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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594851

RESUMO

Vitellogenin (Vtg), a yolk nutrient protein that is synthesized in the livers of female animals, and subsequently carried into the ovary, contributes to vitellogenesis in oviparous animals. Thus, Vtg levels are elevated during oogenesis. In contrast, Vtg proteins have been genetically lost in viviparous mammals, thus the yolk protein is not involved in their oogenesis and embryonic development. In this study, we identified Vtg protein in the livers of females during the gestation of the viviparous teleost, Xenotoca eiseni Although vitellogenesis is arrested during gestation, biochemical assays revealed that Vtg protein was present in ovarian tissues and lumen fluid. The Vtg protein was also detected in the trophotaeniae of the intraovarian embryo. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that Vtg protein is absorbed into intracellular vesicles in the epithelial cells of the trophotaeniae. Furthermore, extraneous Vtg protein injected into the abdominal cavity of a pregnant female was subsequently detected in the trophotaeniae of the intraovarian embryo. Our data suggest that the yolk protein is one of the matrotrophic factors supplied from the mother to the intraovarian embryo during gestation in X. eiseni.

2.
Esophagus ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Fistula is one of the known complications of T4 esophageal cancer (T4-EC). The standard treatment for T4-EC is chemoradiotherapy, but detailed data about fistula resulting from chemoradiotherapy in this condition are limited. In particular, radiographic findings of T4-EC with fistula have not been reported. This study assessed the risk factors of fistula based on clinical information on patients with chemoradiotherapy for T4-EC. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 59 T4-EC patients who had squamous cell carcinoma without any fistula before receiving definitive or palliative chemoradiotherapy. RESULTS: A fistula was observed in 18 patients (31%) throughout their clinical course. The overall survival in the fistula group was significantly shorter than that in the non-fistula group (259 vs. 346 days; p = 0.0341). The axial tumor size on computed tomography (CT) was confirmed as an independent risk factor for esophageal fistula in multivariate analysis of stepwise methods [OR 1.226; 95% CI 1.109-1.411; p < 0.0001]. Twelve out of 14 patients with an axial tumor size of 50 mm or greater had developed a fistula. CONCLUSIONS: A large tumor size on the axial plane on CT is a risk factor for fistula formation.

3.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 6928-6934, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Osteoporosis is a major global public health problem in the current aging era. Osteoporosis is often diagnosed only after patients have a fracture that causes a severe decline in ability to perform activities of daily life. Although the current criterion standard for diagnosing osteoporosis is dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), this modality remains less prevalent among general practitioners in geriatric medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic utility of visual inspection of lumbar radiography in detecting bone mineral density (BMD) decline. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively reviewed medical data of 78 patients who underwent both lateral lumbar radiography and DXA. Board-certified radiologists determined the clinical grade of each patient's condition according to the semiquantitative (SQ) method of lumbar fracture assessment. We compared the grades and young adult means of BMD in the lumbar spine and hips as measured using DXA. RESULTS BMD of the femoral neck was significantly lower in patients with severe osteoporosis (grades 2 and 3 as classified using the SQ method) than in those with mild osteoporosis (grades 0 and 1; P<0.05). A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the SQ method can help predict the decrease in BMD (young adult mean score of <70%) in the femoral neck with moderate accuracy (sensitivity, 0.621; specificity, 0.829; area under the curve, 0.742). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that lateral lumbar radiography can provide useful information about bone mineral status and can serve as a tool for osteoporosis screening by general practitioners.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13117, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511557

RESUMO

We conducted a one-year prospective, multicenter study to assess clinical outcomes after implantation of segmented, rotationally asymmetric multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) with +1.5 diopters (D) near addition. In this phase III clinical trial, 120 eyes of 65 patients undergoing phacoemulsification and implantation of Lentis Comfort LS-313 MF15 (Oculentis GmbH) were included. The ophthalmological examinations were performed before and 1 day, 1 week, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after surgery. Uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuity, uncorrected (UIVA) and distance-corrected (DCIVA) intermediate visual acuity at 70 cm, and uncorrected (UNVA) and distance-corrected (DCNVA) near visual acuity at 30 cm were measured. A defocus curve was obtained and patients were asked about the severity of photic phenomena. Postoperative distance and intermediate visual acuity was excellent, with UDVA, CDVA, UIVA, and DCIVA of approximately 20/20, 20/16, 20/25, 20/25 were attained, respectively. The level of near visual acuity was lower; UNVA and DCNVA remained at around 20/60 and 20/70, respectively. The defocus curve indicated that postoperative uncorrected visual acuity of 20/25 and 20/40 was obtained at as close as 67 cm and 50 cm, respectively. Contrast sensitivity was within the normal range, with a minimal level of subjective symptoms and high patient satisfaction. The rotationally asymmetric multifocal IOLs with +1.5 D near addition provided excellent distance and intermediate vision, but near vision was not enough for reading small prints. Contrast sensitivity was high, with very low incidences of photic phenomena and a high level of patient satisfaction.

5.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 6669-6674, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Convincing evidence regarding gait and balance function in elderly women with low bone mineral density (BMD) and/or osteoporosis is limited. In the present study, we aimed to compare the gait characteristics in elderly women with and without low BMD and to analyze plausible parameter(s) for predicting low BMD. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data of 26 consecutive postmenopausal women aged >65 years who were admitted to our geriatric outpatient service. They were assigned to 2 groups, with (n=14) and without (n=12) low BMD based on T-score (0.05). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that LI can predict low BMD in the femur neck with moderate accuracy (area under the curve=0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.55-0.95; P=0.031). The optimal cut-off value was 17%, with 67% specificity and 86% sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that elderly women with low BMD may walk with asymmetrical trunk movement, but they are able to generate gait patterns similar to healthy peers. The LI may provide valuable quantitative information for preventing fractures in subjects with osteoporosis.

6.
Mol Cell ; 75(5): 1043-1057.e8, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402097

RESUMO

The plasma membrane (PM) is composed of a complex lipid mixture that forms heterogeneous membrane environments. Yet, how small-scale lipid organization controls physiological events at the PM remains largely unknown. Here, we show that ORP-related Osh lipid exchange proteins are critical for the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], a key regulator of dynamic events at the PM. In real-time assays, we find that unsaturated phosphatidylserine (PS) and sterols, both Osh protein ligands, synergistically stimulate phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) activity. Biophysical FRET analyses suggest an unconventional co-distribution of unsaturated PS and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) species in sterol-containing membrane bilayers. Moreover, using in vivo imaging approaches and molecular dynamics simulations, we show that Osh protein-mediated unsaturated PI4P and PS membrane lipid organization is sensed by the PIP5K specificity loop. Thus, ORP family members create a nanoscale membrane lipid environment that drives PIP5K activity and PI(4,5)P2 synthesis that ultimately controls global PM organization and dynamics.

7.
Neuroimage Clin ; 24: 101957, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify modularized structural atrophy of brain regions with a high degree of connectivity and its longitudinal changes associated with the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), which is an unsupervised hierarchical clustering method originally used in genetic analysis. METHODS: We included participants with late mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at baseline from the Japanese Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (J-ADNI) study. We imputed normalized and Z-transformed structural volume or cortical thickness data of 164 parcellated brain regions/structures based on the calculations of the FreeSurfer software. We applied the WGCNA to extract modules with highly interconnected structural atrophic patterns and examined the correlation between the identified modules and clinical AD progression. RESULTS: We included 204 participants from the baseline dataset, and performed a follow-up with 100 in the 36-month dataset of MCI cohort participants from the J-ADNI. In the univariate correlation or variable importance analysis, baseline atrophy in temporal lobe regions/structures significantly predicted clinical AD progression. In the WGCNA consensus analysis, co-atrophy modules associated with MCI conversion were first distributed in the temporal lobe and subsequently extended to adjacent parietal cortical regions in the following 36 months. CONCLUSIONS: We identified coordinated modules of brain atrophy and demonstrated their longitudinal extension along with the clinical course of AD progression using WGCNA, which showed a good correspondence with previous pathological studies of the tau propagation theory. Our results suggest the potential applicability of this methodology, originating from genetic analyses, for the surrogate visualization of the underlying pathological progression in neurodegenerative diseases not limited to AD.

8.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 652, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no standard first-line chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer with severe peritoneal metastasis. Although fluoropyrimidine is often used, its efficacy is limited, and it remains unclear whether combination therapy with platinum improves clinical outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective study involved patients at six Japanese academic hospitals between 2010 and 2016. Patients with advanced gastric cancer and severe peritoneal metastasis were included if they had massive ascites and/or inadequate oral intake requiring intravenous nutritional support. We then compared the efficacy and safety of fluoropyrimidine monotherapy with those of fluoropyrimidine/platinum combination therapy. RESULTS: Compared with the combination therapy group (n = 64), the monotherapy group (n = 65) had worse general health (more patients with elderly age, performance status > 2, and having both massive ascites and inadequate oral intake). Both overall survival (9.0 vs 5.0 months, p < 0.01) and progression-free survival (4.3 vs 2.3 months, p < 0.01) were significantly longer in the combination group, and the significance remained after adjusting for prognostic variables (hazard ratios of 0.47 and 0.41, respectively; p < 0.01). Improvements in ascites and oral intake were also greater in the combination group. Although neutropenia (grade ≥ 3) occurred more frequently with combination therapy, both treatments in this study were tolerable. CONCLUSIONS: Combination therapy with fluoropyrimidine and platinum might be more effective than monotherapy with fluoropyrimidine and was tolerable for patients with advanced gastric cancer and severe peritoneal metastasis.

9.
Oncology ; 97(2): 94-101, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate whether a decrease of computed tomography (CT) value for tumors serves as a predictive marker in patients with advanced gastric cancer (aGC) who have undergone chemotherapy with vascular epithelial growth factor receptor 2 inhibitor (ramucirumab). METHOD: We retrospectively analyzed 44 patients with aGC who received taxane alone (TAX arm; n = 33), ramucirumab alone, or ramucirumab in combination with taxane (RAM arm; n = 11) as second-line or later chemotherapy between July 2010 and October 2016. In all patients, tumor size and tumor CT value were evaluated at two timepoints: pretreatment and first evaluation. We calculated the change of the tumors' CT value. The associations of these factors with tumor response, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival were investigated. RESULTS: Ten (90.9%) of 11 patients in the RAM arm and 18 (54.5%) of 33 patients in the TAX arm showed decreased CT values. The rate of CT value change in the RAM arm (median -32.80%, range -53.63 to 6.84%) was higher than that in the TAX arm (median -0.44%, range -37.47 to 40.64%; p = 0.0005). When using the median value of CT value change as a cut-off, PFS was significantly longer in patients with a high rate of CT value change (decrease ≥32.80%) than in those with a low rate (decrease <32.80%) in the RAM arm (median 292 and 112 days; p = 0.045), while no significant difference of this kind was found in the TAX arm (median 91 and 125 days; p = 0.45). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with aGC treated with ramucirumab experienced a significant decrease of CT value of tumors and had an association between the rate of CT value change and PFS. Our study suggests that CT value changes of tumors may be a predictor for the efficacy of ramucirumab in aGC.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(27): 13368-13373, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217287

RESUMO

TMEM16K, a membrane protein carrying 10 transmembrane regions, has phospholipid scramblase activity. TMEM16K is localized to intracellular membranes, but whether it actually scrambles phospholipids inside cells has not been demonstrated, due to technical difficulties in studying intracellular lipid distributions. Here, we developed a freeze-fracture electron microscopy method that enabled us to determine the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) distribution in the individual leaflets of cellular membranes. Using this method, we found that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of mammalian cells harbored abundant PtdSer in its cytoplasmic leaflet and much less in the luminal leaflet, whereas the outer and inner nuclear membranes (NMs) had equivalent amounts of PtdSer in both leaflets. The ER and NMs of budding yeast also harbored PtdSer in their cytoplasmic leaflet, but asymmetrical distribution in the ER was not observed. Treating mouse embryonic fibroblasts with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 compromised the cytoplasmic leaflet-dominant PtdSer asymmetry in the ER and increased PtdSer in the NMs, especially in the nucleoplasmic leaflet of the inner NM. This Ca2+-induced PtdSer redistribution was not observed in TMEM16K-null fibroblasts, but was recovered in these cells by reexpressing TMEM16K. These results indicate that, similar to the plasma membrane, PtdSer in the ER of mammalian cells is predominantly localized to the cytoplasmic leaflet, and that TMEM16K directly or indirectly mediates Ca2+-dependent phospholipid scrambling in the ER.

12.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 133: 1-11, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The fatty acid (FA) composition of membrane phospholipid reflects at least in part dietary fat composition. Saturated FA (SFA) suppress Sirt1 activity, while monounsaturated FA (MUFA) counteract this effect. OBJECTIVE: We explored a role of Sirt1 in homeostatic control of the fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipid in the presence of SFA overload. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sirt1 deficiency in cardiomyocytes decreased the expression levels of liver X receptor (LXR)-target genes, particularly stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (Scd1), a rate-limiting enzyme in the cellular synthesis of MUFA from SFA, increased membrane SFA/MUFA ratio, and worsened left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in mice fed an SFA-rich high fat diet. In cultured cardiomyocytes, Sirt1 knockdown (KD) exacerbated the palmitate overload-induced increase in membrane SFA/MUFA ratio, which was associated with decrease in the expression of LXR-target genes, including Scd1. Forced overexpression of Scd1 in palmitate-overloaded Sirt1KD cardiomyocytes lowered the SFA/MUFA ratio. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) increased Sirt1 activity and Scd1 expression, thereby lowering membrane SFA/MUFA ratio in palmitate-overloaded cardiomyocytes. These effects of NMN were not observed for Scd1KD cardiomyocytes. LXRα/ßKD exacerbated palmitate overload-induced increase in membrane SFA/MUFA ratio, while LXR agonist T0901317 alleviated it. NMN failed to rescue Scd1 protein expression and membrane SFA/MUFA ratio in palmitate-overloaded LXRα/ßKD cardiomyocytes. The administration of NMN or T0901317 showed a dramatic reversal in membrane SFA/MUFA ratio and LV diastolic function in SFA-rich HFD-fed mice. CONCLUSION: Cardiac Sirt1 counteracted SFA overload-induced decrease in membrane phospholipid unsaturation and diastolic dysfunction via regulating LXR-mediated transcription of the Scd1 gene.

13.
Invest New Drugs ; 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020609

RESUMO

KRAS wild-type colorectal cancers initially responsive to anti-endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies [cetuximab (Cetu)/panitumumab (Pani)] develop acquired resistance. Overexpression of EGFR ligands such as heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) may be one resistance mechanism. This phase I study of U3-1565, anti-HB-EGF antibody, and Cetu combination therapy enrolled patients with KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer who had received two ≤ regimens with fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and Cetu/Pani and had disease progression on Cetu/Pani. Recommended dose (RD) was determined in the 1st stage, followed by evaluation of efficacy at the RD level in the 2nd-stage. Cetu was given at a loading dose of 400 mg/m2 followed by weekly infusions of 250 mg/m2 in levels 1 and 0. U3-1565 was administered at a loading dose of 24 mg/m2 followed by biweekly infusions of 16 mg/m2 in level 1 and 16-12 mg/m2 in level 0. Twenty-two patients were enrolled. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed among three patients in level 1 in the first stage, which was determined as RD. Grade 3 or higher adverse events occurred in 59.1%; those in ≥5% of patients were anemia, γ-GTP elevation, and acneiform rash. Overall response rate was 0.0% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0%-15.4%] and disease control was achieved in 17 patients (77.3%, 95% CI: 54.6%-92.2%). Median progression-free survival time was 85.0 days (95% CI: 54.0-91.0) and median survival time was 196 days (95% CI: 113.0-306.0). RD was determined as level 1. The efficacy of this combination therapy after progression on Cetu/Pani was negligible. Trial Registration: UMIN000013006.

14.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 68(2): 777-788, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effect of serum calcium level to the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) conversion to early Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To investigate association between baseline serum calcium and the MCI conversion in the Japanese Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (J-ADNI) study cohort. METHODS: In this sub-analysis of J-ADNI study, we reviewed data from MCI participants at baseline regarding their conversion to early AD during the 3 years of observation period and assessed the associated factors including serum calcium level. In addition, we compared our results from the J-ADNI study with the corresponding results from the North American (NA)-ADNI. RESULTS: Of 234 eligible MCI participants from the J-ADNI cohort, 121 (51.7%) converted to AD during the first 36 months of observation. Using univariate analysis, being female, having shorter years of education, and lower serum calcium level were correlated with increased risk of MCI-to-AD conversion exclusively in J-ADNI cohort. The lower corrected serum calcium level remained as one of conversion-associated factors in the J-ADNI cohort even after adjustment for multiple confounding variables, although this was not observed in the NA-ADNI cohort. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that lower serum calcium may be associated with an increased risk of MCI conversion to AD in Japanese cohorts. The reason for this correlation remains unclear and further external validation using other Asian cohorts is needed. It would be interesting for future AD studies to obtain serum calcium levels and other related factors, such as vitamin D levels, culture-specific dietary or medication information.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 145(8): 2082-2090, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856283

RESUMO

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key sensor of energy homeostasis and regulates cell metabolism, proliferation and chemotherapy/radiotherapy sensitivities. This study aimed to explore the relationship between the AMPK pathway-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and clinical outcomes in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We analyzed a total of 884 patients with mCRC enrolled in three randomized clinical trials (TRIBE, MAVERICC and FIRE-3: where patients were treated with FOLFIRI, mFOLFOX6 or FOLFOXIRI combined with bevacizumab or cetuximab as the first-line chemotherapy). The association between AMPK pathway-related SNPs and clinical outcomes was analyzed across the six treatment cohorts, using a meta-analysis approach. Our meta-analysis showed that AMPK pathway had significant associations with progression-free survival (PFS; p < 0.001) and overall survival (OS; p < 0.001), but not with tumor response (TR; p = 0.220): PRKAA1 rs13361707 was significantly associated with favorable PFS (log HR = -0.219, SE = 0.073, p = 0.003), as well as PRKAA1 rs10074991 (log HR = -0.215, SE = 0.073, p = 0.003), and there were suggestive associations of PRKAG1 rs1138908 with unfavorable OS (log HR = 0.170, SE = 0.083, p = 0.041), and of UBE2O rs3803739 with unfavorable PFS (log HR = 0.137, SE = 0.068, p = 0.042) and OS (log HR = 0.210, SE = 0.077, p = 0.006), although these results were not significant after false discovery rate adjustment. AMPK pathway-related SNPs may be predictors for chemotherapy in mCRC. Upon validation, our findings would provide novel insight for selecting treatment strategies.

16.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(10): 3096-3103, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692096

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The natural history and prognosis of appendiceal adenocarcinomas differ from those of adenocarcinomas arising in other large bowel sites. We aimed to compare the molecular profiles exhibited by appendiceal adenocarcinomas and colorectal cancers, or between the histopathologic subtypes of appendiceal adenocarcinoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A total of 183 samples from appendiceal adenocarcinoma [46 adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified (NOS), 66 pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP), 44 mucinous adenocarcinoma (MU), and 27 signet ring cell carcinoma (SR)], 994 from right-sided colorectal cancer (R-CRC), and 1,080 from left-sided CRC (L-CRC) were analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and IHC markers. Microsatellite instability (MSI) and tumor mutational burden (TMB) were tested by NGS, and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) by IHC. RESULTS: We observed high mutation rates in appendiceal adenocarcinoma samples for KRAS (55%), TP53 (40%), GNAS (31%), SMAD4 (16%), and APC (10%). Appendiceal adenocarcinoma exhibited higher mutation rates in KRAS and GNAS, and lower mutation rates in TP53, APC, and PIK3CA (6%) than colorectal cancers. PMP exhibited much higher mutation rates in KRAS (74%) and GNAS (63%), and much lower mutation rates in TP53 (23%), APC (2%), and PIK3CA (2%) than NOS. Alterations associated with immune checkpoint inhibitor response (MSI-high, TMB-high, PD-L1 expression) showed similar frequency in appendiceal adenocarcinoma compared with L-CRC, but not R-CRC, and those of NOS were higher than other subtypes of appendiceal adenocarcinoma and L-CRC. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular profiling of appendiceal adenocarcinoma revealed different molecular characteristics than noted in R-CRC and L-CRC, and molecular heterogeneity among the histopathologic subtypes of appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Our findings may be critical to developing an individualized approach to appendiceal adenocarcinoma treatment.

17.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 663: 120-128, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid, VC) and vitamin E (α-tocopherol, VE) play important physiological roles as endogenous antioxidants in many tissues and organs. However, their roles in the brain remain entirely elusive. We established senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30)/α-tocopherol transfer protein (αTTP) double knockout (DKO) mice as a novel VC and VE double-deficiency model and examined the effect of VC and VE double-deficiency on brain functions. METHODS: DKO and wild-type (WT) mice were divided into the following two groups: mice in the CE (+) group were supplied with sufficient amounts of VC and VE and mice in the CE (-) group were deficient in both VC and VE. After 8 weeks of CE (+) or CE (-) treatments, a battery of behavioral experiments was conducted to analyze cognitive functions, including memory, through the Morris water maze and Pavlovian fear conditioning tasks. RESULTS: The plasma VC and VE levels in DKO-CE (-) mice and VE level in WT-CE (-) mice were almost completely depleted after 8 weeks of the deficient treatment. The behavioral study revealed that the general behaviors, including locomotor activity and anxiety level, were not influenced by the CE (-) treatment in DKO and WT mice. However, in the Pavlovian fear conditioning task, DKO-CE (-) mice showed impaired conditioned fear memory compared with that of DKO-CE (+) mice. Furthermore, increased mRNA expression was observed in inflammatory-related genes, such as IL-6, TNFα, F4/80, and Mcp-1, in the hippocampus of DKO-CE (-) mice. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study provide evidence that VC and VE deficiency led to impaired conditioned fear memory possibly caused by neuroinflammation in the brain.

18.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 19(2): 159-164, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556272

RESUMO

AIM: The use of problem lists is encouraged to overcome the inconsistency in reporting comprehensive geriatric assessment results. The present study aimed to identify the latent variables influencing the use of geriatrician problem lists. METHODS: Surveys were sent to all geriatricians registered with the Japan Geriatrics Society (n = 1439) as of November 2015, and responses (n = 204) were analyzed with univariate and exploratory factor analyses. To account for active, inactive and tentative items, the survey addressed "disease," "symptom" and "condition" separately. RESULTS: Most geriatricians (34.8%) composed problem lists for interdisciplinary information sharing. Nearly half of the respondents (46.6%) created problem lists for every patient. Information omissions were mainly due to the exclusion of information from other specialties (26% for omitted diseases and 12.3% for omitted symptoms), lack of time (25.5% for omitted diseases, 22.1% for omitted symptoms and 26.5% for omitted conditions), and lack of standardization of terminologies regarding observed diseases, symptoms and conditions (12.3% for omitted diseases, 19.6% for omitted symptoms and 16.7% for omitted conditions). An exploratory factor analysis, based on 20 predefined symptoms and conditions that are frequently omitted from problem lists, showed that considering the symptom "geriatric syndromes" and the condition "assistance needs in medication management" are crucial for improving problem list comprehensiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Geriatricians commonly use problem lists; however, there is considerable variation regarding the problems listed and their relationships. The listings of "geriatric syndrome" and "assistance needs in medication management" are crucial for improving problem list comprehensiveness. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2019; 19: 159-164.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Lista de Checagem , Avaliação Geriátrica , Geriatras/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 127(6): 686-689, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579830

RESUMO

Hydrogenophilus thermoluteolus strain TH-1 is a thermophilic hydrogen-oxidizing microorganism that has the highest growth rate among autotrophs. Genomic analysis revealed that this strain comprises the complete gene set for poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis, i.e., three copies of acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase and polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase and one copy of acetoacetyl-CoA reductase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA epimerase. An investigation on PHB accumulation in strain TH-1 demonstrated that PHB accumulation was induced by nitrogen limitation under autotrophic as well as heterotrophic conditions. This strain accumulated up to 430.4 ± 14.3 mg L-1 PHB during a 3-h incubation under nitrogen-limited heterotrophic conditions. The highest PHB accumulation rates under autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions were 38.6% (w/w) of the dry cells after a 6-h induction and 53.8% after 3 h, respectively. Although PHB granules started to accumulate after 15 min of nitrogen limitation under heterotrophic conditions, a drastic decrease of PHB was observed after 9 h of induction.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Hydrogenophilaceae/metabolismo , Hidroxibutiratos/metabolismo , Poliésteres/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Oxirredutases/metabolismo
20.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508188

RESUMO

In the multimodality treatment strategy for gastric cancer, chemotherapy has an important role in conferring survival benefit. For the last three decades, great progress has been achieved in adjuvant and palliative chemotherapy. Powerful combination regimens using doublet or triplet cytotoxic agents have been developed and new molecular targeted drugs, including trastuzumab and ramucirumab, have been introduced in clinical practice. These advances have resulted from the accumulation of many clinical trials. A well-designed Phase III trial can change standard treatment; however, such a trial is hard to complete due to its huge cost and need to recruit many patients. Some co-operative groups have actively made efforts at fundraising and patient recruitment, which can make implementation of high-quality and large-scale Phase III trials possible. This review summarizes the development of chemotherapy for gastric cancer with focus on co-operative groups around the world, considering effective treatment developments in gastric cancer. We studied 11 active co-operative groups, including six in Europe, two in the United States, and three in Japan, that have completed one or more Phase III trials cited in the major guidelines. Each co-operative group had its own characteristics and contributed to the establishment of standard treatment in each region. International collaboration in the development of gastric cancer treatment may be difficult due to regional differences in standards of care, particularly for resectable gastric cancer. Whereas, intergroup collaboration within each region is a reasonable method to effectively develop treatments for resectable and advanced gastric cancer.

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