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Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1859823, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446087


Background: Perinatal mortality in Uganda remains high at 38 deaths/1,000 births, an estimate greater than the every newborn action plan (ENAP) target of ≤24/1,000 births by 2030. To improve perinatal survival, there is a need to understand the persisting risk factors for death. Objective: We determined the incidence, risk factors, and causes of perinatal death in Lira district, Northern Uganda. Methods: This was a community-based prospective cohort study among pregnant women in Lira district, Northern Uganda. Female community volunteers identified pregnant women in each household who were recruited at ≥28 weeks of gestation and followed until 50 days postpartum. Information on perinatal survival was gathered from participants within 24 hours after childbirth and at 7 days postpartum. The cause of death was ascertained using verbal autopsies. We used generalized estimating equations of the Poisson family to determine the risk factors for perinatal death. Results: Of the 1,877 women enrolled, the majority were ≤30 years old (79.8%), married or cohabiting (91.3%), and had attained only a primary education (77.7%). There were 81 perinatal deaths among them, giving a perinatal mortality rate of 43/1,000 births [95% confidence interval (95% CI: 35, 53)], of these 37 were stillbirths (20 deaths/1,000 total births) and 44 were early neonatal deaths (23 deaths/1,000 live births). Birth asphyxia, respiratory failure, infections and intra-partum events were the major probable contributors to perinatal death. The risk factors for perinatal death were nulliparity at enrolment (adjusted IRR 2.7, [95% CI: 1.3, 5.6]) and maternal age >30 years (adjusted IRR 2.5, [95% CI: 1.1, 5.8]). Conclusion: The incidence of perinatal death in this region was higher than had previously been reported in Uganda. Risk factors for perinatal mortality were nulliparity and maternal age >30 years. Pregnant women in this region need improved access to care during pregnancy and childbirth.

Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16319, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004969


Prevention of unintended pregnancies is a global strategy to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Factors surrounding unintended pregnancy among women living with HIV are not well understood. We aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors for unintended pregnancy among these women in Northern Uganda. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 518 women using a structured questionnaire. We asked questions on socio-demographic, reproductive-related and HIV-related characteristics. We conducted multivariable logistic regression and reported adjusted odds ratios. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy was 41.1%. The predictors for unintended pregnancy were: being single (not living with a partner or being in a marital union), having five or more children and taking antiretroviral drugs for long periods of time. HIV counselling services should target women living with HIV who are not in a marital union, those having a higher parity and those who have taken ART for longer periods.

PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048971


INTRODUCTION: Deaths during the perinatal period remain a big challenge in Africa, with 38 deaths per 1000 pregnancies in Uganda. The consequences of these deaths can be detrimental to the women; some ending up with postpartum depression. We examined the association between perinatal death and postpartum depression among women in Lira district, Northern Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1,789 women. Trained research assistants screened women for postpartum depressive symptoms on day 50 postpartum using the Edinburgh postpartum depression scale (EPDS). Socio-demographic, economic, birth and survival status of the neonate were collected during pregnancy and within one week postpartum. We used generalized estimating equation for the Poisson family with a log link using Stata to estimate the prevalence ratio of the association between postpartum depressive symptoms (EPDS scores ≥14) and perinatal death. Mothers who lost their babies between 7-49 days postpartum were excluded. RESULTS: Of the 1,789 participants symptomatically screened for postpartum depression, 377 (21.1%) [95% confidence interval (95%CI): 17.2%, 23.0%] had probable depressive symptoms. The prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms among the 77 women who had experienced perinatal death (37 stillbirths and 40 early neonatal deaths (≤7 days of life)) was 62.3% [95% CI: 50.8%, 72.6%] compared to 19.2% [95% CI: 17.4%, 21.2%], among 1,712 with live infants at day 50 postpartum. Women who had experienced a perinatal death were three times as likely to have postpartum depressive symptoms as those who had a live birth [adjusted prevalence ratio 3.45 (95% CI: 2.67, 4.48)]. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms, assessed by EPDS, was high among women who had had a perinatal death in Northern Uganda. Women experiencing a perinatal death need to be screened for postpartum depressive symptoms in order to intervene and reduce associated morbidity.

Int J MCH AIDS ; 9(2): 232-241, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704410


Background / Objectives: Detectable HIV viral load among HIV-infected pregnant women remains a public health threat. We aimed to determine factors associated with detectable viral load among HIV-infected pregnant women in Lira, Northern Uganda. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 420 HIV-infected pregnant women attending Lira Regional Referral Hospital using a structured questionnaire and combined it with viral load tests from Uganda National Health Laboratories. We conducted multivariable logistic regression while adjusting for confounders to determine the factors associated with detectable viral load and we report adjusted odds ratios and proportion of women with viral load less than 50 copies/ml and above 1000 copies, respectively. Results: The prevalence of detectable viral load (>50 copies/ml) was 30.7% (95%CI: 26.3% - 35.4%) and >1000 copies/ml was 8.1% (95% CI: 5.7% - 11.1%). Factors associated with detectable viral load were not belonging to the Lango ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.05 - 3.90) and taking a second-line (protease inhibitor-based) regimen (adjusted odds ratio = 4.41, 95%CI: 1.13 - 17.22). Conclusions and Global Health Implications: HIV-infected pregnant women likely to have detectable viral load included those taking a protease inhibitor-based regimen and those who were not natives of Lira. We recommend intensified clinical and psychosocial monitoring for medication compliance among HIV-infected pregnant women that are likely to have a detectable viral load to significantly lower the risk of vertical transmission of HIV in Lira specifically those taking a protease inhibitor-based regimen and those who are non-natives to the study setting. Much as the third 90% of the global UNAIDS 90-90-90 target has been achieved, the national implementation of PMTCT guidelines should be tailored to its contextual needs.