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1.
Transfusion ; 61 Suppl 1: S174-S182, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Compensatory Reserve Measurement (CRM) is a novel method used to provide early assessment of shock based on arterial wave form morphology changes. We hypothesized that (1) CRM would be significantly lower in those trauma patients who received life-saving interventions compared with those not receiving interventions, and (2) CRM in patients who received interventions would recover after the intervention was performed. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We captured vital signs along with analog arterial waveform data from trauma patients meeting major activation criteria using a prospective study design. Study team members tracked interventions throughout their emergency department stay. RESULTS: Ninety subjects met inclusion with 13 receiving a blood product and 10 a major airway intervention. Most trauma was blunt (69%) with motor vehicle collisions making up the largest proportion (37%) of injury mechanism. Patients receiving blood products had lower CRM values just prior to administration versus those who did not (50% versus 58%, p = .045), and lower systolic pressure (SBP; 95 versus 123 mmHg, p = .005), diastolic (DBP; 62 versus 79, p = .007), and mean arterial pressure (MAP; 75 versus 95, p = .006), and a higher pulse rate (HR; 101 versus 89 bpm, p = .039). Patients receiving an airway intervention had lower CRM values just prior to administration versus those who did not (48% versus 58%, p = .062); however, SBP, DBP, MAP, and HR were not statistically distinguishable (p ≥ .645). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support our hypotheses that the CRM distinguished those patients who received blood or an airway intervention from those who did not, and increased appropriately after interventions were performed.


Assuntos
Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Pressão Arterial , Pressão Sanguínea , Transfusão de Sangue , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Traumático/diagnóstico , Choque Traumático/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia
2.
CJEM ; 23(4): 518-527, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recommended rocuronium dose for rapid sequence intubation is 1.0 mg/kg; however, the optimal dose for emergency airway management is not clear. We assessed the relationship between rocuronium dose and first-attempt success among emergency department (ED) patients undergoing rapid sequence intubation. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of the National Emergency Airway Registry (NEAR), an observational 25-center registry of ED intubations. Ninety percent recording compliance was required from each site for data inclusion. We included all patients > 14 years of age who received rocuronium for rapid sequence intubation from 1 Jan 2016 to 31 Dec 2018. We compared first-attempt success between encounters using alternative rocuronium doses (< 1.0, 1.0-1.1, 1.2-1.3 and ≥1.4 mg/kg). We performed logistic regressions to control for predictors of difficult airways, indication, pre-intubation hemodynamics, operator, body habitus and device. We also performed subgroup analyses stratified by device (direct vs. video laryngoscopy). We calculated univariate descriptive statistics and odds ratios (OR) from multivariable logistic regressions with cluster-adjusted 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: 19,071 encounters were recorded during the 3-year period. Of these, 8,034 utilized rocuronium for rapid sequence intubation. Overall, first attempt success was 88.4% for < 1.0 mg/kg, 88.1% for 1.0-1.1 mg/kg, 89.7% for 1.2-1.3 mg/kg, and 92.2% for ≥1.4 mg/kg. Logistic regression demonstrated that when direct laryngoscopy was used and when compared to the standard dosing range of 1.0-1.1 mg/kg, the adjusted odds of a first attempt success was significantly higher in ≥1.4 mg/kg group at 1.9 (95% CI 1.3-2.7) relative to the other dosing ranges, OR 0.9 (95% CI 0.7-1.2) for < 1.0 mg/kg and OR 1.2 (95% CI 0.9-1.7) for the 1.2-1.3 mg/kg group. First-attempt success was similar across all rocuronium doses among patients utilizing video laryngoscopy. Patients who were hypotensive (SBP < 100 mmHg) prior to intubation had higher first-attempt success 94.9% versus 88.6% when higher doses of rocuronium were used. The rates of all peri-intubation adverse events and desaturation were similar between dosing groups, laryngoscope type utilized and varying pre-intubation hemodynamics. CONCLUSIONS: Rocuronium dosed ≥1.4 mg/kg was associated with higher first attempt success when using direct laryngoscopy and among patients with pre-intubation hypotension with no increase in adverse events. We recommend further prospective evaluation of the dosing of rocuronium prior to offering definitive clinical guidance.

3.
Ann Emerg Med ; 77(3): 317-326, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807537

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Resuscitative thoracotomy is a time-sensitive, lifesaving procedure that may be performed by emergency physicians. The left anterolateral thoracotomy (LAT) is the standard technique commonly used in the United States to gain rapid access to critical intrathoracic structures. However, the smaller incision and subsequent limited exposure may not be optimal for the nonsurgical specialist to complete time-sensitive interventions. The modified bilateral anterior clamshell thoracotomy (MCT) developed by Barts Health NHS Trust clinicians at London's Air Ambulance overcomes these inherent difficulties, maximizes thoracic cavity visualization, and may be the ideal technique for the nonsurgical specialist. The aim of this study is to identify the optimal technique for the nonsurgical-specialist-performed resuscitative thoracotomy. Secondary aims of the study are to identify technical difficulties, procedural concerns, and physician preferences. METHODS: Emergency medicine staff and senior resident physicians were recruited from an academic Level I trauma center. Subjects underwent novel standardized didactic and skills-specific training on both the MCT and LAT techniques. Later, subjects were randomized to the order of intervention and performed both techniques on separate fresh, nonfrozen human cadaver specimens. Success was determined by a board-certified surgeon and defined as complete delivery of the heart from the pericardial sac and subsequent 100% occlusion of the descending thoracic aorta with a vascular clamp. The primary outcome was time to successful completion of the resuscitative thoracotomy technique. Secondary outcomes included successful exposure of the heart, successful descending thoracic aortic cross clamping, successful procedural completion, time to exposure of the heart, time to descending thoracic aortic cross-clamp placement, number and type of iatrogenic injuries, correct anatomic structure identification, and poststudy participant questionnaire. RESULTS: Sixteen emergency physicians were recruited; 15 met inclusion criteria. All participants were either emergency medicine resident (47%) or emergency medicine staff (53%). The median number of previously performed training LATs was 12 (interquartile range 6 to 15) and the median number of previously performed MCTs was 1 (interquartile range 1 to 1). The success rates of our study population for the MCT and LAT techniques were not statistically different (67% versus 40%; difference 27%; 95% confidence interval -61% to 8%). However, staff emergency physicians were significantly more successful with the MCT compared with the LAT (88% versus 25%; difference 63%; 95% CI 9% to 92%). Overall, the MCT also had a significantly higher proportion of injury-free trials compared with the LAT technique (33% versus 0%; difference 33%; 95% CI 57% to 9%). Physician procedure preference favored the MCT over the LAT (87% versus 13%; difference 74%; 95% CI 23% to 97%). CONCLUSION: Resuscitative thoracotomy success rates were lower than expected in this capable subject population. Success rates and procedural time for the MCT and LAT were similar. However, the MCT had a higher success rate when performed by staff emergency physicians, resulted in less periprocedural iatrogenic injuries, and was the preferred technique by most subjects. The MCT is a potentially feasible alternative resuscitative thoracotomy technique that requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência/métodos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Toracotomia/métodos , Adulto , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Cross-Over , Medicina de Emergência/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Erros Médicos/prevenção & controle , Erros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Ressuscitação/normas , Toracotomia/efeitos adversos , Toracotomia/normas
4.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 37(1): e21-e24, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vascular access in critically ill pediatric patients can be challenging with delays potentially leading to worse outcomes. Intraosseous (IO) access has a low rate of complications and can be utilized to administer lifesaving medications. Combat medics are trained to treat adults but may also be required to treat children in the deployed setting. Vascular access in children can be challenging, especially in a hypovolemic state. There are limited data on prehospital lifesaving interventions in children in the combat setting. We sought to characterize the use of IO access in pediatric patients who sustained trauma in the combat setting. METHODS: We queried the Department of Defense Trauma Registry for all pediatric patients admitted to fixed-facilities and forward surgical teams in Iraq and Afghanistan from January 2007 to January 2016. Within that population, we searched for all subjects with a documented prehospital IO or intravenous (IV) access obtained. Subjects with both an IO and IV documented were placed into the IO category. We separated subjects by age groupings: younger than 1, 1 to 4, 5 to 9, 10 to 14, and 15 to 17 years. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 3439 subjects 17 years or younger. There were 177 in the IO cohort and 803 in the IV cohort. Most subjects in the IO cohort were in the 10- to 14-year-old age group (35.6%), male (79.1%), located in Afghanistan (95.5%), and injured by explosive (52.0%), with lower survival rates than the IV cohort (68.9% vs 90.7%, P < 0.001). Hemostatic dressing application, tourniquet application, intubation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, sedative administration, ketamine administration, and paralytic administration were all higher in the IO cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric IO placement in the prehospital setting occurred infrequently. Pediatric subjects receiving an IO had higher injury severity scores and higher mortality rates compared with those who received an IV only. Intraosseous use appears to be used more often in critically ill pediatric subjects.

5.
Mil Med ; 186(3-4): e366-e372, 2021 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200779

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The U.S. military currently utilizes unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for reconnaissance and attack missions; however, as combat environment technology advances, there is the increasing likelihood of UAV utilization in prehospital aeromedical evacuation. Although some combat casualties require life-saving interventions (LSIs) during medical evacuation, many do not. Our objective was to describe patients transported from the point of injury to the first level of care and characterize differences between patients who received LSIs en route and those who did not. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of the records of traumatically injured patients evacuated between January 2011 and March 2014. We compared patient characteristics, complications, and outcomes based on whether they had an LSI performed en route (LSI vs. No LSI). We also constructed logistic regression models to determine which characteristics predict uneventful flights (no en route LSI or complications). RESULTS: We examined 1,267 patient records; 47% received an LSI en route. Most patients (72%) sustained a blast injury and injuries to the extremities and head. Over 78% experienced complications en route; the LSI group had higher rates of complications compared to the No LSI group. Logistic regression showed that having a blunt injury or the highest abbreviated injury scale (AIS) severity score in the head/neck region are significant predictors of having an uneventful flight. CONCLUSION: Approximately half of casualties evaluated in our study did not receive an LSI during transport and may have been transported safely by UAV. Having a blunt injury or the highest AIS severity score in the head/neck region significantly predicted an uneventful flight.


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , Militares , Traumatismos por Explosões , Humanos , Registros Médicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes
6.
AEM Educ Train ; 4(4): 347-358, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150277

RESUMO

Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a modification of cardiopulmonary bypass that allows prolonged support of patients with severe respiratory or cardiac failure. ECMO indications arse rapidly evolving and there is growing interest in its use for cardiac arrest and cardiogenic shock. However, ECMO training programs are limited. Training of emergency medicine and critical care clinicians could expand the use of this lifesaving intervention. Our objective was to develop and evaluate an abbreviated ECMO course that can be taught to emergency and critical care physicians and nurses. Methods: We developed a training model using Yorkshire swine (Sus scrofa), a procedure instruction checklist, a confidence assessment, and a knowledge assessment. Participants were assigned to teams of one emergency medicine or critical care physician and one nurse and completed an abbreviated 8-hour ECMO course. An ECMO specialist trained participants on preparation of the ECMO circuit and oversaw vascular access and ECMO initiation. We used the instruction checklist to evaluate performance. Participants completed confidence and knowledge assessments before and after the course. Results: Seventeen teams (34 clinicians) completed the abbreviated ECMO course. None had previously completed an ECMO certification course. Immediately following the course, all teams successfully primed and prepared the ECMO circuit. Fifteen teams (88%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 64% to 99%) successfully initiated ECMO. Participants improved their knowledge (difference 21.2, 95% CI = 16.5 to 25.8) and confidence (difference 40.3, 95% CI = 35.6 to 45.0) scores after completing the course. Conclusions: We developed an accelerated 1-day ECMO course. Clinicians' confidence and knowledge assessments improved and 88% of teams could successfully initiate venoarterial ECMO after the course.

7.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; : 1-8, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emergency department (ED) poses challenges to effective handoff from emergency medical services (EMS) personnel to ED staff. Despite the importance of a complete and accurate patient handoff report between EMS and trauma staff, communication is often interrupted, incomplete, or otherwise ineffective. The Mechanism of injury/Medical Complaint, Injuries or Inspections head to toe, vital Signs, and Treatments (MIST) report initiative was implemented to standardize the handoff process. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether documentation of prehospital care in the inpatient medical record improved after MIST implementation. METHODS: Research staff abstracted data from the EMS and inpatient medical records of trauma patients transported by EMS and treated at a Level I trauma center from January 2015 through June 2017. Data included patient demographics, mechanism and location of injury, vital signs, treatments, and period of data collection (pre-MIST and post-MIST). We summarized the MIST elements in EMS and inpatient medical records and assessed the presence or absence of data elements in the inpatient record from the EMS record and the agreement between the two sets of records over time to determine if implementation of MIST improved documentation. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 533 trauma patients transported by EMS and treated in a Level I trauma center (pre-MIST: n = 281; post-MIST: n = 252). For mechanism of injury, agreement between the two records was ≥96% before and after MIST implementation. Cardiac arrest and location of injury were under-reported in the inpatient record before MIST; post-MIST, there were no significant discrepancies, indicating an improvement in reporting. Reporting of prehospital hypotension improved from 76.5% pre-MIST to 83.3% post-MIST. After MIST implementation, agreement between the EMS and inpatient records increased for the reporting of fluid administration (45.6% to 62.7%) and decreased for reporting of pain medications (72.2% to 61.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The use of the standardized MIST tool for EMS to hospital patient handoff was associated with a mixed value on inpatient documentation of prehospital events. After MIST implementation, agreement was higher for mechanism and location of injury and lower for vital signs and treatments. Further research can advance the prehospital to treatment facility handoff process.

8.
Mil Med ; 185(11-12): e2110-e2114, 2020 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871008

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The HEART (history, electrocardiogram [ECG], age, risk factors, troponin) pathway is a useful tool in the emergency department to identify patients that are safe for outpatient evaluation of chest pain. A dedicated HEART Clinic to follow-up versus primary care remains a topic that requires further delineation. We sought to identify how many patients discharged on the HEART pathway specifically followed up with the established HEART Clinic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a previously published dataset. In an initial validation study of the HEART Pathway, 625 consecutive subjects were identified via chart review, 449 of which were included. We identified subjects for inclusion in this study if they were found to have a HEART score of 3 or less. Subjects were excluded if they were admitted or if their follow-up was beyond 6 weeks. RESULTS: Of the 449 subjects, 185 met criteria for study inclusion. 125 (67.6%) had follow-up with an average time of 7.94 days (95% CI: 6.54-9.34). Of those, half had additional testing such as ECG, cardiac computed tomography angiography, and treadmill stress testing. The most common clinics for follow-up were the Family Medicine, Internal Medicine, and HEART Clinic representing 35.8, 29, and 18% of the follow-ups, respectively. No subject died, had a myocardial infarction, or required reperfusion. CONCLUSIONS: Of the subjects discharged on the HEART Pathway, 67.6% followed up. Of those subjects that followed up, 18% did so at the HEART Clinic.


Assuntos
Alta do Paciente , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio , Medição de Risco , Troponina
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236256, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716984

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies demonstrate increased intracranial pressure (ICP) during direct laryngoscopy in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Worse outcomes in TBI have been associated with increased ICP. It remains unclear if the same effect occurs during cricothyrotomy. We evaluated changes in cerebral blood flow and hemodynamic changes that occurred during preparation for cricothyrotomy in healthy volunteers. METHODS: An emergency medicine trainee performed routine anatomical procedural palpation with simultaneous transcranial doppler (TCD) measurements of cerebral blood flow velocities (CBFV) from bilateral middle cerebral arteries (MCAs). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded throughout event. Our primary outcome was changes in pulsatility index (PI) and CBFV by TCD during palpation. TCD measurements were used as a surrogate for ICP. RESULTS: We enrolled 20 healthy volunteers for this study. No significant differences were found in pulsatility index [Right MCA -0.02 (95% confidence interval, -0.09 to 0.06), left MCA -0.02 (95% confidence interval, -0.011 to 0.07)] or mean CBFV [right MCA -0.70 mm/s (95% confidence interval, -10.15 to 8.75) left MCA -1.20 mm/s (95% confidence interval, -10.68 to 8.28)] during palpation. No significant change in HR was found [-1.1 bpm ((95% confidence interval, -2.4 to 0.1)]. A change in MAP was observed [1.3 mmHg (95% confidence interval, -0.1 to 2.4)]. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy individuals, no clinically significant change in cerebral blood flow velocities, ICP, or change heart rate was observed during palpation for cricothyrotomy.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Palpação , Traqueia/fisiologia , Adulto , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fluxo Pulsátil
10.
Mil Med ; 185(9-10): e1646-e1653, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515785

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are life-threatening, and air transport of patients with TBI requires additional considerations. To mitigate the risks of complications associated with altitude, some patients fly with a cabin altitude restriction (CAR) to limit the altitude at which an aircraft's cabin is maintained. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of CARs on patients with TBI transported out of theater via Critical Care Air Transport Teams. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with moderate-to-severe TBI evacuated out of combat theater to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center via Critical Care Air Transport Teams. We collected demographics, flight and injury information, procedures, oxygenation, and outcomes (discharge disposition and hospital/ICU/ventilator days). We categorized patients as having a CAR if they had a documented CAR or maximum cabin altitude of 5,000 feet or lower in their Critical Care Air Transport Teams record. We calculated descriptive statistics and constructed regression models to evaluate the association between CAR and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: We reviewed the charts of 435 patients, 31% of which had a documented CAR. Nineteen percent of the sample had a PaO2 lower than 80 mm Hg, and 3% of patients experienced a SpO2 lower than 93% while in flight. When comparing preflight and in-flight events, we found that the percentage of patients who had a SpO2 of 93% or lower increased for the No CAR group, whereas the CAR group did not experience a significant change. However, flying without a CAR was not associated with discharge disposition, mortality, or hospital/ICU/ventilator days. Further, having a CAR was not associated with these outcomes after adjusting for additional flights, injury severity, injury type, or preflight head surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with TBI who flew with a CAR did not differ in clinical outcomes from those without a CAR.


Assuntos
Altitude , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544142

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the use of a color-only method syringe for accuracy and timeliness when administrating midazolam. This method was compared with a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved validation method. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, crossover trial was conducted to compare the dosing accuracy and timeliness of the color-only syringe method versus the validation method. Twenty-five participants prepared pediatric midazolam doses according to their preferred method, a FDA-approved validation method, and a color-only method. Primary endpoints included dosing accuracy and time to medication administration. RESULTS: The preferred 3-kg calculations had a median margin of error of 5.6% and a median time to completion of 55.6 seconds. The color-only method took less time to complete than the validation method (median time: 29.5 seconds vs 58.2 seconds). There was no statistically significant difference in errors between the color-only method and the validation method. None of the participants reported a mistake using the color-only method, whereas 25% (5/20) reported a mistake using the validation method. Only 20% (4/20) of participants believed that the validation method found or eliminated any mistakes. There were 8 medication errors identified when participants used the method of choice, 4 with the validation method, and 1 with the color-only method. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in dosing errors between the FDA-approved validation method and the color-only method. Use of a color-only method did reduced time to medication administration when compared with a preferred method and an FDA-approved validation method.

12.
J Surg Res ; 254: 64-74, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence demonstrates that closed chest compressions directly over the left ventricle (LV) in a traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) model improve hemodynamics and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) when compared with traditional compressions. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) also improves hemodynamics and controls hemorrhage in TCA. We hypothesized that chest compressions located over the LV would result in improved hemodynamics and ROSC in a swine model of TCA using REBOA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Transthoracic echo was used to mark the location of the aortic root (traditional location) and the center of the LV on animals (n = 26), which were randomized to receive chest compressions in one of the two locations. After hemorrhage, ventricular fibrillation was induced to simulate TCA. After a period of 10 min of ventricular fibrillation, basic life support (BLS) with mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated and performed for 10 min followed by advanced life support for an additional 10 min. REBOA balloons were inflated at 6 min into BLS. Hemodynamic variables were averaged during the final 2 min of the BLS and advanced life support periods. Survival was compared between this REBOA cohort and a control group without REBOA (no-REBOA cohort) (n = 26). RESULTS: There was no significant difference in ROSC between the two REBOA groups (P = 0.24). Survival was higher with REBOA group versus no-REBOA group (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in ROSC between LV and traditional compressions when REBOA was used in this swine model of TCA. REBOA conferred a survival benefit regardless of compression location.


Assuntos
Aorta , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Pressão , Tórax , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Animais , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Ventrículos do Coração , Hemodinâmica , Hemorragia , Estudos Prospectivos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Sus scrofa
13.
Mil Med ; 185(1-2): e138-e145, 2020 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334769

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide and is associated with mortality rates as high as 30%. Patients with TBI are at high risk for secondary injury and need to be transported to definitive care expeditiously. However, the physiologic effects of aeromedical evacuation are not well understood and may compound these risks. Combat TBI patients may benefit from delayed aeromedical evacuation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of transport timing out of theater via Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATT) to a higher level facility on the clinical outcomes of combat casualties with TBI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients with TBI who were evacuated out of theater by CCATT from January 2007 to May 2014. Data abstractors collected flight information, vital signs, procedures, in-flight assessments, and outcomes. Time to transport was defined as the time from injury to CCATT evacuation out of combat theater. We calculated descriptive statistics and constructed regression models to determine the association between time to transport and clinical outcomes. This study was approved by the U.S. Air Force 59th Medical Wing Institutional Review Board. RESULTS: We analyzed the records of 438 patients evacuated out of theater via CCATT and categorized them into three groups: patients who were transported in one day or less (n = 165), two days (n = 163), and three or more days (n = 110). We used logistic regression models to compare outcomes among patients who were evacuated in two days or three or more days to those who were transported within one day while adjusting for demographics, injury severity, and injury type. Patients who were evacuated in two days or three or more days had 50% lower odds of being discharged on a ventilator and were twice as likely to return to duty or be discharged home than those who were evacuated within one day. Additionally, patients transported in three or more days were 70% less likely to be ventilated at discharge with a GCS of 8 or lower and had 30% lower odds of mortality than those transported within one day. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with moderate to severe TBI, a delay in aeromedical evacuation out of the combat theater was associated with improved mortality rates and a higher likelihood of discharge to home and return to duty dispositions. This study is correlational in nature and focused on CCATT transports from Role III to Role IV facilities; as such, care must be taken in interpreting our findings and future studies are needed to establish a causal link between delayed evacuation and improved discharge disposition. Our study suggests that delaying aeromedical evacuation of TBI patients when feasible may confer benefit.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Militares , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Resgate Aéreo , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Humanos , Guerra do Iraque 2003-2011 , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
J Spec Oper Med ; 19(2): 87-90, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Airway obstruction is the second most common cause of potentially preventable death on the battlefield. We compared survival in the combat setting among patients undergoing prehospital versus emergency department (ED) intubation. METHODS: Patients were identified from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DODTR) from January 2007 to August 2016. We defined the prehospital cohort as subjects undergoing intubation prior to arrival to a forward surgical team (FST) or combat support hospital (CSH), and the ED cohort as subjects undergoing intubation at an FST or CSH. We compared study variables between these cohorts; survival was our primary outcome. RESULTS: There were 4341 intubations documented in the DODTR during the study period: 1117 (25.7%) patients were intubated prehospital and 3224 (74.3%) were intubated in the ED. Patients intubated prehospital had a lower median age (24 versus 25 years, p < .001), composed a higher proportion of host nation forces (36.1% versus 29.1%, p < .001), had a lower proportion of injuries from explosives (57.6% versus 61.0%, p = .030), and had higher median injury severity scores (20 versus 18, p = .045). A lower proportion of the prehospital cohort survived to hospital discharge (76.4% versus 84.3%, p < .001). The prehospital cohort had lower odds of survival to hospital discharge in both univariable (odds ratio [OR] 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.71) and multivariable analyses controlling for confounders (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.58-0.85). In a subgroup analysis of patients with a head injury, the lower odds of survival persisted in the multivariable analysis (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.49-0.82). CONCLUSIONS: Patients intubated in the prehospital setting had a lower survival than those intubated in the ED. This finding persisted after controlling for measurable confounders.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/terapia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/terapia , Adulto , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Mil Med ; 184(7-8): e288-e295, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811531

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATTs) transport critically ill patients within and out of theaters of combat operations. Studies of the CCATT population reveal as many as 35% of patients have a non-trauma diagnosis, of which more than half are cardiac.The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the epidemiology of critically ill patients with cardiac diagnoses evacuated from theater via CCATT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 290 medical patients with a primary cardiac diagnosis transported from any theater of operation to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, Germany from January 2007 to April 2015. RESULTS: The majority of patients were male with an average age of 46 ± 11 years, US contractors (47%, n = 137), followed by US Active Duty (32%, n = 93). Patients had an average BMI of 29 ± 5; 62% of cardiac patients were either overweight or obese. The most common cardiac diagnoses were ST elevation myocardial infarction, Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, and angina. Pre-flight vital signs indicate overall patients were stable prior to evacuation, with the majority receiving supplemental oxygen and only 5% requiring mechanical ventilation. Eighty-one percent of patients experienced at least one cardiac event during flight, however less than 5% required adjustment to oxygen or ventilator settings. CONCLUSIONS: Critically ill cardiac patients make up a significant portion of patients transported out of the combat theater. These patients are older, overweight and have identified risk factors for cardiac morbidity. More strenuous pre-deployment screening for risk factors and prevention strategies could minimize the use of military resources to evacuate these patients from the combat theater.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/classificação , Transferência de Pacientes/métodos , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Terminal/classificação , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/complicações , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 57(3): 189-196, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430872

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is found in petroleum, natural gas, and decaying organic matter. Terrorist groups have attempted to use it in enclosed spaces as a chemical weapon. Mass casualty scenarios have occurred from industrial accidents and release from oil field sites. There is no FDA approved antidote for sulfide poisoning. We have previously reported that intravenous cobinamide is effective for sulfide poisoning. A rapid-acting antidote that is easy to administer intramuscularly (IM) would be ideal for use in a prehospital setting. In this study, we assessed survival in sulfide-poisoned swine treated with IM cobinamide. METHODS: Eleven swine (45-55 kg) were anesthetized, intubated, and instrumented with continuous femoral and pulmonary artery pressure monitoring. After stabilization, anesthesia was adjusted such that animals ventilated spontaneously with a FiO2 of 0.21. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, 8 mg/mL) was infused intravenously at 0.9 mg/kg.min until apnea or severe hypotension. Animals were randomly assigned to receive cobinamide (4 mg/kg), or no treatment at the apnea/hypotension trigger. The NaHS infusion rate was sustained for 1.5 min post trigger, decreased to 0.2 mg/kg.min for 10 min, and then discontinued. RESULTS: The amount of NaHS required to produce apnea or hypotension was not statistically different in both groups (cobinamide: 9.0 mg/kg ±6.1; saline: 5.9 mg/kg ±5.5; mean difference: -3.1, 95% CI: -11.3, 5.0). All of the cobinamide treated animals survived (5/5), none of the control (0/6) animals survived (p < .01). Mean time to return to spontaneous ventilation in the cobinamide treated animals was 3.2 (±1.1) min. Time to return to baseline systolic blood pressure (±5%) in cobinamide-treated animals was 5 min. CONCLUSION: Intramuscular cobinamide was effective in improving survival in this large swine model of severe hydrogen sulfide toxicity.


Assuntos
Antídotos/administração & dosagem , Antídotos/uso terapêutico , Cobamidas/administração & dosagem , Cobamidas/uso terapêutico , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/envenenamento , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Apneia/induzido quimicamente , Apneia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipotensão/tratamento farmacológico , Injeções Intramusculares , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Solução Salina , Análise de Sobrevida , Suínos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
South Med J ; 111(8): 453-456, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30075467

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pediatric casualties made up a significant proportion of patients during the recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Damage control resuscitation strategies used by military physicians included rapid reversal of metabolic acidosis to mitigate its pathophysiologic consequences, primarily through hemorrhage control and volume restoration. Alkalizing agents, including tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (THAM), are potential therapeutic adjuncts to treat significant acidosis. There is, however, limited published data on THAM administration in the pediatric trauma population. We compared demographics and outcomes among pediatric trauma patients in Afghanistan and Iraq receiving THAM versus those not receiving THAM. METHODS: We queried the Department of Defense Trauma Registry for all of the pediatric patients admitted to US and Coalition fixed-facility hospitals in Afghanistan and Iraq from January 2007 to January 2016. We retrieved data on age, sex, location, mechanism of injury, Injury Severity Scores, ventilator days, days in the intensive care unit, days of total hospitalization, and survival to hospital discharge. We excluded subjects if they were dead on arrival to the emergency department. RESULTS: From January 2007 to January 2016, there were 3386 pediatric subjects that met our inclusion criteria. Of these, 15 received THAM. The youngest subject receiving THAM was a 2-month-old burn victim. Subjects receiving THAM were more likely to be injured by submersion or burn (P < 0.001), had higher composite Injury Severity Scores (17 vs 10; P < 0.001) and Abbreviated Injury Scores for the thorax and abdomen (P = 0.004 and P = 0.019, respectively), and longer ventilator days/intensive care unit stays/hospital lengths of stay (P < 0.001/P < 0.001/P = 0.013). In addition, subjects receiving THAM had a lower survival rate than subjects not receiving THAM (73.3% vs 91.7%; P = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: THAM was administered rarely to pediatric trauma casualties during the conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Subjects receiving THAM were more critically injured than the baseline population.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/administração & dosagem , Guerra , Ferimentos e Lesões/tratamento farmacológico , Acrilamidas/farmacologia , Acrilamidas/uso terapêutico , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Guerra do Iraque 2003-2011 , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Medicina Militar/métodos , Pediatria/métodos , Pediatria/normas , Pediatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Ressuscitação/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
19.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 85(2): 303-310, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29613954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation, including closed chest compressions, has commonly been considered ineffective in traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest (TCPA) because traditional chest compressions do not produce substantial cardiac output. However, recent evidence suggests that chest compressions located over the left ventricle (LV) produce greater hemodynamics when compared to traditional compressions. We hypothesized that chest compressions located directly over the LV would improve return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and hemodynamics when compared with traditional chest compressions, in a swine model of TCPA. METHODS: Transthoracic echocardiography was used to mark the location of the aortic root (traditional compressions), and the center of the LV on animals (n = 26) which were randomized to receive chest compressions in one of the two locations. After hemorrhage, ventricular fibrillation was induced. After 10 minutes of ventricular fibrillation, basic life support (BLS) with mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated and performed for 10 minutes followed by advanced life support (ALS) for an additional 10 minutes. During BLS, the area of maximal compression was verified using transesophageal echocardiography. Hemodynamic variables were averaged over the final 2 minutes of the BLS and ALS periods. RESULTS: Five (38%) of the LV group achieved ROSC compared with zero of the aortic root group (p = 0.04). Additionally, there was an increase in aortic systolic blood pressure (SBP), aortic diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) at the end of both the BLS (95% confidence interval, SBP, -49 to -21; DBP, -14 to -5.6; and CPP, -15 to -7.4) and ALS (95% confidence interval: SBP, -66 to -21; DBP, -49 to -6.8; and CPP, -51 to -7.5) resuscitation periods among the LV group. CONCLUSION: In our swine model of TCPA, chest compressions performed directly over the LV improved ROSC and hemodynamics when compared with traditional chest compressions.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Pressão , Fibrilação Ventricular/terapia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos
20.
Am J Emerg Med ; 36(6): 1032-1035, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691106

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Analysis of modern military conflicts suggests that airway compromise remains the second leading cause of preventable death of combat fatalities. This study compares outcomes of combat casualties that received prehospital airway interventions, specifically bag valve mask (BVM) ventilation, cricothyrotomy, and supraglottic airway (SGA) placement. The goal is to compare the effectiveness of airway management strategies used in the military pre-hospital setting. METHODS: This retrospective chart review of 1267 US Army medical evacuation patient care records, compared outcomes of casualties that received prehospital advanced airway interventions. The patients consisted of US military injured in Operation Enduring Freedom January 2011-March 2014. Compared outcomes consisted of vent-, ICU-, and hospital-free days. RESULTS: Those with SGA placement experienced fewer vent-free days, ICU-free days, and hospital-free days compared to BVM and cricothyrotomy patients. The groups did not significantly differ in rates of 30-day survival. The odds for survival were not significantly higher for BVM versus SGA patients (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.2-9.8), cricothyrotomy versus SGA patients (OR 3.9, 95% CI 0.6-24.9), or cricothyrotomy versus BVM patients (OR 2.7, 95% CI 0.5-13.8) in a logistic regression model adjusting for GCS. CONCLUSION: This study supports prehospital BVM ventilation as a possible alternative to cricothyrotomy as there was no difference in measured outcomes between the groups. It further cautions against SGA use in the prehospital combat setting due to higher morbidity demonstrated by fewer ventilator, hospital, and ICU free days than those receiving cricothyrotomy or BVM ventilation. There was no difference in 30-day survival between the groups.


Assuntos
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/terapia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Hospitais Militares , Militares , Adulto , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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