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1.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037134

RESUMO

Goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) is a distinct subtype of appendiceal neoplasm that exhibits unique clinical and pathologic features. We aimed to reveal the molecular profiles of GCC compared to other appendiceal tumors, such as adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumor (NET). A total of 495 appendiceal tumor samples (53 GCCs, 428 adenocarcinomas, and 14 NETs) were tested with next-generation sequencing (NGS) on a 592-gene panel and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Microsatellite instability (MSI)/mismatch repair (MMR) status were tested with a combination of NGS, IHC, and fragment analyses. Tumor mutational burden (TMB) was evaluated by NGS, and PD-L1 expression was tested by IHC (SP142). The most prevalent mutated genes within GCCs were TP53 (24.0%), ARID1A (15.4%), SMAD4 (9.4%), and KRAS (7.5%). Pathway-specific alterations were dominantly observed in cell cycle, MAPK, epigenetic, and TGF-ß signaling pathways. GCCs as compared to adenocarcinomas exhibited significantly lower mutation rates in KRAS, GNAS, and APC, with significantly higher mutation rates in CDH1, CHEK2, CDC73, ERCC2, and FGFR2. GCCs as compared to NETs showed significantly lower mutation rates in KRAS, APC, BRCA2, and FANCA. In GCCs, MSI-H/dMMR, TML-high (>17mut/Mb), and PD-L1 expression were seen in 0.0%, 0.0%, and 2.0% of tumors, respectively. No significant differences were observed in any immunotherapy-related markers examined when compared to adenocarcinomas and NETs. In conclusion, GCCs had considerably distinct mutational profiles compared to appendiceal adenocarcinomas and NETs. Understanding these molecular characteristics may be critical for a development of novel and more effective treatment strategies for GCC.

2.
J Virol ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999028

RESUMO

Glycerophospholipids are major components of cell membranes. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a glycerophospholipid and is involved in multiple cellular processes, such as membrane fusion, cell cycle, autophagy and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the role of PE biosynthesis in herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection by knocking out the host cell gene encoding phosphate cytidylyltransferase 2, ethanolamine (Pcyt2), which is a key rate-limiting enzyme in one of the two major pathways for PE biosynthesis. Pcyt2 knockout reduced HSV-1 replication and caused an accumulation of unenveloped and partially enveloped nucleocapsids in the cytoplasm of an HSV-1-infected cell culture. A similar phenotype was observed by treating infected cells with meclizine, which is an inhibitor of Pcyt2. In addition, treatment of HSV-1-infected mice with meclizine significantly reduced HSV-1 replication in the mouse brains and improved their survival. These results indicated that PE biosynthesis mediated by Pcyt2 was required for efficient HSV-1 envelopment in the cytoplasm of infected cells and for viral replication and pathogenicity in vivo. The results also identified the PE biosynthetic pathway as a possible novel target for antiviral therapy of HSV-associated diseases and raised an interesting possibility for meclizine repositioning for treatment of these diseases, since it is an over-the-counter drug used for decades against nausea and vertigo in motion sickness.IMPORTANCEGlycerophospholipids in cell membranes and virus envelopes often affects viral entry and budding. However, the role of glycerophospholipids in herpesvirus infected cells on membrane-associated events in viral replication has not been reported thus far. In this study, we have presented data showing that cellular phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) biosynthesis mediated by Pcyt2 is important for HSV-1 envelopment in the cytoplasm as well as for viral replication and pathogenicity in vivo. This is the first report showing the importance of PE biosynthesis in herpesvirus infections. Our results showed that inhibition of Pcyt2, a key cell enzyme for PE synthesis, significantly inhibited HSV-1 replication and pathogenicity in mice. This suggested that the PE biosynthetic pathway, as well as the HSV-1 virion maturation pathway, can be targets for the development of novel anti-HSV drugs.

3.
Allergol Int ; 69(4): 561-570, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600925

RESUMO

Strategic Outlook toward 2030: Japan's Research for Allergy and Immunology (Strategy 2030) is the national research strategy based on Japan's Basic Law on Measures Against Allergic Diseases, a first of its kind worldwide. This strategy was established by a multi-disciplinary committee consisting of administrators of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan, young and senior experts from various research societies and associations, and representatives of patient and public groups. Whereas the issues of transition, integration, and international collaboration have yet to be solved in this research realm in Japan, identification of unmet needs, digitization of information and transparent procedures, and strategic planning for complex problems (a process dubbed MIERUKA by the Toyota Way) are crucial to share and tackle the same vision and goals. The committee developed three specific actions focusing on preemptive treatment, interdisciplinarity and internationality, and life stage. The real success of Strategy 2030 is made by the spontaneous contributions of doctors, dentists, veterinarians, and other medical professionals; basic and clinical research scientists, research supporters, and pharmaceutical/medical device companies; manufacturers of food, healthcare, and home appliances; and patients, their families, and the public. The hope is to establish a stable society in which people can live long, healthy lives, as free as possible from allergic and immunological diseases, at each individual life stage. This article is based on a Japanese review first reported in Arerugi, introduces the developmental process and details of Strategy 2030.

4.
J Nucl Med ; 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646880

RESUMO

Reactive astrocytes play a key role in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. Monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) is one of the promising targets for the imaging of astrogliosis in the human brain. A novel selective and reversible MAO-B tracer, (S)-(2-methylpyrid-5-yl)-6-[(3-[18F]fluoro-2-hydroxy)propoxy]quinoline, (18F-SMBT-1), was successfully developed via lead optimization from first-generation tau positron-emission tomography (PET) tracer 18F-THK-5351. Methods: SMBT-1 was radiolabeled with fluorine-18 using the corresponding precursor. The binding affinity of radiolabeled compounds to MAO-B was assessed using saturation and competitive binding assays. The binding selectivity of 18F-SMBT-1 to MAO-B was evaluated by autoradiography of frozen human brain tissues. The pharmacokinetics (PK) and metabolism were assessed in normal mice after intravenous administration of 18F-SMBT-1. A 14-day toxicity study following the intravenous administration of SMBT-1 was performed using rats and mice. Results: In vitro binding assays demonstrated a high binding affinity of SMBT-1 to MAO-B (KD = 3.7 nM). In contrast, it showed low binding affinity to MAO-A and protein aggregates such as amyloid-ß and tau fibrils. Autoradiographic analysis showed higher amounts of 18F-SMBT-1 binding in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain sections than in the control brain sections. 18F-SMBT-1 binding was completely displaced with reversible MAO-B inhibitor lazabemide, demonstrating the high selectivity of 18F-SMBT-1 for MAO-B. Furthermore, 18F-SMBT-1 showed a high uptake by brain, rapid washout, and no radiolabeled metabolites in the brain of normal mice. SMBT-1 showed no significant binding to various receptors, ion channels, and transporters, and no toxic effects related to its administration were observed in mice and rats. Conclusion: 18F-SMBT-1 is a promising and selective MAO-B PET tracer candidate, which would be useful for quantitative monitoring of astrogliosis in the human brain.

5.
Development ; 147(9)2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398354

RESUMO

Osteoblasts arise from bone-surrounding connective tissue containing tenocytes and fibroblasts. Lineages of these cell populations and mechanisms of their differentiation are not well understood. Screening enhancer-trap lines of zebrafish allowed us to identify Ebf3 as a transcription factor marking tenocytes and connective tissue cells in skeletal muscle of embryos. Knockout of Ebf3 in mice had no effect on chondrogenesis but led to sternum ossification defects as a result of defective generation of Runx2+ pre-osteoblasts. Conditional and temporal Ebf3 knockout mice revealed requirements of Ebf3 in the lateral plate mesenchyme cells (LPMs), especially in tendon/muscle connective tissue cells, and a stage-specific Ebf3 requirement at embryonic day 9.5-10.5. Upregulated expression of connective tissue markers, such as Egr1/2 and Osr1, increased number of Islet1+ mesenchyme cells, and downregulation of gene expression of the Runx2 regulator Shox2 in Ebf3-deleted thoracic LPMs suggest crucial roles of Ebf3 in the onset of lateral plate mesoderm differentiation towards osteoblasts forming sternum tissues.

6.
Gut ; 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common prelude to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The genetic rs641738 C> T variant in the lysophosphatidylinositol acyltransferase 1 (LPIAT1)/membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain-containing 7, which incorporates arachidonic acid into phosphatidylinositol (PI), is associated with the entire spectrum of NAFLD. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying this association in mice and cultured human hepatocytes. DESIGN: We generated the hepatocyte-specific Lpiat1 knockout mice to investigate the function of Lpiat1 in vivo. We also depleted LPIAT1 in cultured human hepatic cells using CRISPR-Cas9 systems or siRNA. The effect of LPIAT1-depletion on liver fibrosis was examined in mice fed high fat diet and in liver spheroids. Lipid species were measured using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Lipid metabolism was analysed using radiolabeled glycerol or fatty acids. RESULTS: The hepatocyte-specific Lpiat1 knockout mice developed hepatic steatosis spontaneously, and hepatic fibrosis on high fat diet feeding. Depletion of LPIAT1 in cultured hepatic cells and in spheroids caused triglyceride accumulation and collagen deposition. The increase in hepatocyte fat content was due to a higher triglyceride synthesis fueled by a non-canonical pathway. Indeed, reduction in the PI acyl chain remodelling caused a high PI turnover, by stimulating at the same time PI synthesis and breakdown. The degradation of PI was mediated by a phospholipase C, which produces diacylglycerol, a precursor of triglyceride. CONCLUSION: We found a novel pathway fueling triglyceride synthesis in hepatocytes, by a direct metabolic flow of PI into triglycerides. Our findings provide an insight into the pathogenesis and therapeutics of NAFLD.

7.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 526(1): 122-127, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199617

RESUMO

Overloading of the saturated fatty acid (SFA) palmitate induces cardiomyocyte death. The purpose of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways contributing to palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte death. Palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte death was induced in Toll-like receptor 2/4 double-knockdown cardiomyocytes to a similar extent as wild-type cardiomyocytes, while cardiomyocyte death was canceled out by triacsin C, a long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase inhibitor. These results indicated that palmitate induced cytotoxicity after entry and conversion into palmitoyl-CoA. Palmitoyl-CoA is not only degraded by mitochondrial oxidation but also taken up as a component of membrane phospholipids. Palmitate overloading causes cardiomyocyte membrane fatty acid (FA) saturation, which is associated with the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling. We focused on the ER UPR signaling as a possible mechanism of cell death. Palmitate loading activates the UPR signal via membrane FA saturation, but not via unfolded protein overload in the ER since the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyrate failed to suppress palmitate-induced ER UPR. The mammalian UPR relies on three ER stress sensors named inositol requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1), PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Palmitate loading activated only IRE1 and PERK. Knockdown of PERK did not affect palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte death, while knockdown of IRE1 suppressed palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte death. However, knockdown of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), the downstream effector of IRE1, did not affect palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte death. These results were validated by pharmacological inhibitor experiments. In conclusion, we identified that palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte death was triggered by IRE1-mediated signaling independent of XBP1.

8.
J Artif Organs ; 23(3): 203-206, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112156

RESUMO

Future development of innovative artificial organs is closely related with cutting edge emerging technology. These technologies include brain machine or computer interface, organs made by three dimensional bioprinting, organs designed from induced-pluripotent stem cell for personalized tissue or organ, and xenotransplantation. To bridge the gap between scientific innovation and regulatory product review, Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency of Japan (PMDA) started the science board to discuss about the new scientific topics regarding medical products including medical device and regenerative products with external experts since 2012. Topics which PMDA raised for science board included cellular and tissue-based products from iPS cells, artificial intelligence and genome editing technology. In addition, PMDA started the horizon scanning to identify a new cutting edge technology which could potentially lead to innovative health technology or product, which has a strong impact on clinical medicine. Although the effectiveness and safety of the medical products must be reasonably assured before clinical use, PMDA introduced Sakigake review assignment (a review partner of device development) and conditional approval system to balance between pre-market and post-market evaluation.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 507, 2020 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980612

RESUMO

The timing and characteristics of neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain largely unknown. Here we examine AD mouse models with an original marker, myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate phosphorylated at serine 46 (pSer46-MARCKS), and reveal an increase of neuronal necrosis during pre-symptomatic phase and a subsequent decrease during symptomatic phase. Postmortem brains of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) rather than symptomatic AD patients reveal a remarkable increase of necrosis. In vivo imaging reveals instability of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in mouse AD models and genome-edited human AD iPS cell-derived neurons. The level of nuclear Yes-associated protein (YAP) is remarkably decreased in such neurons under AD pathology due to the sequestration into cytoplasmic amyloid beta (Aß) aggregates, supporting the feature of YAP-dependent necrosis. Suppression of early-stage neuronal death by AAV-YAPdeltaC reduces the later-stage extracellular Aß burden and cognitive impairment, suggesting that preclinical/prodromal YAP-dependent neuronal necrosis represents a target for AD therapeutics.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retículo Endoplasmático/patologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Proteína HMGB1/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Transgênicos , Necrose , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Esfingosina/metabolismo , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo
11.
EuroIntervention ; 15(18): e1580-e1587, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951203

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms of cognitive impairment and reversibility in elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with special reference to cerebral blood flow (CBF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined 15 elderly patients with severe AS (mean age 83.2±4.5 years, 12 female) who underwent TAVI. Before and three months after TAVI, we evaluated cognitive function with the Logical Memory II test (LM II), cardiac output (CO) with echocardiography, and CBF with 99mTc single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). LM II score and CO were significantly increased after TAVI compared with baseline (p<0.01 for LM II, p<0.005 for CO). Notably, CBF in the local regions, including that in the right hippocampus, was significantly increased after TAVI (p<0.005 at each voxel). The patients with increased CO after TAVI also showed significantly increased CBF in the right hippocampus compared with those without it (p<0.01). Importantly, CBF in the right hippocampus was positively correlated with LM II scores (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first evidence that TAVI may improve cognitive functions associated with increased cerebral perfusion especially in the hippocampus in elderly patients with severe AS.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Cognição/fisiologia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Débito Cardíaco , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 47(3): 365-371, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758723

RESUMO

Accelerated bone loss is closely associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and imaging markers of neurodegeneration remains uncertain. We examined the effect of low bone mass (osteopenia) on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with AD (n = 19) and non-demented aging (n = 12). We enrolled 31 female outpatients diagnosed with osteopenia (age ≥ 65 years) who had both a single-photon emission computed tomography brain scan and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry bone scan taken at their initial investigation. We analyzed the relationship between osteopenia (-2.5 < T-score < -1) and rCBF in 62 cortical areas measured using the stereotactic extraction estimation analysis on single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) (mean Z-scores). We found that the mean Z-scores of 14 cerebral subregions, most of which are often affected early in AD, were significantly lower in the AD group than the non-demented group (P < .001). The age-stratified multivariate regression analysis showed that the decreased rCBF in the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) was an independent predictor of osteopenia (r = -0.395; P = .005). BMD and rCBF in the left PCC were significantly correlated in the overall population (r = -0.54; P = .001), as well as the AD group (r = -0.514; P = .02). These imaging data suggest that osteopenia may contribute to neurodegeneration of a brain network hub associated with AD.

13.
Clin Immunol ; 210: 108310, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743749

RESUMO

Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with Japanese cedar (JCe) pollinosis was expected to be effective for Japanese cypress (JCy) pollinosis. However, only a half of JCy pollinosis patients clinically improved. Therefore, we examined the immunological effect of SLIT for JCy pollinosis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with JCe and JCy pollinosis who did and did not receive SLIT were incubated with Cry j 1, Cha o 1 and Cha o 3 antigens. Basophil activation test (BAT) were performed. Production of IL-5 and IL-17 induced by antigens was inhibited in the SLIT group. Cry j 1-specific production of IL-10 was increased, and serum Cry j 1-specific IgE and -IgG4 were elevated. However, Cha o 1- or Cha o 3-specific production of IL-10 and specific IgG4 was not increased. Antigens-specific BAT did not decrease after SLIT. New SLIT with JCe and JCy is needed for patients with combined JCe and JCy pollinosis.

14.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(2): 144-149, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829506

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the characteristics of adverse drug reactions (ADR) and their risk factors among very old patients in five geriatric wards in Japan. METHODS: A retrospective observational multicenter study was carried out to investigate factors related to ADR in older inpatients from geriatric wards of five university hospitals in Japan. Data including drugs profile and short-form comprehensive geriatric assessment were obtained from medical charts. ADR were identified from geriatrician's reports. For each ADR, symptoms and causal drugs were clarified, and factors associated with ADR were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: In 1155 patients (52.5% women, mean age 82.8 ± 7.0 years), the proportion with ADR was 15.4%. There was a great variety of signs and symptoms of ADR, and a great variety of drugs suspected to be the cause of ADR. On multiple logistic regression analysis, ADR was significantly associated with an increase in drugs (odds ratio 1.11, 95% CI 1.07-1.16) and emergency admission (odds ratio 2.76, 95% CI 1.82-4.15). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the optimal cut-off number of drugs for predicting ADR was ≥7. CONCLUSIONS: In geriatric inpatients, polypharmacy (especially ≥7 drugs) and emergency admission were associated with ADR. Because there was a great variety of ADR in the study, clinicians must consider reviewing all drugs to prevent adverse drugs reactions during admission in this vulnerable population. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2019; ••: ••-••. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 144-149.

16.
Invest New Drugs ; 38(2): 410-418, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020609

RESUMO

KRAS wild-type colorectal cancers initially responsive to anti-endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies [cetuximab (Cetu)/panitumumab (Pani)] develop acquired resistance. Overexpression of EGFR ligands such as heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) may be one resistance mechanism. This phase I study of U3-1565, anti-HB-EGF antibody, and Cetu combination therapy enrolled patients with KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer who had received two ≤ regimens with fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and Cetu/Pani and had disease progression on Cetu/Pani. Recommended dose (RD) was determined in the 1st stage, followed by evaluation of efficacy at the RD level in the 2nd-stage. Cetu was given at a loading dose of 400 mg/m2 followed by weekly infusions of 250 mg/m2 in levels 1 and 0. U3-1565 was administered at a loading dose of 24 mg/m2 followed by biweekly infusions of 16 mg/m2 in level 1 and 16-12 mg/m2 in level 0. Twenty-two patients were enrolled. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed among three patients in level 1 in the first stage, which was determined as RD. Grade 3 or higher adverse events occurred in 59.1%; those in ≥5% of patients were anemia, γ-GTP elevation, and acneiform rash. Overall response rate was 0.0% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0%-15.4%] and disease control was achieved in 17 patients (77.3%, 95% CI: 54.6%-92.2%). Median progression-free survival time was 85.0 days (95% CI: 54.0-91.0) and median survival time was 196 days (95% CI: 113.0-306.0). RD was determined as level 1. The efficacy of this combination therapy after progression on Cetu/Pani was negligible. Trial Registration: UMIN000013006.

17.
Esophagus ; 17(1): 67-73, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Fistula is one of the known complications of T4 esophageal cancer (T4-EC). The standard treatment for T4-EC is chemoradiotherapy, but detailed data about fistula resulting from chemoradiotherapy in this condition are limited. In particular, radiographic findings of T4-EC with fistula have not been reported. This study assessed the risk factors of fistula based on clinical information on patients with chemoradiotherapy for T4-EC. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 59 T4-EC patients who had squamous cell carcinoma without any fistula before receiving definitive or palliative chemoradiotherapy. RESULTS: A fistula was observed in 18 patients (31%) throughout their clinical course. The overall survival in the fistula group was significantly shorter than that in the non-fistula group (259 vs. 346 days; p = 0.0341). The axial tumor size on computed tomography (CT) was confirmed as an independent risk factor for esophageal fistula in multivariate analysis of stepwise methods [OR 1.226; 95% CI 1.109-1.411; p < 0.0001]. Twelve out of 14 patients with an axial tumor size of 50 mm or greater had developed a fistula. CONCLUSIONS: A large tumor size on the axial plane on CT is a risk factor for fistula formation.

19.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 81: 101912, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715423

RESUMO

Regorafenib is a multi-targeting kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer patients in refractory to standard chemotherapy. Similarly to sorafenib, this agent was originally developed as a RAF1 inhibitor. However, the kinase inhibitory profile is distinct from sorafenib. A broad-spectrum of kinase inhibition induces wide-range drug sensitivity, irrespective of mutation status of major oncogenes. This agent's main therapeutic effects are anti-angiogenesis and the remodeling of tumor microenvironment through several mechanisms of action. The dual blockade of VEGF receptors and TIE2 can lead to both additive anti-angiogenesis effects and the suggestive unique regulation of vessel stability. Additionally, it inhibits molecular escape pathways to VEGF inhibition (e.g., FGF, PIGF, and PDGF signaling), enabling its continuous antiangiogenic effect even in tumors resistant to VEGF inhibitors. Furthermore, regorafenib has the important effect of enhancing anti-tumor immunity via macrophage modulation. Based on this concept, clinical trials have been recently launched for the development of a combination strategy with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Contrary to regorafenib induced clinical benefits and advances in the novel strategy, currently no predictive biomarkers have been identified. In the present review, we revisit and summarize regorafenib's unique mechanisms of action. The review could highlight molecular insights and provide some perspective for the search of predictive biomarkers used in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with regorafenib.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Mutação , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Receptor TIE-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas ras/genética
20.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 8(42)2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624154

RESUMO

Hydrogenovibrio marinus is a mesophilic, obligately chemolithoautotrophic, and hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium that uses three different RubisCOs at different carbon dioxide tensions. Here, we report its complete genome sequence, which is 2,491,293 bp long, with an average GC content of 44.1%.

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