adults with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome) at baseline. The participants were assessed by their usual primary care physicians to ascertain the prevalence of 4 CVRF (hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia). A 17-point PREDIMED-Plus score was used to measure adherence to the MedDiet. Multivariable models were fitted to estimate differences in means and prevalence ratios for individual and clustered CVRF. Results: Better adherence to a MedDiet pattern was significantly associated with lower average triglyceride levels, body mass index, and waist circumference. Compared with low adherence (≤ 7 points in the 17-point score), better adherence to the MedDiet (11-17 points) showed inverse associations with hypertension (prevalence ratio=0.97; 95%CI, 0.94-1.00) and obesity (prevalence ratio=0.96; 95%CI, 0.92-1.00), but positive associations with diabetes (prevalence ratio=1.19; 95%CI, 1.07-1.32). Compared with the lowest third of adherence, women in the upper third showed a significantly lower prevalence of the clustering of 3 or more CVRF (prevalence ratio=0.91; 95%CI, 0.83-0.98). Conclusions: Among participants at high cardiovascular risk, better adherence to a MedDiet showed significant inverse associations with CVRF among women, and improved lipid profiles and adiposity measures

6.
JAMA ; 322(15): 1486-1499, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613346

RESUMO

Importance: High-quality dietary patterns may help prevent chronic disease, but limited data exist from randomized trials about the effects of nutritional and behavioral interventions on dietary changes. Objective: To assess the effect of a nutritional and physical activity education program on dietary quality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Preliminary exploratory interim analysis of an ongoing randomized trial. In 23 research centers in Spain, 6874 men and women aged 55 to 75 years with metabolic syndrome and no cardiovascular disease were enrolled in the trial between September 2013 and December 2016, with final data collection in March 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomized to an intervention group that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet, promoted physical activity, and provided behavioral support (n = 3406) or to a control group that encouraged an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet (n = 3468). All participants received allotments of extra-virgin olive oil (1 L/mo) and nuts (125 g/mo) for free. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 12-month change in adherence based on the energy-reduced Mediterranean diet (er-MedDiet) score (range, 0-17; higher scores indicate greater adherence; minimal clinically important difference, 1 point). Results: Among 6874 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 65.0 [4.9] years; 3406 [52%] men), 6583 (96%) completed the 12-month follow-up and were included in the main analysis. The mean (SD) er-MedDiet score was 8.5 (2.6) at baseline and 13.2 (2.7) at 12 months in the intervention group (increase, 4.7 [95% CI, 4.6-4.8]) and 8.6 (2.7) at baseline and 11.1 (2.8) at 12 months in the control group (increase, 2.5 [95% CI, 2.3-2.6]) (between-group difference, 2.2 [95% CI, 2.1-2.4]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary analysis of an ongoing trial, an intervention that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet and physical activity, compared with advice to follow an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet, resulted in a significantly greater increase in diet adherence after 12 months. Further evaluation of long-term cardiovascular effects is needed. Trial Registration: isrctn.com Identifier: ISRCTN89898870.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Cooperação do Paciente , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
7.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(10): 1040-1049, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glutamate, glutamine are involved in energy metabolism, and have been related to cardiometabolic disorders. However, their roles in the development of type-2 diabetes (T2D) remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Mediterranean diet on associations between glutamine, glutamate, glutamine-to-glutamate ratio, and risk of new-onset T2D in a Spanish population at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS AND RESULTS: The present study was built within the PREDIMED trial using a case-cohort design including 892 participants with 251 incident T2D cases and 641 non-cases. Participants (mean age 66.3 years; female 62.8%) were non diabetic and at high risk for CVD at baseline. Plasma levels of glutamine and glutamate were measured at baseline and after 1-year of intervention. Higher glutamate levels at baseline were associated with increased risk of T2D with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.78 (95% CI, 1.43-5.41, P for trend = 0.0002). In contrast, baseline levels of glutamine (HR: 0.64, 95% CI, 0.36-1.12; P for trend = 0.04) and glutamine-to-glutamate ratio (HR: 0.31, 95% CI, 0.16-0.57; P for trend = 0.0001) were inversely associated with T2D risk when comparing extreme quartiles. The two Mediterranean diets (MedDiet + EVOO and MedDiet + mixed nuts) did not alter levels of glutamine and glutamate after intervention for 1 year. However, MedDiet mitigated the positive association between higher baseline plasma glutamate and T2D risk (P for interaction = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Higher levels of glutamate and lower levels of glutamine were associated with increased risk of T2D in a Spanish population at high risk for CVD. Mediterranean diet might mitigate the association between the imbalance of glutamine and glutamate and T2D risk. This trial is registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com, ISRCTN35739639.

8.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 63(17): e1900140, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291050

RESUMO

SCOPE: The relationship between red wine (RW) consumption and metabolism is poorly understood. It is aimed to assess the systemic metabolomic profiles in relation to frequent RW consumption as well as the ability of a set of metabolites to discriminate RW consumers. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cross-sectional analysis of 1157 participants is carried out. Subjects are divided as non-RW consumers versus RW consumers (>1 glass per day RW [100 mL per day]). Plasma metabolomics analysis is performed using LC-MS. Associations between 386 identified metabolites and RW consumption are assessed using elastic net regression analysis taking into consideration baseline significant covariates. Ten-cross-validation (CV) is performed and receiver operating characteristic curves are constructed in each of the validation datasets based on weighted models. A subset of 13 metabolites is consistently selected and RW consumers versus nonconsumers are discriminated. Based on the multi-metabolite model weighted with the regression coefficients of metabolites, the area under the curve is 0.83 (95% CI: 0.80-0.86). These metabolites mainly consisted of lipid species, some organic acids, and alkaloids. CONCLUSIONS: A multi-metabolite model identified in a Mediterranean population appears useful to discriminate between frequent RW consumers and nonconsumers. Further studies are needed to assess the contribution of these metabolites in health and disease.

9.
Diabetes Care ; 42(8): 1390-1397, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of two Mediterranean eating plans (Med-EatPlans) versus a low-fat eating plan on the need for glucose-lowering medications. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: From the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) trial, we selected 3,230 participants with type 2 diabetes at baseline. These participants were randomly assigned to one of three eating plans: Med-EatPlan supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), Med-EatPlan supplemented with mixed nuts, or a low-fat eating plan (control). In a subgroup (15%), the allocation was done in small clusters instead of using individual randomization, and the clustering effect was taken into account in the statistical analysis. In multivariable time-to-event survival models, we assessed two outcomes: 1) introduction of the first glucose-lowering medication (oral or injectable) among participants on lifestyle management at enrollment and 2) insulin initiation. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 3.2 years, in multivariable analyses adjusting for baseline characteristics and propensity scores, the hazard ratios (HRs) of starting a first glucose-lowering medication were 0.78 (95% CI 0.62-0.98) for Med-EatPlan + EVOO and 0.89 (0.71-1.12) for Med-EatPlan + nuts, compared with the control eating plan. After a median follow-up of 5.1 years, the adjusted HRs of starting insulin treatment were 0.87 (0.68-1.11) for Med-EatPlan + EVOO and 0.89 (0.69-1.14) for Med-EatPlan + nuts compared with the control eating plan. CONCLUSIONS: Among participants with type 2 diabetes, a Med-EatPlan + EVOO may delay the introduction of new-onset glucose-lowering medications. The Med-EatPlan did not result in a significantly lower need for insulin.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218533, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) functionality and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) atherogenic traits can describe the role of both particles on cardiovascular diseases more accurately than HDL- or LDL-cholesterol levels. However, it is unclear how these lipoprotein properties are particularly affected by different cardiovascular risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To determine which lipoprotein properties are associated with greater cardiovascular risk scores and each cardiovascular risk factor. METHODS: In two cross-sectional baseline samples of PREDIMED trial volunteers, we assessed the associations of HDL functionality (N = 296) and LDL atherogenicity traits (N = 210) with: 1) the 10-year predicted coronary risk (according to the Framingham-REGICOR score), and 2) classical cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: Greater cardiovascular risk scores were associated with low cholesterol efflux values; oxidized, triglyceride-rich, small HDL particles; and small LDLs with low resistance against oxidation (P-trend<0.05, all). After adjusting for the rest of risk factors; 1) type-2 diabetic individuals presented smaller and more oxidized LDLs (P<0.026, all); 2) dyslipidemic participants had smaller HDLs with an impaired capacity to metabolize cholesterol (P<0.035, all); 3) high body mass index values were associated to lower HDL and LDL size and a lower HDL capacity to esterify cholesterol (P<0.037, all); 4) men presented a greater HDL oxidation and lower HDL vasodilatory capacity (P<0.046, all); and 5) greater ages were related to small, oxidized, cytotoxic LDL particles (P<0.037, all). CONCLUSIONS: Dysfunctional HDL and atherogenic LDL particles are present in high cardiovascular risk patients. Dyslipidemia and male sex are predominantly linked to HDL dysfunctionality, whilst diabetes and advanced age are associated with LDL atherogenicity.

11.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035497

RESUMO

Dietary guidelines emphasize the importance of a varied diet to provide an adequate nutrient intake. However, an older age is often associated with consumption of monotonous diets that can be nutritionally inadequate, increasing the risk for the development or progression of diet-related chronic diseases, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). To assess the association between dietary diversity (DD) and nutrient intake adequacy and to identify demographic variables associated with DD, we cross-sectionally analyzed baseline data from the PREDIMED-Plus trial: 6587 Spanish adults aged 55-75 years, with overweight/obesity who also had MetS. An energy-adjusted dietary diversity score (DDS) was calculated using a 143-item validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nutrient inadequacy was defined as an intake below 2/3 of the dietary reference intake (DRI) forat least four of 17 nutrients proposed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between DDS and the risk of nutritionally inadequate intakes. In the higher DDS quartile there were more women and less current smokers. Compared with subjects in the highest DDS quartile, those in the lowest DDS quartile had a higher risk of inadequate nutrient intake: odds ratio (OR) = 28.56 (95% confidence interval (CI) 20.80-39.21). When we estimated food varietyfor each of the food groups, participants in the lowest quartile had a higher risk of inadequate nutrient intake for the groups of vegetables, OR = 14.03 (95% CI 10.55-18.65), fruits OR = 11.62 (95% CI 6.81-19.81), dairy products OR = 6.54 (95% CI 4.64-9.22) and protein foods OR = 6.60 (95% CI 1.96-22.24). As DDS decreased, the risk of inadequate nutrients intake rose. Given the impact of nutrient intake adequacy on the prevention of non-communicable diseases, health policies should focus on the promotion of a healthy varied diet, specifically promoting the intake of vegetables and fruit among population groups with lower DDS such as men, smokers or widow(er)s.


Assuntos
Dieta , Síndrome Metabólica , Estado Nutricional , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Recomendações Nutricionais
12.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072000

RESUMO

Few studies have examined the association of a wide range of metabolites with total and subtypes of coffee consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate associations of plasma metabolites with total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee consumption. We also assessed the ability of metabolites to discriminate between coffee consumption categories. This is a cross-sectional analysis of 1664 participants from the PREDIMED study. Metabolites were semiquantitatively profiled using a multiplatform approach. Consumption of total coffee, caffeinated coffee and decaffeinated coffee was assessed by using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We assessed associations between 387 metabolite levels with total, caffeinated, or decaffeinated coffee consumption (≥50 mL coffee/day) using elastic net regression analysis. Ten-fold cross-validation analyses were used to estimate the discriminative accuracy of metabolites for total and subtypes of coffee. We identified different sets of metabolites associated with total coffee, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption. These metabolites consisted of lipid species (e.g., sphingomyelin, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine) or were derived from glycolysis (alpha-glycerophosphate) and polyphenol metabolism (hippurate). Other metabolites included caffeine, 5-acetylamino-6-amino-3-methyluracil, cotinine, kynurenic acid, glycocholate, lactate, and allantoin. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.60 (95% CI 0.56-0.64), 0.78 (95% CI 0.75-0.81) and 0.52 (95% CI 0.49-0.55), in the multimetabolite model, for total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee consumption, respectively. Our comprehensive metabolic analysis did not result in a new, reliable potential set of metabolites for coffee consumption.


Assuntos
Café , Metabolômica , Idoso , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(5): e6-e17, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because of the high density of fat, high-fat diets are perceived as likely to lead to increased bodyweight, hence health-care providers are reluctant to recommend them to overweight or obese individuals. We assessed the long-term effects of ad libitum, high-fat, high-vegetable-fat Mediterranean diets on bodyweight and waist circumference in older people at risk of cardiovascular disease, most of whom were overweight or obese. METHODS: PREDIMED was a 5 year parallel-group, multicentre, randomised, controlled clinical trial done in primary care centres affiliated to 11 hospitals in Spain. 7447 asymptomatic men (aged 55-80 years) and women (aged 60-80 years) who had type 2 diabetes or three or more cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned (1:1:1) with a computer-generated number sequence to one of three interventions: Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (n=2543); Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts (n=2454); or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat; n=2450). Energy restriction was not advised, nor was physical activity promoted. In 2016, we reported the 5 year changes in bodyweight and waist circumference, but because of a subsequently identified protocol deviation (including enrolment of household members without randomisation, assignment to a study group without randomisation of some participants at one of 11 study sites, and apparent inconsistent use of randomisation tables at another site; 866 [11·6%] participants were affected in total), we have withdrawn our previously published report and now report revised effect estimates based on reanalyses that do not rely exclusively on the assumption that all the participants were randomly assigned. In this analysis of the trial, we measured bodyweight and waist circumference at baseline and yearly for 5 years in the intention-to-treat population. The PREDIMED trial is registered with ISRCTN.com, number ISRCTN35739639. FINDINGS: After a median 4·8 years (IQR 2·8-5·8) of follow-up, participants in all three groups had marginally reduced bodyweight and increased waist circumference. After multivariable adjustment, including adjustment for propensity scores and use of robust variance estimators, the difference in 5 year changes in bodyweight in the Mediterranean diet with olive oil group was -0·410 kg (95% CI -0·830 to 0·010; p=0·056) and in the nut group was -0·016 kg (-0·453 to 0·421; p=0·942), compared with the control group. The adjusted difference in 5 year changes in waist circumference was -0·466 cm (-1·109 to 0·176; p=0·154) in the Mediterranean diet with olive oil group and -0·923 cm (-1·604 to -0·241; p=0·008) in the nut group, compared with the control group. INTERPRETATION: A long-term intervention with an unrestricted-calorie, high-vegetable-fat Mediterranean diet was associated with no significant difference in bodyweight and some evidence of less gain in central adiposity compared with a control diet. These results lend support to advice not restricting intake of healthy fats for bodyweight maintenance. FUNDING: Spanish Government, CIBERobn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Hojiblanca, Patrimonio Comunal Olivarero, California Walnut Commission, Borges SA, and Morella Nuts.

14.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nut consumption has been associated with improved nutrient adequacy and diet quality in healthy adult populations but this association has never been explored in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVE: to assess the associations between consumption of nuts and nutrient adequacy and diet quality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. DESIGN: baseline assessment of nutritional adequacy in participants (n = 6060, men and women, with ages 55⁻75 years old, with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome) in the PREDIMED-PLUS primary cardiovascular prevention randomized trial. METHODS: nut intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Participants who reported consuming zero quantity of nuts were classified as 'non-nut consumers'. 'Nut consumers' were participants who reported consuming any quantity of nuts. Nineteen micronutrients were examined (vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, A, C, D, E and folic acid; Ca, K, P, Mg, Fe, Se, Cr, Zn, and iodine). The proportion of micronutrient inadequacy was estimated using the estimated average requirements (EAR) or adequate intake (AI) cut-points. Diet quality was also assessed using a 17-item Mediterranean dietary questionnaire (Mediterranean diet score, MDS), a carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and a fat quality index (FQI). RESULTS: eighty-two percent of participants were nut consumers (median of nut consumption 12.6 g/day; interquartile range: 6.0⁻25.2). Nut consumers were less likely to be below the EAR for vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, C, D, E, folic acid, and Ca, Mg, Se and Zn than non-nut consumers. Nut consumers were also more likely to be above the AI for K and Cr than non-nut consumers. Nut consumers had lower prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes, but also higher CQI, higher FQI, and better scores of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Mediterranean diet score, MDS). CONCLUSIONS: nut consumers had better nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and adherence to the MedDiet than those non-nut consumers.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Nozes , Obesidade/complicações , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Dieta/métodos , Dieta Mediterrânea , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Fatores de Risco
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2892, 2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814579

RESUMO

Studies examining associations between purine metabolites and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are limited. We prospectively examined associations between plasma levels of purine metabolites with T2D risk and the modifying effects of transcription factor-7-like-2 (TCF7L2) rs7903146 polymorphism on these associations. This is a case-cohort design study within the PREDIMED study, with 251 incident T2D cases and a random sample of 694 participants (641 non-cases and 53 overlapping cases) without T2D at baseline (median follow-up: 3.8 years). Metabolites were semi-quantitatively profiled with LC-MS/MS. Cox regression analysis revealed that high plasma allantoin levels, including allantoin-to-uric acid ratio and high xanthine-to-hypoxanthine ratio were inversely and positively associated with T2D risk, respectively, independently of classical risk factors. Elevated plasma xanthine and inosine levels were associated with a higher T2D risk in homozygous carriers of the TCF7L2-rs7903146 T-allele. The potential mechanisms linking the aforementioned purine metabolites and T2D risk must be also further investigated.

17.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 51(3): 142-152, mar. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182927

RESUMO

Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia de "ProMIC", programa multidisciplinar de atención a pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca (IC), para reducir de la tasa de reingresos por IC. Diseño: Ensayo cuasiexperimental multicéntrico con grupo control. Emplazamiento: Doce centros de salud y 3 hospitales del País Vasco. Participantes: Pacientes mayores de 40 años ingresados por IC en situación funcional II-IV de la New York Heart Association. Intervenciones: En los pacientes ProMIC se realizó una intervención clínica estructurada basada en las guías de práctica clínica y en el modelo de atención a la cronicidad. Los pacientes control recibieron cuidados habituales. Mediciones principales: Tasa de reingresos por IC y calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. Resultados: Se incluyeron 155 pacientes en el grupo ProMIC y 129 en el control. Se contabilizaron 45 reingresos por IC en ProMIC y 75 en el control (hazard ratio ajustado = 0,59; IC 95%: 0,36-0,98; p = 0,049). Encontramos diferencias significativas en la calidad de vida específica a los 6 meses a favor de ProMIC. No hallamos asociaciones significativas en los reingresos por otras causas, por causa cardiovascular, en la visitas a urgencias, en la mortalidad, ni en la variable combinada de estos eventos. No hubo diferencias significativas en la capacidad funcional ni en la calidad de vida a los 12 meses. Conclusiones: ProMIC reduce significativamente los reingresos por insuficiencia cardiaca y mejora la calidad de vida a los 6 meses. No se encuentran diferencias significativas en otras variables


Objective: To assess the efficacy of the ProMIC, multidisciplinary program for patients admitted at hospital because of heart failure (HF) programme, in reducing the HF-related readmission rate. Desing: Quasi-experimental research with control group. Settings: Twelve primary health care centres and 3 hospitals from the Basque Country. Participants: Aged 40 years old or above patients admitted for HF with a New York Heart Association functional class II to IV. Interventions: Patients in the intervention group carried out the ProMIC programme, a structured clinical intervention based on clinical guidelines and on the chronic care model. Control group received usual care. Main measurements: The rate of readmission for HF and health-related quality of life Results: One hundred fifty five patients were included in ProMIC group and 129 in control group. 45 rehospitalisation due to heart failure happened in ProMIC versus 75 in control group (adjusted hazard ratio=0.59, CI 95%: 0.36-0.98; P=.049). There were significant differences in specific quality of life al 6 months. No significant differences were found in rehospitalisation due to all causes, due to cardiovascular causes, visits to emergency room, mortality, the combined variable of these events, the functional capacity or quality of life at 12 months of follow up. Conclusions: ProMIC reduces significantly heart failure rehospitalisation and improve quality of life al 6 months of follow up. No significant differences were found in the rests of variables


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Prospectivos , Seguimentos
18.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(4): 1569-1578, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696401

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although evidence indicates that both physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) reduce the risk of all-cause mortality, a little is known about optimal intensities of physical activity and their combined effect with MedDiet in older adults. We assessed the separate and combined associations of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and MedDiet adherence with all-cause mortality. METHODS: We prospectively studied 7356 older adults (67 ± 6.2 years) at high vascular risk from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study. At baseline and yearly thereafter, adherence to the MedDiet and LTPA were measured using validated questionnaires. RESULTS: After 6.8 years of follow-up, we documented 498 deaths. Adherence to the MedDiet and total, light, and moderate-to-vigorous LTPA were inversely associated with all-cause mortality (p < 0.01 for all) in multiple adjusted Cox regression models. The adjusted hazard of all-cause mortality was 73% lower (hazard ratio 0.27, 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.38, p < 0.001) for the combined category of highest adherence to the MedDiet (3rd tertile) and highest total LTPA (3rd tertile) compared to lowest adherence to the MedDiet (1st tertile) and lowest total LTPA (1st tertile). Reductions in mortality risk did not meaningfully differ between total, light intensity, and moderate-to-vigorous LTPA. CONCLUSIONS: We found that higher levels of LTPA, regardless of intensity (total, light and moderate-to-vigorous), and greater adherence to the MedDiet were associated separately and jointly with lower all-cause mortality. The finding that light LTPA was inversely associated with mortality is relevant because this level of intensity is a feasible option for older adults.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício , Avaliação Geriátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(2): 619-627, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29589119

RESUMO

PROPOSAL: The aim of this study was to examine the association between the consumption of total and specific types of dairy products and the risk of incident cataracts in an elderly Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 5860 subjects from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) Study. The time to cataract surgery was calculated as the time between recruitment and the date of the surgery, last visit of the follow-up, date of death, or until the end of the study. Dairy products intake was assessed using validated food frequency questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazard regression to assess the risk of cataract surgery according to average dietary energy-adjusted total dairy products, milk, yogurt and cheese consumption. RESULTS: We documented a total of 768 new cataract events after a median of 5.6 years of follow-up. Subjects in the second [hazard ratio (HR) 0.62; 95% CI 0.52, 0.74] and third tertile (HR: 0.71; 95% CI 0.60, 0.85) of skimmed yogurt intake had a significantly lower risk of cataracts after adjusting for potential confounders. No significant associations were observed for total dairy products, whole and skimmed milk, whole yogurt and cheese consumption. CONCLUSION: The intake of skimmed yogurt was associated with a reduced risk of cataracts in an elderly Mediterranean population with high cardiovascular risk. No significant associations were observed for other type of dairy product. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 35739639. Registration date: 5 October 2005.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata/estatística & dados numéricos , Catarata/epidemiologia , Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Avaliação Geriátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Região do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(5): 1508-1519, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423132

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The potential associations between acylcarnitine profiles and incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and whether acylcarnitines can be used to improve diabetes prediction remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations between baseline and 1-year changes in acylcarnitines and their diabetes predictive ability beyond traditional risk factors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We designed a case-cohort study within the PREDIMED Study including all incident cases of T2D (n = 251) and 694 randomly selected participants at baseline (follow-up, 3.8 years). Plasma acylcarnitines were measured using a targeted approach by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We tested the associations between baseline and 1-year changes in individual acylcarnitines and T2D risk using weighted Cox regression models. We used elastic net regressions to select acylcarnitines for T2D prediction and compute a weighted score using a cross-validation approach. RESULTS: An acylcarnitine profile, especially including short- and long-chain acylcarnitines, was significantly associated with a higher risk of T2D independent of traditional risk factors. The relative risks of T2D per SD increment of the predictive model scores were 4.03 (95% CI, 3.00 to 5.42; P < 0.001) for the conventional model and 4.85 (95% CI, 3.65 to 6.45; P < 0.001) for the model including acylcarnitines, with a hazard ratio of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.63; P < 0.001) attributed to the acylcarnitines. Including the acylcarnitines into the model did not significantly improve the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.86 to 0.88, P = 0.61). A 1-year increase in C4OH-carnitine was associated with higher risk of T2D [per SD increment, 1.44 (1.03 to 2.01)]. CONCLUSIONS: An acylcarnitine profile, mainly including short- and long-chain acylcarnitines, was significantly associated with higher T2D risk in participants at high cardiovascular risk. The inclusion of acylcarnitines into the model did not significantly improve the T2D prediction C-statistics beyond traditional risk factors, including fasting glucose.

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