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2.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 97(5): 633-645, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843084

RESUMO

Cohen syndrome (CS) is a rare genetic disorder due to mutations in VPS13B gene. Among various clinical and biological features, CS patients suffer from inconsistent neutropenia, which is associated with recurrent but minor infections. We demonstrate here that this neutropenia results from an exaggerate rate of neutrophil apoptosis. Besides this increased cell death, which occurs in the absence of any endoplasmic reticulum stress or defect in neutrophil elastase (ELANE) expression or localization, all neutrophil functions appeared to be normal. We showed a disorganization of the Golgi apparatus in CS neutrophils precursors, that correlates with an altered glycosylation of ICAM-1 in these cells, as evidenced by a migration shift of the protein. Furthermore, a striking decrease in the expression of SERPINB1 gene, which encodes a critical component of neutrophil survival, was detected in CS neutrophils. These abnormalities may account for the excessive apoptosis of neutrophils leading to neutropenia in CS. KEY MESSAGES: Cohen syndrome patients' neutrophils display normal morphology and functions. Cohen syndrome patients' neutrophils have an increased rate of spontaneous apoptosis compared to healthy donors' neutrophils. No ER stress or defective ELA2 expression or glycosylation was observed in Cohen syndrome patients' neutrophils. SerpinB1 expression is significantly decreased in Cohen syndrome neutrophils as well as in VPS13B-deficient cells.

5.
Exp Hematol Oncol ; 7: 5, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29484276

RESUMO

Background: Expression of SRY [sex-determining region Y]-box11 (SOX11) is specific to mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and contributes, in conjunction with immunoglobulin variable heavy chain gene mutation status, to the identification of two forms of this disease. Methods: The aim of this report was firstly, to design an easy and suitable RT-qPCR method to quantify SOX11 mRNA expression in mantle cell lymphoma and other B cell malignancies with the proper reference gene; secondly, to define the best threshold of relative quantity of SOX11 mRNA in order to reach the best compromise between sensitivity and specificity. Results: For best discrimination of MCL and non-MCL groups we determined an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.9750 and a threshold of 1.76 with 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity. AUC and threshold values of respectively 0.91/1.346 [87% sensitivity, 80% specificity] and 0.9525/1.7120 [100% sensitivity, 88% specificity] for GAPDH and RPLP0 respectively denote that the RPLP0 reference gene alone is sufficient for PCR housekeeping gene. Conclusion: This work describes an RT-qPCR assay for SOX11 expression in order to better characterize MCL at diagnosis. Further studies on larger cohorts are needed to evaluate this molecular tool, especially for the follow-up of minimal residual disease.

6.
Birth Defects Res ; 110(4): 382-389, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29193896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: OFD1 syndrome is a rare ciliopathy inherited on a dominant X-linked mode, typically lethal in males in the first or second trimester of pregnancy. It is characterized by oral cavity and digital anomalies possibly associated with cerebral and renal signs. Its prevalence is between 1/250,000 and 1/50,000 births. It is due to heterozygous mutations of OFD1 and mutations are often de novo (75%). Familial forms show highly variable phenotypic expression. OFD1 encodes a protein involved in centriole growth, distal appendix formation, and ciliogenesis. CASES: We report the investigation of three female fetuses in which corpus callosum agenesis was detected by ultrasound during the second trimester of pregnancy. In all three fetuses, fetopathological examination allowed the diagnosis of OFD1 syndrome, which was confirmed by molecular analysis. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, these are the first case reports of antenatal diagnosis of OFD1 syndrome in the absence of familial history, revealed following detection of agenesis of the corpus callosum. They highlight the impact of fetal examination following termination of pregnancy for brain malformations. They also highlight the contribution of ciliary genes to corpus callosum development.


Assuntos
Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Feto/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndromes Orofaciodigitais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
7.
J Med Genet ; 54(6): 371-380, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28289185

RESUMO

Oral-facial-digital syndromes (OFDS) gather rare genetic disorders characterised by facial, oral and digital abnormalities associated with a wide range of additional features (polycystic kidney disease, cerebral malformations and several others) to delineate a growing list of OFDS subtypes. The most frequent, OFD type I, is caused by a heterozygous mutation in the OFD1 gene encoding a centrosomal protein. The wide clinical heterogeneity of OFDS suggests the involvement of other ciliary genes. For 15 years, we have aimed to identify the molecular bases of OFDS. This effort has been greatly helped by the recent development of whole-exome sequencing (WES). Here, we present all our published and unpublished results for WES in 24 cases with OFDS. We identified causal variants in five new genes (C2CD3, TMEM107, INTU, KIAA0753 and IFT57) and related the clinical spectrum of four genes in other ciliopathies (C5orf42, TMEM138, TMEM231 and WDPCP) to OFDS. Mutations were also detected in two genes previously implicated in OFDS. Functional studies revealed the involvement of centriole elongation, transition zone and intraflagellar transport defects in OFDS, thus characterising three ciliary protein modules: the complex KIAA0753-FOPNL-OFD1, a regulator of centriole elongation; the Meckel-Gruber syndrome module, a major component of the transition zone; and the CPLANE complex necessary for IFT-A assembly. OFDS now appear to be a distinct subgroup of ciliopathies with wide heterogeneity, which makes the initial classification obsolete. A clinical classification restricted to the three frequent/well-delineated subtypes could be proposed, and for patients who do not fit one of these three main subtypes, a further classification could be based on the genotype.


Assuntos
Face/anormalidades , Síndromes Orofaciodigitais/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/genética , Encefalocele/genética , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Doenças Renais Policísticas/genética , Proteínas/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa
8.
Mol Cytogenet ; 8: 42, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26110021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by hypotonia, delayed neuropsychomotor development, overeating, obesity and mental deficiency. This phenotype is encountered in other conditions, defining Prader-Willi-like syndrome (PWLS). CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 14-year-old boy with a complex small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) associated with PWLS. The propositus presents clinical features commonly found in patients with PWLS, including growth hormone deficit. Banding karyotype analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed a marker derived from chromosome 6 and a neocentromere as suspected, but array-CGH enabled us to characterize this marker as a der(10)t(6;10)(6qter → 6q23.3::10p11.1 → 10p11.21)dn. As far as we know, this is the first diagnosed case of PWLS associated with a complex sSMC, involving a 30.9 Mb gain in the 6q16.3q23.3 region and a 3.5 Mb gain in the 10p11.21p11.1 region. Several genes have been mapped to the 6q region including the TCBA1 gene, which is associated with developmental delay and recurrent infections, the ENPP1 gene, associated with insulin resistance and susceptibility to obesity and the BMIQ3 gene, associated with body mass index (BMI). No OMIM gene was found in the smallest 10p11.21p11.1 region. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the duplicated chromosome segment 6q16.3q23.3 may be responsible for the phenotype of our case and may also be a candidate locus of PWLS.

9.
Prenat Diagn ; 35(7): 675-84, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25754886

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Conradi-Hünermann-Happle [X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata 2 (CDPX2)] syndrome is a rare X-linked dominant skeletal dysplasia usually lethal in men while affected women show wide clinical heterogeneity. Different EBP mutations have been reported. Severe female cases have rarely been reported, with only six antenatal presentations. METHODS: To better characterize the phenotype in female fetuses, we included nine antenatally diagnosed cases of women with EBP mutations. All cases were de novo except for two fetuses with an affected mother and one case of germinal mosaicism. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 22 weeks of gestation. The ultrasound features mainly included bone abnormalities: shortening (8/9 cases) and bowing of the long bones (5/9), punctuate epiphysis (7/9) and an irregular aspect of the spine (5/9). Postnatal X-rays and examination showed ichthyosis (8/9) and epiphyseal stippling (9/9), with frequent asymmetric short and bowed long bones. The X-inactivation pattern of the familial case revealed skewed X-inactivation in the mildly symptomatic mother and random X-inactivation in the severe fetal case. Differently affected skin samples of the same fetus revealed different patterns of X-inactivation. CONCLUSION: Prenatal detection of asymmetric shortening and bowing of the long bones and cartilage stippling should raise the possibility of CPDX2 in female fetuses, especially because the majority of such cases involve de novo mutations.


Assuntos
Condrodisplasia Punctata/diagnóstico por imagem , Fenótipo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Condrodisplasia Punctata/genética , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mutação , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esteroide Isomerases/genética , Inativação do Cromossomo X
10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 23(7): 957-62, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25315659

RESUMO

SASH1 (SAM and SH3 domain-containing protein 1) is a tumor suppressor gene involved in the tumorigenesis of a spectrum of solid cancers. Heterozygous SASH1 variants are known to cause autosomal-dominant dyschromatosis. Homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing were performed in a consanguineous Moroccan family with two affected siblings presenting an unclassified phenotype associating an abnormal pigmentation pattern (hypo- and hyperpigmented macules of the trunk and face and areas of reticular hypo- and hyperpigmentation of the extremities), alopecia, palmoplantar keratoderma, ungueal dystrophy and recurrent spinocellular carcinoma. We identified a homozygous variant in SASH1 (c.1849G>A; p.Glu617Lys) in both affected individuals. Wound-healing assay showed that the patient's fibroblasts were better able than control fibroblasts to migrate. Following the identification of SASH1 heterozygous variants in dyschromatosis, we used reverse phenotyping to show that autosomal-recessive variants of this gene could be responsible for an overlapping but more complex phenotype that affected skin appendages. SASH1 should be added to the list of genes responsible for autosomal-dominant and -recessive genodermatosis, with no phenotype in heterozygous patients in the recessive form, and to the list of genes responsible for a predisposition to skin cancer.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Ceratodermia Palmar e Plantar/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos da Pigmentação/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Consanguinidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Exoma/genética , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Genes Recessivos , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Irmãos , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia
11.
Nat Genet ; 46(8): 905-11, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24997988

RESUMO

Centrioles are microtubule-based, barrel-shaped structures that initiate the assembly of centrosomes and cilia. How centriole length is precisely set remains elusive. The microcephaly protein CPAP (also known as MCPH6) promotes procentriole growth, whereas the oral-facial-digital (OFD) syndrome protein OFD1 represses centriole elongation. Here we uncover a new subtype of OFD with severe microcephaly and cerebral malformations and identify distinct mutations in two affected families in the evolutionarily conserved C2CD3 gene. Concordant with the clinical overlap, C2CD3 colocalizes with OFD1 at the distal end of centrioles, and C2CD3 physically associates with OFD1. However, whereas OFD1 deletion leads to centriole hyperelongation, loss of C2CD3 results in short centrioles without subdistal and distal appendages. Because C2CD3 overexpression triggers centriole hyperelongation and OFD1 antagonizes this activity, we propose that C2CD3 directly promotes centriole elongation and that OFD1 acts as a negative regulator of C2CD3. Our results identify regulation of centriole length as an emerging pathogenic mechanism in ciliopathies.


Assuntos
Centríolos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Síndromes Orofaciodigitais/genética , Linhagem Celular , Pré-Escolar , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Proteínas/genética
12.
Hum Mol Genet ; 23(9): 2391-9, 2014 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24334764

RESUMO

Cohen syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with multisytemic clinical features due to mutations in the VPS13B gene, which has recently been described encoding a mandatory membrane protein involved in Golgi integrity. As the Golgi complex is the place where glycosylation of newly synthesized proteins occurs, we hypothesized that VPS13B deficiency, responsible of Golgi apparatus disturbance, could lead to glycosylation defects and/or mysfunction of this organelle, and thus be a cause of the main clinical manifestations of CS. The glycosylation status of CS serum proteins showed a very unusual pattern of glycosylation characterized by a significant accumulation of agalactosylated fucosylated structures as well as asialylated fucosylated structures demonstrating a major defect of glycan maturation in CS. However, CS transferrin and α1-AT profiles, two liver-derived proteins, were normal. We also showed that intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 and LAMP-2, two highly glycosylated cellular proteins, presented an altered migration profile on SDS-PAGE in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CS patients. RNA interference against VPS13B confirmed these glycosylation defects. Experiments with Brefeldin A demonstrated that intracellular retrograde cell trafficking was normal in CS fibroblasts. Furthermore, early endosomes were almost absent in these cells and lysosomes were abnormally enlarged, suggesting a crucial role of VPS13B in endosomal-lysosomal trafficking. Our work provides evidence that CS is associated to a tissue-specific major defect of glycosylation and endosomal-lysosomal trafficking defect, suggesting that this could be a new key element to decipher the mechanisms of CS physiopathology.


Assuntos
Dedos/anormalidades , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Microcefalia/metabolismo , Hipotonia Muscular/metabolismo , Miopia/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/metabolismo , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Degeneração Retiniana , Transferrina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo
13.
Hum Genet ; 133(3): 367-77, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24178751

RESUMO

Oral-facial-digital syndrome type VI (OFD VI) is a recessive ciliopathy defined by two diagnostic criteria: molar tooth sign (MTS) and one or more of the following: (1) tongue hamartoma (s) and/or additional frenula and/or upper lip notch; (2) mesoaxial polydactyly of one or more hands or feet; (3) hypothalamic hamartoma. Because of the MTS, OFD VI belongs to the "Joubert syndrome related disorders". Its genetic aetiology remains largely unknown although mutations in the TMEM216 gene, responsible for Joubert (JBS2) and Meckel-Gruber (MKS2) syndromes, have been reported in two OFD VI patients. To explore the molecular cause(s) of OFD VI syndrome, we used an exome sequencing strategy in six unrelated families followed by Sanger sequencing. We identified a total of 14 novel mutations in the C5orf42 gene in 9/11 families with positive OFD VI diagnostic criteria including a severe fetal case with microphthalmia, cerebellar hypoplasia, corpus callosum agenesis, polydactyly and skeletal dysplasia. C5orf42 mutations have already been reported in Joubert syndrome confirming that OFD VI and JBS are allelic disorders, thus enhancing our knowledge of the complex, highly heterogeneous nature of ciliopathies.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Síndromes Orofaciodigitais/diagnóstico , Síndromes Orofaciodigitais/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Doenças Cerebelares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cerebelares/genética , Cerebelo/anormalidades , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Exoma , Anormalidades do Olho/diagnóstico , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Feminino , Hamartoma/diagnóstico , Hamartoma/genética , Humanos , Doenças Hipotalâmicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Hipotalâmicas/genética , Doenças Renais Císticas/diagnóstico , Doenças Renais Císticas/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo , Polidactilia/diagnóstico , Polidactilia/genética , Retina/anormalidades , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 164A(2): 522-7, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24311531

RESUMO

Over one hundred VPS13B mutations are reported in Cohen syndrome (CS). Most cases exhibit a homogeneous phenotype that includes intellectual deficiency (ID), microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, slender extremities, truncal obesity, progressive chorioretinal dystrophy, and neutropenia. We report on a patient carrying two VPS13B splicing mutations with an atypical phenotype that included microcephaly, retinopathy, and congenital neutropenia, but neither obesity nor ID. RNA analysis of the IVS34+2T_+3AinsT mutation did not reveal any abnormal splice fragments but mRNA quantification showed a significant decrease in VPS13B expression. RNA sequencing analysis up- and downstream from the IVS57+2T>C mutation showed abnormal splice isoforms. In contrast to patients with typical CS, who express only abnormal VPS13B mRNA and truncated protein, a dose effect of residual normal VPS13B protein possibly explains the incomplete phenotype in the patient. This observation emphasizes that VPS13B analysis should be performed in cases of congenital neutropenia associated with retinopathy, even in the absence of ID, therefore extending the VPS13B phenotype spectrum.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Neutropenia/congênito , Obesidade/genética , Fenótipo , Doenças Retinianas/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Adulto , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Facies , Feminino , Ordem dos Genes , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Neutropenia/diagnóstico , Neutropenia/genética , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Linhagem , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Síndrome
15.
Mol Genet Metab ; 110(3): 268-74, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24075303

RESUMO

We describe a family of seven boys affected by Lesch-Nyhan disease with various phenotypes. Further investigations revealed a mutation c.203T>C in the gene encoding HGprt of all members, with substitution of leucine to proline at residue 68 (p.Leu68Pro). Thus patients from this family display a wide variety of symptoms although sharing the same mutation. Mutant HGprt enzyme was prepared by site-directed mutagenesis and the kinetics of the enzyme revealed that the catalytic activity of the mutant was reduced, in association with marked reductions in the affinity towards phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP). Its Km for PRPP was increased 215-fold with hypoxanthine as substrate and 40-fold with guanine as substrate with associated reduced catalytic potential. Molecular modeling confirmed that the most prominent defect was the dramatically reduced affinity towards PRPP. Our studies suggest that the p.Leu68Pro mutation has a strong impact on PRPP binding and on stability of the active conformation. This suggests that factors other than HGprt activity per se may influence the phenotype of Lesch-Nyhan patients.


Assuntos
Hipoxantina Fosforribosiltransferase/deficiência , Hipoxantina Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Criança , Códon , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Hipoxantina Fosforribosiltransferase/química , Cinética , Síndrome de Lesch-Nyhan/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Lesch-Nyhan/genética , Síndrome de Lesch-Nyhan/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Linhagem , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica , Adulto Jovem
16.
Eur J Med Genet ; 56(12): 674-7, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24095818

RESUMO

CDAGS syndrome is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by craniosynostosis, large open fontanelles, hearing loss, anal anomalies, genitourinary malformations and porokeratosis. To our knowledge, only four families from different geographic regions and ethnic backgrounds have been reported until now and no molecular defect has been identified. Here we report two sisters presenting with craniosynostosis, microcephaly, short downslanting palpebral fissures, sparse hair, eyelashes, and eyebrows and porokeratosis that appeared at the age of one month. The youngest sister had an imperforate anus with rectoperineal fistula. Array-CGH did not reveal any pathological CNV. Molecular analysis of the c16orf57, RECQL4 and MCM5 genes was normal.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/anormalidades , Craniossinostoses/genética , Anormalidades do Sistema Digestório/genética , Poroceratose/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Pré-Escolar , Craniossinostoses/diagnóstico , Anormalidades do Sistema Digestório/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Poroceratose/diagnóstico , RecQ Helicases/genética , Irmãos
17.
Eur J Med Genet ; 56(6): 301-8, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23523602

RESUMO

Oral-facial-digital syndrome type VI (OFD VI) is characterized by the association of malformations of the face, oral cavity and extremities, distinguished from the 12 other OFD syndromes by cerebellar and metacarpal abnormalities. Cerebellar malformations in OFD VI have been described as a molar tooth sign (MTS), thus, including OFD VI among the "Joubert syndrome related disorders" (JSRD). OFD VI diagnostic criteria have recently been suggested: MTS and one or more of the following: 1) tongue hamartoma(s) and/or additional frenula and/or upper lip notch; 2) mesoaxial polydactyly of hands or feet; 3) hypothalamic hamartoma. In order to further delineate this rare entity, we present the neurological and radiological data of 6 additional OFD VI patients. All patients presented oral malformations, facial dysmorphism and distal abnormalities including frequent polydactyly (66%), as well as neurological symptoms with moderate to severe mental retardation. Contrary to historically reported patients, mesoaxial polydactyly did not appear to be a predominant clinical feature in OFD VI. Sequencing analyzes of the 14 genes implicated in JSRD up to 2011 revealed only an OFD1 frameshift mutation in one female OFD VI patient, strengthening the link between these two oral-facial-digital syndromes and JSRD.


Assuntos
Síndromes Orofaciodigitais/diagnóstico , Síndromes Orofaciodigitais/genética , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Mutação , Neuroimagem , Proteínas/genética , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 21(7): 736-42, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23188044

RESUMO

Cohen syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive condition caused by mutations and/or large rearrangements in the VPS13B gene. CS clinical features, including developmental delay, the typical facial gestalt, chorioretinal dystrophy (CRD) and neutropenia, are well described. CS diagnosis is generally raised after school age, when visual disturbances lead to CRD diagnosis and to VPS13B gene testing. This relatively late diagnosis precludes accurate genetic counselling. The aim of this study was to analyse the evolution of CS facial features in the early period of life, particularly before school age (6 years), to find clues for an earlier diagnosis. Photographs of 17 patients with molecularly confirmed CS were analysed, from birth to preschool age. By comparing their facial phenotype when growing, we show that there are no special facial characteristics before 1 year. However, between 2 and 6 years, CS children already share common facial features such as a short neck, a square face with micrognathia and full cheeks, a hypotonic facial appearance, epicanthic folds, long ears with an everted upper part of the auricle and/or a prominent lobe, a relatively short philtrum, a small and open mouth with downturned corners, a thick lower lip and abnormal eye shapes. These early transient facial features evolve to typical CS facial features with aging. These observations emphasize the importance of ophthalmological tests and neutrophil count in children in preschool age presenting with developmental delay, hypotonia and the facial features we described here, for an earlier CS diagnosis.


Assuntos
Face/fisiopatologia , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/diagnóstico , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/genética , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Dedos/anormalidades , Dedos/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Microcefalia/fisiopatologia , Hipotonia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Mutação , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Degeneração Retiniana
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 91(5): 950-7, 2012 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23103230

RESUMO

Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS) is characterized by severe marfanoid habitus, intellectual disability, camptodactyly, typical facial dysmorphism, and craniosynostosis. Using family-based exome sequencing, we identified a dominantly inherited heterozygous in-frame deletion in exon 1 of SKI. Direct sequencing of SKI further identified one overlapping heterozygous in-frame deletion and ten heterozygous missense mutations affecting recurrent residues in 18 of the 19 individuals screened for SGS; these individuals included one family affected by somatic mosaicism. All mutations were located in a restricted area of exon 1, within the R-SMAD binding domain of SKI. No mutation was found in a cohort of 11 individuals with other marfanoid-craniosynostosis phenotypes. The interaction between SKI and Smad2/3 and Smad 4 regulates TGF-ß signaling, and the pattern of anomalies in Ski-deficient mice corresponds to the clinical manifestations of SGS. These findings define SGS as a member of the family of diseases associated with the TGF-ß-signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Aracnodactilia/genética , Craniossinostoses/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Éxons , Genes Dominantes , Síndrome de Marfan/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Facies , Feminino , Ordem dos Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/química , Alinhamento de Sequência , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Med Genet ; 49(6): 400-8, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22693284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-progressive congenital ataxias (NPCA) with or without intellectual disability (ID) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous conditions. As a consequence, the identification of the genes responsible for these phenotypes remained limited. OBJECTIVE: Identification of a new gene responsible for NPCA and ID. Methods Following the discovery of three familial or sporadic cases with an intragenic calmodulin-binding transcription activator 1 (CAMTA1) rearrangement identified by an array-CGH and recruited from a national collaboration, the authors defined the clinical and molecular characteristics of such rearrangements, and searched for patients with point mutations by direct sequencing. RESULTS: Intragenic copy number variations of CAMTA1 were all located in the CG-1 domain of the gene. It segregated with autosomal dominant ID with non-progressive congenital cerebellar ataxia (NPCA) in two unrelated families, and was de novo deletion located in the same domain in a child presenting with NPCA. In the patients with ID, the deletion led to a frameshift, producing a truncated protein, while this was not the case for the patient with isolated childhood ataxia. Brain MRI of the patients revealed a pattern of progressive atrophy of cerebellum medium lobes and superior vermis, parietal lobes and hippocampi. DNA sequencing of the CG-1 domain in 197 patients with sporadic or familial non-syndromic intellectual deficiency, extended to full DNA sequencing in 50 patients with ID and 47 additional patients with childhood ataxia, identified no pathogenic mutation. CONCLUSION: The authors have evidence that loss-of-function of CAMTA1, a brain-specific calcium responsive transcription factor, is responsible for NPCA with or without ID. Accession numbers CAMTA1 reference sequence used was ENST00000303635. Protein sequence was ENSP00000306522.


Assuntos
Ataxia/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transativadores/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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