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1.
Eur J Radiol ; 124: 108836, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006932

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the incidence, mechanism, and risk factors of aortic regurgitation (AR) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) by using echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). METHODS: 105 HCM patients, 52 hypertension (HTN) patients and 50 healthy controls (HC) were retrospectively recruited. HCM patients were divided into 38 with AR (HCMAR) subject and 67 without AR. The subaortic complex, D1 (the largest distance of the interventricular septum that protruded into the LVOT) and D3 (the LVOT effective width) were assessed and compared between the two groups of HCM patients. RESULTS: AR was more common in HCM than in HTN and HC (36 %, 17 %, and 10 %, respectively, P = 0.001). HCM patients with AR were older (58 ± 11 vs. 45 ± 16 years, P < 0.001) and had a higher incidence of hypertension (55 % vs. 33 %, P = 0.03). D1 was greater (13.5 ± 4.4 vs. 10.6 ± 4.0 mm, P = 0.001), and D3 was shorter in the HCMAR group (10.2 ± 5.3 vs. 13.7 ± 5.9 mm, P = 0.003). Anterior mitral leaflet length and left atrial diameter were greater in HCMAR group (all P < 0.05). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, the independent risk factors of AR in HCM patients were LVOTO and age. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that AR is a common comorbidity of HCM, especially in patients with LVOTO. LVOTO and age were independent risk factors of AR in HCM patient.

2.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972008

RESUMO

AIMS: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide linked to vascular diseases through a common intronic gene enhancer [(rs9349379-G allele), chromosome 6 (PHACTR1/EDN1)]. We performed a multimodality investigation into the role of ET-1 and this gene variant in the pathogenesis of coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) in patients with symptoms and/or signs of ischaemia but no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Three hundred and ninety-one patients with angina were enrolled. Of these, 206 (53%) with obstructive CAD were excluded leaving 185 (47%) eligible. One hundred and nine (72%) of 151 subjects who underwent invasive testing had objective evidence of CMD (COVADIS criteria). rs9349379-G allele frequency was greater than in contemporary reference genome bank control subjects [allele frequency 46% (129/280 alleles) vs. 39% (5551/14380); P = 0.013]. The G allele was associated with higher plasma serum ET-1 [least squares mean 1.59 pg/mL vs. 1.28 pg/mL; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10-0.53; P = 0.005]. Patients with rs9349379-G allele had over double the odds of CMD [odds ratio (OR) 2.33, 95% CI 1.10-4.96; P = 0.027]. Multimodality non-invasive testing confirmed the G allele was associated with linked impairments in myocardial perfusion on stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T (N = 107; GG 56%, AG 43%, AA 31%, P = 0.042) and exercise testing (N = 87; -3.0 units in Duke Exercise Treadmill Score; -5.8 to -0.1; P = 0.045). Endothelin-1 related vascular mechanisms were assessed ex vivo using wire myography with endothelin A receptor (ETA) antagonists including zibotentan. Subjects with rs9349379-G allele had preserved peripheral small vessel reactivity to ET-1 with high affinity of ETA antagonists. Zibotentan reversed ET-1-induced vasoconstriction independently of G allele status. CONCLUSION: We identify a novel genetic risk locus for CMD. These findings implicate ET-1 dysregulation and support the possibility of precision medicine using genetics to target oral ETA antagonist therapy in patients with microvascular angina. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03193294.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(14): 1741-1755, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has demonstrated excellent diagnostic and prognostic value in single-center studies. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the prognostic value of stress CMR and downstream costs from subsequent cardiac testing in a retrospective multicenter study in the United States. METHODS: In this retrospective study, consecutive patients from 13 centers across 11 states who presented with a chest pain syndrome and were referred for stress CMR were followed for a target period of 4 years. The authors associated CMR findings with a primary outcome of cardiovascular death or nonfatal myocardial infarction using competing risk-adjusted regression models and downstream costs of ischemia testing using published Medicare national payment rates. RESULTS: In this study, 2,349 patients (63 ± 11 years of age, 47% female) were followed for a median of 5.4 years. Patients with no ischemia or late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) by CMR, observed in 1,583 patients (67%), experienced low annualized rates of primary outcome (<1%) and coronary revascularization (1% to 3%), across all years of study follow-up. In contrast, patients with ischemia+/LGE+ experienced a >4-fold higher annual primary outcome rate and a >10-fold higher rate of coronary revascularization during the first year after CMR. Patients with ischemia and LGE both negative had low average annual cost spent on ischemia testing across all years of follow-up, and this pattern was similar across the 4 practice environments of the participating centers. CONCLUSIONS: In a multicenter U.S. cohort with stable chest pain syndromes, stress CMR performed at experienced centers offers effective cardiac prognostication. Patients without CMR ischemia or LGE experienced a low incidence of cardiac events, little need for coronary revascularization, and low spending on subsequent ischemia testing. (Stress CMR Perfusion Imaging in the United States [SPINS]: A Society for Cardiovascular Resonance Registry Study; NCT03192891).

4.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone marrow stromal or stem cells (BMSCs) remain a promising potential therapy for ischemic cardiomyopathy. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of direct intramyocardial injection of autologous BMSCs in patients undergoing transmyocardial revascularization (TMR) or coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). METHODS: A phase I trial was conducted on adult patients who had ischemic heart disease with depressed left ventricular ejection fraction and who were scheduled to undergo TMR or CABG. Autologous BMSCs were expanded for 3 weeks before the scheduled surgery. After completion of surgical revascularization, BMSCs were directly injected into ischemic myocardium. Safety and feasibility of therapy were assessed. Cardiac functional status and changes in quality of life were evaluated at 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 14 patients underwent simultaneous BMSC and surgical revascularization therapy (TMR+BMSCs = 10; CABG+BMSCs = 4). BMSCs were successfully expanded, and no significant complications occurred as a result of the procedure. Regional contractility in the cell-treated areas demonstrated improvement at 12 months compared with baseline (TMR+BMSCs Δ strain: -4.6% ± 2.1%; P = .02; CABG+MSCs Δ strain: -4.2% ± 6.0%; P = .30). Quality of life was enhanced, with substantial reduction in angina scores at 1 year after treatment (TMR+BMSCs: 1.3 ± 1.2; CABG+MSCs: 1.0 ± 1.4). CONCLUSIONS: In this phase I trial, direct intramyocardial injection of autologous BMSCs in conjunction with TMR or CABG was technically feasible and could be performed safely. Preliminary results demonstrate improved cardiac function and quality of life in patients at 1 year after treatment.

5.
Neurology ; 93(16): e1535-e1542, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To better characterize adult myotubularin 1 (MTM1)-related myopathy carriers and recommend a phenotypic classification. METHODS: This cohort study was performed at the NIH Clinical Center. Participants were required to carry a confirmed MTM1 mutation and were recruited via the Congenital Muscle Disease International Registry (n = 8), a traveling local clinic of the Neuromuscular and Neurogenetic Disorders of Childhood Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH and Cure CMD (n = 1), and direct physician referral (n = 1). Neuromuscular examinations, muscle MRI, dynamic breathing MRI, cardiac MRI, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), physical therapy assessments including the Motor Function Measure 32 (MFM-32) scale, and X chromosome inactivation (XCI) studies were performed. RESULTS: Phenotypic categories were proposed based on ambulatory status and muscle weakness. Carriers were categorized as severe (nonambulatory; n = 1), moderate (minimal independent ambulation/assisted ambulation; n = 3), mild (independent ambulation but with evidence of muscle weakness; n = 4), and nonmanifesting (no evidence of muscle weakness; n = 2). Carriers with more severe muscle weakness exhibited greater degrees of respiratory insufficiency and abnormal signal on muscle imaging. Skeletal asymmetries were evident in both manifesting and nonmanifesting carriers. Skewed XCI did not explain phenotypic severity. CONCLUSION: This work illustrates the phenotypic range of MTM1-related myopathy carriers in adulthood and recommends a phenotypic classification. This classification, defined by ambulatory status and muscle weakness, is supported by muscle MRI, PFT, and MFM-32 scale composite score findings, which may serve as markers of disease progression and outcome measures in future gene therapy or other clinical trials.


Assuntos
Debilidade Muscular/genética , Mutação/genética , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases não Receptoras/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais/classificação , Fenótipo
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444098

RESUMO

Coronary venous anatomy can be divided into the greater cardiac venous system and the lesser cardiac venous system. With protocol optimization, including appropriate contrast bolus timing, coronary veins can be depicted with excellent detail on CT. Knowledge of variant coronary venous anatomy can sometimes play a role in pre-procedural planning. Analysis of the coronary venous anatomy on CT can detect coronary venous anomalies that cause right to left shunts with risk of stroke, left to right shunts, and arrhythmias.

7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(2): 238-256, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296297

RESUMO

After a reperfused myocardial infarction (MI), dynamic tissue changes occur (edema, inflammation, microvascular obstruction, hemorrhage, cardiomyocyte necrosis, and ultimately replacement by fibrosis). The extension and magnitude of these changes contribute to long-term prognosis after MI. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is the gold-standard technique for noninvasive myocardial tissue characterization. CMR is also the preferred methodology for the identification of potential benefits associated with new cardioprotective strategies both in experimental and clinical trials. However, there is a wide heterogeneity in CMR methodologies used in experimental and clinical trials, including time of post-MI scan, acquisition protocols, and, more importantly, selection of endpoints. There is a need for standardization of these methodologies to improve the translation into a real clinical benefit. The main objective of this scientific expert panel consensus document is to provide recommendations for CMR endpoint selection in experimental and clinical trials based on pathophysiology and its association with hard outcomes.

9.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107514

RESUMO

Importance: It is uncertain whether unrecognized myocardial infarction (MI) is a risk factor for cerebral infarction. Objective: To determine whether unrecognized MI detected by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with cerebral infarction. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a cross-sectional study of ICELAND MI, a cohort substudy of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study conducted in Iceland. Enrollment occurred from January 2004 to January 2007 from a community-dwelling cohort of older Icelandic individuals. Participants aged 67 to 93 years who underwent both brain MRI and late gadolinium enhancement cardiac MRI were included. Data analysis was performed from September 2018 to March 2019. Exposures: Unrecognized MI identified by cardiac MRI. Main Outcomes and Measures: Unrecognized MI was defined as cardiac MRI evidence of MI without a history of clinically evident MI. Recognized MI was defined as cardiac MRI evidence of MI with a history of clinically evident MI. Cerebral infarctions on brain MRI were included regardless of associated symptoms. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between MI status (no MI, unrecognized MI, or recognized MI) and cerebral infarction after adjustment for demographic factors and vascular risk factors. In addition, we evaluated the association between unrecognized MI and embolic infarcts of undetermined source. Results: Five enrolled participants had nondiagnostic brain MRI studies and were excluded. Among 925 participants, 480 (51.9%) were women; the mean (SD) age was 75.9 (5.3) years. There were 221 participants (23.9%) with cardiac MRI evidence of MI, of whom 68 had recognized MI and 153 unrecognized MI. There were 308 participants (33.3%) with brain MRI evidence of cerebral infarction; 93 (10.0%) had embolic infarcts of undetermined source. After adjustment for demographic factors and vascular risk factors, the likelihood (odds ratio) of having cerebral infarction was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.2-3.4; P = .01) for recognized MI and 1.5 (95% CI, 1.02-2.2; P = .04) for unrecognized MI. After adjustment for demographics and vascular risk factors, unrecognized MI was also associated with embolic infarcts of undetermined source (odds ratio, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.1-3.5]; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: In a population-based sample, we found an association between unrecognized MI and cerebral infarction. These findings suggest that unrecognized MI may be a novel risk factor for cardiac embolism and cerebral infarction.

11.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(8 Pt 2): 1699-1708, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660522

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to quantify myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and examine the relationship between myocardial perfusion and adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling. BACKGROUND: Although regarded as a nonischemic condition, DCM has been associated with microvascular dysfunction, which is postulated to play a role in its pathogenesis. However, the relationship of the resulting perfusion abnormalities to myocardial fibrosis and the degree of LV remodeling is unclear. METHODS: A total of 65 patients and 35 healthy control subjects underwent adenosine (140 µg/kg/min) stress perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance with late gadolinium enhancement imaging. Stress and rest MBF and MPR were derived using a modified Fermi-constrained deconvolution algorithm. RESULTS: Patients had significantly higher global rest MBF compared with control subjects (1.73 ± 0.42 ml/g/min vs. 1.14 ± 0.42 ml/g/min; p < 0.001). In contrast, global stress MBF was significantly lower versus control subjects (3.07 ± 1.02 ml/g/min vs. 3.53 ± 0.79 ml/g/min; p = 0.02), resulting in impaired MPR in the DCM group (1.83 ± 0.58 vs. 3.50 ± 1.45; p < 0.001). Global stress MBF (2.70 ± 0.89 ml/g/min vs. 3.44 ± 1.03 ml/g/min; p = 0.017) and global MPR (1.67 ± 0.61 vs. 1.99 ± 0.50; p = 0.047) were significantly reduced in patients with DCM with LV ejection fraction ≤35% compared with those with LV ejection fraction >35%. Segments with fibrosis had lower rest MBF (mean difference: -0.12 ml/g/min; 95% confidence interval: -0.23 to -0.01 ml/g/min; p = 0.035) and lower stress MBF (mean difference: -0.15 ml/g/min; 95% confidence interval: -0.28 to -0.03 ml/g/min; p = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with DCM exhibit microvascular dysfunction, the severity of which is associated with the degree of LV impairment. However, rest MBF is elevated rather than reduced in DCM. If microvascular dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of DCM, then the underlying mechanism is more likely to involve stress-induced repetitive stunning rather than chronic myocardial hypoperfusion.

12.
Eur Heart J ; 40(6): 529-538, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445559

RESUMO

Aims: Non-ischaemic cardiomyopathies (NICM) can cause heart failure and death. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) detects myocardial scar/fibrosis associated with myocardial infarction (MI) and NICM with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and prognosis of ischaemic and non-ischaemic myocardial fibrosis in a community-based sample of older adults. Methods and results: The ICELAND-MI cohort, a substudy of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Reykjavik (AGES-Reykjavik) study, provided a well-characterized population of 900 subjects after excluding subjects with pre-existing heart failure. Late gadolinium enhancement CMR divided subjects into four groups: MI (n = 211), major (n = 54) non-ischaemic fibrosis (well-established, classic patterns, associated with myocarditis, infiltrative cardiomyopathies, or pathological hypertrophy), minor (n = 238) non-ischaemic fibrosis (remaining localized patterns not meeting major criteria), and a no LGE (n = 397) reference group. The primary outcome was time to death or first heart failure hospitalization. During a median follow-up of 5.8 years, 192 composite events occurred (115 deaths and 77 hospitalizations for incident heart failure). After inverse probability weighting, major non-ischaemic fibrosis [hazard ratio (HR) 3.2, P < 0.001] remained independently associated with the primary endpoint, while MI (HR 1.4, P = 0.10) and minor non-ischaemic LGE (HR 1.2, P = 0.39) did not. Major non-ischaemic fibrosis was associated with a poorer outcome than MI (HR = 2.3, P = 0.001) in the adjusted analysis. Conclusion: Major non-ischaemic patterns of myocardial fibrosis portended worse prognosis than no fibrosis/scar in an older community-based cohort. Traditional risk factors largely accounted for the effect of MI and minor non-ischaemic LGE.

13.
J Immunother Cancer ; 6(1): 150, 2018 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized treatment and improved survival in many cancers. However, since immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are potentially fatal, early recognition and prompt treatment are warranted. One of the rarest but most dramatic irAE is myocarditis, which has significant morbidity and mortality if not recognized and treated early. OBJECTIVE: To report the first case of myocarditis in a patient with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with a combination of nivolumab, an anti-programmed cell death protein 1 antibody, and PROSTVAC, a vector-based therapeutic prostate cancer vaccine. CASE REPORT: A 79-year-old man with mCRPC metastatic to bone and lymph nodes and a history of atrial fibrillation presented with blurred vision and pain and stiffness in the upper back after 8 weeks on a clinical trial with nivolumab (1 mg/kg) and PROSTVAC, both given every 2 weeks. Eye exam was within normal limits, while musculoskeletal exam revealed tenderness in trapezius muscles and decreased motor strength in arms (III/V) and neck (IV/V). The rest of the physical exam was within normal limits, with the exception of an irregular heart rhythm. Laboratory tests were as follows: creatinine kinase (CK) 3200 U/L (normal: 39-308 U/L), CK-MB 65.7 mcg/L (normal: 0-7.6 mcg/L), troponin I 0.209 ng/mL (normal: 0-0.056 ng/mL). Electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed atrial fibrillation with QT prolongation (QTc 514 msec) and left anterior fascicular block, unchanged from baseline. 2D-echocardiogram showed a left ventricular ejection fraction of 65% with an enlarged left atrium, dilated right ventricle, and increased pulmonary artery pressure (45 mmHg). ProBNP was elevated at 1463 pg/mL and peaked at 3066 pg/mL one day after hydration. With a presumed diagnosis of autoimmune myositis and possible myocarditis, the patient was admitted and started on methylprednisolone 1 mg/kg/day. Cardiac MRI showed elevated native myocardial T1 values consistent with myocarditis (Fig. 1). The patient was discharged on a prednisone taper after normalization of cardiac enzymes on day 4. Treatment with PROSTVAC continued for three more months; nivolumab was discontinued. Six months later, patient is doing well, with no residual cardiac damage. DISCUSSION: Cardiovascular irAEs are relatively rare (< 1%) and have a variety of clinical presentations. Myocarditis is potentially life-threatening and can range from subclinical to fulminant. Therefore, clinical suspicion, early detection, and prompt treatment are imperative (1). The initial diagnostic workup should include cardiac enzymes, ECG, and 2D-echocardiogram. The most commonly observed ECG changes are generalized repolarization abnormalities, prolonged QT interval, and conduction abnormalities (2). An elevated troponin I in the absence of overt coronary artery disease is suggestive of myocarditis and should be evaluated further. Myocardial biopsy is the standard diagnostic procedure; however, a cardiac MRI can achieve a diagnosis when biopsy is not feasible (3). Advancements in parametric mapping techniques have allowed the use of native myocardial T1 in the detection of myocarditis, as it has superior diagnostic performance and higher sensitivity than older parameters (3). Our patient had been treated with an immune checkpoint inhibitor and a therapeutic cancer vaccine to induce effective antitumor activity through immunogenic intensification and presented with muscle stiffness and elevated CK. Although he had no new cardiovascular symptoms, cardiac enzymes were tested to rule out myocardial involvement. MRI with gadolinium confirmed the diagnosis of myocarditis. To date, none of the 1360 patients treated with PROSTVAC as a single agent have developed myocarditis, while myocarditis has been rarely reported in patients treated with nivolumab (< 1%) (1). Whether the combination of PROSTVAC and nivolumab presents an additional risk of myocarditis is unclear. To our knowledge, this is the first case of myocarditis in a patient with mCRPC receiving simultaneous treatment with an immune checkpoint inhibitor and a prostate cancer vaccine. Our experience highlights the importance of suspicion and early intervention in patients who present with cardiac abnormalities after receiving cancer immunotherapy. We propose following protocol: baseline troponin, ECG, and 2D-echocardiogram prior to treatment, then repeated troponin at 2, 4, and 12 weeks post-treatment, then monthly. If troponin becomes positive without alternative explanation, myocarditis should be ruled out with cardiac MRI or myocardial biopsy, and patient should be admitted for treatment with high-dose steroids as early intervention may minimize myocardial injury.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Anticâncer/efeitos adversos , Miocardite/induzido quimicamente , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia
14.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(11): 1101-1106, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304454

RESUMO

Importance: Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging can identify unrecognized myocardial infarction (UMI) in the general population. Unrecognized myocardial infarction by CMR portends poor prognosis in the short term but, to our knowledge, long-term outcomes are not known. Objective: To determine the long-term outcomes of UMI by CMR compared with clinically recognized myocardial infarction (RMI) and no myocardial infarction (MI). Design, Setting, and Participants: Participants of the population-based, prospectively enrolled ICELAND MI cohort study (aged 67-93 years) were characterized with CMR at baseline (from January 2004-January 2007) and followed up for up to 13.3 years. Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analyses and a Cox regression were used to assess the association of UMI at baseline with death and future cardiovascular events. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were a composite of major adverse cardiac events (MACE: death, nonfatal MI, and heart failure). Results: Of 935 participants, 452 (48.3%) were men; the mean (SD) age of participants with no MI, UMI, and RMI was 75.6 (5.3) years, 76.8 (5.2) years, and 76.8 (4.7) years, respectively. At 3 years, UMI and no MI mortality rates were similar (3%) and lower than RMI rates (9%). At 5 years, UMI mortality rates (13%) increased and were higher than no MI rates (8%) but still lower than RMI rates (19%). By 10 years, UMI and RMI mortality rates (49% and 51%, respectively) were not statistically different; both were significantly higher than no MI (30%) (P < .001). After adjusting for age, sex, and diabetes, UMI by CMR had an increased risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 1.61; 95% CI, 1.27-2.04), MACE (HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.26-1.93), MI (HR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.45-3.03), and heart failure (HR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.09-2.14) compared with no MI and statistically nondifferent risk of death (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.71-1.38) and MACE (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.91-1.66) vs RMI. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, all-cause mortality of UMI was higher than no MI, but within 10 years from baseline evaluation was equivalent with RMI. Unrecognized MI was also associated with an elevated risk of nonfatal MI and heart failure. Whether secondary prevention can alter the prognosis of UMI will require prospective testing.


Assuntos
Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Vida Independente , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
Circulation ; 137(18): 1949-1964, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29712696

RESUMO

Although mortality after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI) is on the decline, the number of patients developing heart failure as a result of MI is on the rise. Apart from timely reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention, there is currently no established therapy for reducing MI size. Thus, new cardioprotective therapies are required to improve clinical outcomes after ST-segment-elevation MI. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance has emerged as an important imaging modality for assessing the efficacy of novel therapies for reducing MI size and preventing subsequent adverse left ventricular remodeling. The recent availability of multiparametric mapping cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging has provided new insights into the pathophysiology underlying myocardial edema, microvascular obstruction, intramyocardial hemorrhage, and changes in the remote myocardial interstitial space after ST-segment-elevation MI. In this article, we provide an overview of the recent advances in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in reperfused patients with ST-segment-elevation MI, discuss the controversies surrounding its use, and explore future applications of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in this setting.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Humanos , Reperfusão Miocárdica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Sobrevivência de Tecidos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7391, 2018 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29743511

RESUMO

Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging is the currently the gold standard for in-vivo detection of myocardial infarction. However, gadolinium contrast administration is contraindicated in patients with renal insufficiency. We aim to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this contrast-free MRI technique, native T1 mapping, in detecting recent myocardial infarction versus a reference histological gold standard. Ten pigs underwent CMR at 2 weeks after induced MI. The infarct size and transmural extent of MI was calculated using native T1 maps and LGE images. Histological validation was performed using triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining in the corresponding ex-vivo slices. The infarct size and transmural extent of myocardial infarction assessed by T1 mapping correlated well with that assessed by LGE and TTC images. Using TTC staining as the reference, T1 mapping demonstrated underestimation of infarct size and transmural extent of infarction. Additionally, there was a slight but not significant difference found in the diagnostic performance between the native T1 maps and LGE images for the location of MI. Our study shows that native T1 mapping is feasible alternative method to the LGE technique for the assessment of the size, transmural extent, and location of MI in patients who cannot receive gadolinium contrast.


Assuntos
Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Suínos
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