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1.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 12: 571185, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101007

RESUMO

Movement disorders are neurological conditions in which patients manifest a diverse range of movement impairments. Distinct structures within the basal ganglia of the brain, an area involved in movement regulation, are differentially affected for every disease. Among the most studied movement disorder conditions are Parkinson's (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), in which the deregulation of the movement circuitry due to the loss of specific neuronal populations in basal ganglia is the underlying cause of motor symptoms. These symptoms are due to the loss principally of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) par compacta and the GABAergic neurons of the striatum in PD and HD, respectively. Although these diseases were described in the 19th century, no effective treatment can slow down, reverse, or stop disease progression. Available pharmacological therapies have been focused on preventing or alleviating motor symptoms to improve the quality of life of patients, but these drugs are not able to mitigate the progressive neurodegeneration. Currently, considerable therapeutic advances have been achieved seeking a more efficacious and durable therapeutic effect. Here, we will focus on the new advances of several therapeutic approaches for PD and HD, starting with the available pharmacological treatments to alleviate the motor symptoms in both diseases. Then, we describe therapeutic strategies that aim to restore specific neuronal populations or their activity. Among the discussed strategies, the use of Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) and genetic approaches to prevent the neuronal loss in these diseases will be described. We will highlight strategies that have been evaluated in both Parkinson's and Huntington's patients, and also the ones with strong preclinical evidence. These current therapeutic techniques represent the most promising tools for the safe treatment of both diseases, specifically those aimed to avoid neuronal loss during disease progression.

2.
Dalton Trans ; 49(35): 12249-12265, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832967

RESUMO

The synthesis and characterization of the novel ferrocenyl sulfonyl hydrazide [Fe(η5-C5H5){(η5-C5H4)-S(O)2-NH-NH2}] (2) is reported. Additional studies on its reactivity using acetone or the ferrocenyl-, cyrhetrenyl- or cymantrenyl-aldehydes have allowed us to isolate and characterize [Fe(η5-C5H5){(η5-C5H4)-S(O)2-NH-N[double bond, length as m-dash]CMe2}] (3), the bis(ferrocenyl) derivative [Fe(η5-C5H5){[(η5-C5H4)-S(O)2-NH-N[double bond, length as m-dash]CH-(η5-C5H4)]Fe(η5-C5H5)}] (4) and the heterodimetallic compounds [Fe(η5-C5H5){[(η5-C5H4)-S(O)2-NH-N[double bond, length as m-dash]CH-(η5-C5H4)]M(CO)3}] with M = Re (5a) or Mn (5b). The X-ray crystal structures of compounds 3, 5a and 5b are also reported. A comparative study of their electrochemical and spectroscopic properties is also described. Additional computational calculations based on the DFT methodology have allowed us to elucidate the effect produced by the replacement of the terminal -NH2 (in 2) by the -N[double bond, length as m-dash]CMe2 (in 3) and -N[double bond, length as m-dash]CHR (in 4, 5a and 5b) moieties on the electronic distribution and to explain the differences detected in their electrochemical properties and absorption spectra. In vitro cytotoxicity studies of compounds 2, 4, 5a and 5b on the HCT-116 (colon), MCF7 and MDA-MB231 (breast) cancer cell lines reveal that compound 2 has no significant activity (IC50 > 100 µM), while its derivatives 4, 5a and 5b proved to be active in the three cancer cell lines selected in this study. The growth inhibition potency of compounds 5a and 5b against the triple negative MDA-MB231 breast cancer cell line is similar (or slightly) greater than that of cisplatin. Moreover, compounds 2, 4, 5a and 5b are less toxic than cisplatin in the normal and non-tumoral BJ fibroblasts, and the heterodimetallic complexes 5a and 5b with selective index >2.1 show an outstanding selective toxicity towards the MDA-MB231 cancer cells.

3.
J Periodontal Res ; 55(5): 724-733, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: During cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth, the homeostatic balance of gingival connective tissue is disrupted leading to fibrosis. Galectins are glycan-binding proteins that can modulate a variety of cellular processes including fibrosis in several organs. Here, we study the role of galectin-8 (Gal-8) in the response of gingival connective tissue cells to cyclosporine. METHODS: We used human gingival fibroblasts and mouse NIH3T3 cells treated with recombinant Gal-8 and/or cyclosporine for analyzing specific mRNA and protein levels through immunoblot, real-time polymerase chain reaction, ELISA and immunofluorescence, pull-down with Gal-8-Sepharose for Gal-8-to-cell surface glycoprotein interactions, short hairpin RNA for Gal-8 silencing and Student's t test and ANOVA for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Galectin-8 stimulated type I collagen and fibronectin protein levels and potentiated CTGF protein levels in TGF-ß1-stimulated human gingival fibroblasts. Gal-8 interacted with α5ß1-integrin and type II TGF-ß receptor. Gal-8 stimulated fibronectin protein and mRNA levels, and this response was dependent on FAK activity but not Smad2/3 signaling. Cyclosporine and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) increased Gal-8 protein levels. Finally, silencing of galectin-8 in NIH3T3 cells abolished cyclosporine-induced fibronectin protein levels. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results reveal for the first time Gal-8 as a fibrogenic stimulus exerted through ß1-integrin/FAK pathways in human gingival fibroblasts, which can be triggered by cyclosporine. Further studies should explore the involvement of Gal-8 in human gingival tissues and its role in drug-induced gingival overgrowth.

4.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 622-628, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037900

RESUMO

A series of bio-organometallic-hydrazones of the general formula [{(η5-C5H4)-C(R)=N-N(H)-C6H4-4-SO2NH2}]MLn(MLn = Re(CO)3, Mn(CO)3, FeCp; R=H, CH3) were prepared by reaction of formyl/acetyl organometallic precursors with 4-hydrazino-benzenesulphonamide. All compounds were characterized by conventional spectroscopic techniques (infra-red, 1H and 13C NMR, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis). Biological evaluation as carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors agents was carried out using four human/h) isoforms, hCA I, II, IX and XII. The cytosolic isoforms hCA I and II were effectively inhibited by almost all derivatives with inhibition constants of 1.7-22.4 nM. Similar effects were observed for the tumour-associated transmembrane isoform hCA XII (KIs of 1.9-24.4 nM). hCA IX was less sensitive to inhibition with these compounds. The presence of bio-organometallic or metallo-carbonyl moieties in the molecules of these CAIs makes them amenable for interesting pharmacologic applications, for example for compounds with CO donating properties.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Dióxido de Carbono/antagonistas & inibidores , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Hidrazinas/química , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Organometálicos/síntese química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/química
5.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 34(1): 451-458, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734605

RESUMO

A series of organometallic acylhydrazones was prepared, incorporating Re(CO)3, Mn(CO)3 and ferrocenyl moieties, which were subsequently reacted with amino-sulfonamides in order to obtain carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors possessing organometallic moieties in their molecules. The new derivatives were investigated as inhibitors of four human (h) CA isoforms with pharmaceutical applications, such as the cytosolic hCA I, II and VII and the mitochondrial hCA VA. An interesting inhibitory profile against these isoforms was obtained, with some of these metal complexes acting as subnanomolar or low nanomolar inhibitors. They were also thoroughly characterised from the chemical point of view, making them of interest for further developments in the field of metal complexes of sulfonamides with CA inhibitory action.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Hidrazonas/farmacologia , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Hidrazonas/química , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/química
6.
Dalton Trans ; 48(3): 1023-1039, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604795

RESUMO

The syntheses, characterization, X-ray crystal structures, electrochemical properties and anticancer and antichagasic activities of the first examples of 2-substituted 2,4-dihydro-1H-3,1-benzoxazines with half-sandwich organometallic arrays, [M(η5-C5H4)(CO)3] (M = Re or Mn), at position-2 are described. Experimental and computational studies based on DFT calculations on the open forms [Schiff bases of general formulae R-CH[double bond, length as m-dash]N-C6H4-2-CH2OH] (5), with R = ferrocenyl (a), phenyl (b), cyrhetrenyl (c) or cymantrenyl (d), and their tautomeric forms (2-substituted 2,4-dihydro-1H-3,1 benzoxazines) have allowed us to establish the influence of substituents a-d and solvents on: (a) the extent of tautomeric equilibria (5a-5d) ↔ (6a-6d) and (b) their electrochemical properties and the electronic distribution on the open and closed forms. Despite the formal similarity between 6c and 6d, their anticancer and antiparasitic activities are markedly different. Compound 6d is inactive in the HCT116, MDA-MB231 and MCF7 cancer cell lines, but 6c shows moderate activity in the latter cell line, while the Mn(i) complex (6d) is a more potent anti-Trypanosoma cruzi agent than its Re(i) analogue (6c).

7.
Dalton Trans ; 47(5): 1635-1649, 2018 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29327756

RESUMO

The synthesis and characterization of two novel and isomeric hybrid ferrocenyl/cyrhetrenyl aldimines [(η5-C5H5)Fe{(η5-C5H4)-CH[double bond, length as m-dash]N-(η5-C5H4)}Re(CO)3] (1) and [(η5-C5H5)Fe{(η5-C5H4)-N[double bond, length as m-dash]CH-(η5-C5H4)}Re(CO)3] (2) are reported. Their X-ray crystal structures reveal that both adopt the E form. However, molecules of 1 and 2 differ in the relative arrangement of the "Fe(η5-C5H5)" and "Re(CO)3" units (anti in 1 and syn in 2). This affects the type of intermolecular interactions, the assembly of the molecules and therefore their crystal architecture. Comparative studies of their electrochemical, spectroscopic and photo-physical properties have allowed us to clarify the effect produced by the location of the organometallic arrays (ferrocenyl or cyrhetrenyl) on electronic delocalization, the proclivity of the metals to undergo oxidation and their emissive properties. Theoretical studies based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations on the two compounds have also been carried out in order to rationalize the experimental results and to assign the bands detected in their electronic spectra. The cytotoxic activities of compounds 1 and 2 against human adenocarcinoma cell lines [breast (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231) and colon (HCT-116)] reveal that imine 2 has a greater inhibitory growth effect than 1 and it is ca. 1.8 times more potent than cisplatin in the triple negative MDA-MB 231 and in the cisplatin resistant HCT-116 cell lines. A comparative study of their effect on the normal and non-tumour human skin fibroblast BJ cell lines is also reported.

9.
Food Chem ; 215: 219-27, 2017 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27542470

RESUMO

Ugni molinae Turcz. is a native shrub of Chile, known for its edible berries and its leaves, which have been the focus of recent attention, as a good source of phenolic compounds to be used in cosmetics and food products. The aim of this study was to assess the differences in the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of the ethanolic extracts from the leaves of 10 genotypes of U. molinae, that were cultivated under the same soil, climate and agronomical management. Antioxidant activity was assessed by complementary methods (ORAC-Fl, FRAP and DPPH assay), phenolic composition of each extract was analyzed by LC-MS. Phenolic and flavonoid total contents were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and AlCl3 methods. Significative differences were found by these methods, and ellagitannins, gallic acid derivatives and flavonols were identified as responsible for these differences, showing the influence of the genotype on the phenolic composition of U. molinae leaves.


Assuntos
Myrtaceae/química , Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Antioxidantes/química , Chile , Flavonoides/análise , Genótipo , Espectrometria de Massas , Myrtaceae/classificação , Extratos Vegetais/química
10.
Biometals ; 29(4): 743-9, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27460450

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) is the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Nifurtimox is the most used drug against the T. cruzi, this drug increases intermediaries nitro group, being mainly responsible for the high toxicity component, for this reason it is important to study new organic compounds and thus improve therapeutic strategies against Chagas disease. The electronic effects of ferrocenyl and cyrhetrenyl fragments were investigated by DFT calculation. A close correlation was found between HOMO-LUMO gap of nitro radical NO 2 (-) with the experimental reduction potential found for nitro group and IC50 of two forms the T. cruzi (epimastigote and trypomastigote). The IC50 on human hepatoma cells is higher for both compounds compared to IC50 demonstrated in the two forms the T. cruzi, and additionally show reactive oxygen species release. The information obtained in this paper could generate two new drugs with anti-T. cruzi activity, but additional studies are needed.


Assuntos
Compostos Ferrosos/farmacologia , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Rênio/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Rênio/química , Tripanossomicidas/química , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolismo
11.
Santiago de Chile; s.n; 2015. 54 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Tese em Espanhol | LILACS, MOSAICO - Saúde integrativa | ID: biblio-911077

RESUMO

La murtilla es un arbusto silvestre que crece en la zona centro-sur de Chile. Sus hojas han sido utilizadas en la medicina tradicional chilena debido a sus propiedades como antiinflamatoria, analgésica, antimicrobiana y antioxidante. Las propiedades benéficas de la murtilla se deben, en parte, a la presencia de compuestos fenólicos en sus hojas, principalmente compuestos del tipo flavonoides. Diversos estudios previos han demostrado la presencia de quercetina, miricetina, epicatequina y algunos de sus derivados glicosilados en las hojas de murtilla. El objetivo de este estudio fue demostrar que la actividad antioxidante de los extractos etanólicos (EETs) obtenidos desde hojas de diferentes genotipos de murtilla varía según la composición de compuestos fenólicos presentes en dichas hojas. Con este fin, se: a) determinó la capacidad y eficiencia antioxidante (CE50 y EA respectivamente) de los extractos a través del método del radical DPPH, b) cuantificó el porcentaje de flavanonas presentes en los EETs a través del ensayo colorimétrico con 2,4 dinitrofenilhidrazina (2,4 DNP), y c) determinó la presencia de quercetina, rutina, miricitrina y ácido gálico en los EETs a través de cromatografía liquida de alta eficiencia con arreglo de diodos (CLAE-DAD). Los resultados indicaron que existen diferencias significativas (p < 0,05) en las CE50 y la EA de los EETs, siendo el de menos CE50 el EET del genotipo ZF-18 y el EET 14-4 el que obtuvo la mayor EA (2,12 ± 0,03 x10-3). Estas diferencias pueden deberse a las diferencias encontradas en la composición de los EETs, en los cuales se pudo identificar y cuantificar quercetina, rutina y ácido gálico. También existieron diferencias en el %flavanonas, siendo los genotipos 8-2 y 23-2 los que obtuvieron los mayores porcentajes (7,79 ± 0,14% y 7,75 ± 0,4% respectivamente), aunque estas no influyeron en la actividad antioxidante de los EETs. Considerando que los 10 genotipos fueron cultivados en las mismas condiciones, las diferencias encontradas en los EETs se deben a las diferencias en sus genotipos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Antioxidantes , Flavonoides , Ácido Gálico , Chile , Medicina Tradicional , Extratos Vegetais , Plantas Medicinais
12.
BMC Cancer ; 14: 640, 2014 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25175743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hard consistency, developed under the influence of tumor cell factors, is a characteristic feature of a breast tumor. Activation of resident fibroblasts leading to a myofibroblast phenotype is the principal feature that orchestrates this fibrotic process. The aim of this study was to assess the effects induced by TGF-ß1, a growth factor abundantly present in tumor microenvironment, on the molecular mechanisms that mediate myofibroblastic differentiation of normal human mammary fibroblasts. METHODS: We used an immortalized fibroblastic cell line derived from normal mammary tissue (RMF-EG cells) to study the effect of TGF-ß1 in the expression of α-SMA and CTGF as markers of myofibroblastic differentiation. The influence of redox status and JNK activity on TGF-ß1-induced transcriptional activity was measured by a luciferase reporter assay. We also used a shRNA approach to evaluate the influence of NOX4 in myofibroblastic differentiation. RESULTS: TGF-ß1 stimulates the expression of myofibroblast markers α-SMA and CTGF. Using a NOX inhibitor (DPI) and cells expressing a shRNA for NOX4, we demonstrated that TGF-ß1 promotes an oxidative environment that favors myofibroblastic differentiation. We also found that activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase is required for TGF-ß1-dependent expression of CTGF, NOX4 and α-SMA. CONCLUSIONS: Human mammary stromal fibrosis, evaluated by the expression of early and late markers as CTGF and α-SMA, depends on the activation of JNK signaling pathway. Our results show that JNK activation is an early event that precedes the increase in ROS levels leading to myofibroblastic differentiation and tumor fibrosis, suggesting that inhibition of JNK may be used a method to interrupt the development of tumor desmoplasia.


Assuntos
Mama/citologia , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Mama/metabolismo , Mama/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , NADPH Oxidase 4 , Células Estromais/metabolismo
13.
J Periodontol ; 84(5): 683-93, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22813343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts play a critical role during wound healing and chronic inflammation through the synthesis and assembly of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. These responses may be modulated by soluble cytokines and growth factors present in tissues. In the present study, we evaluate whether transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) modulate myofibroblastic differentiation and the production of ECM components. METHODS: Primary cultures of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) were stimulated with recombinant TGF-ß1 and TNF-α. Protein levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), type I collagen, heat shock protein-47 (HSP-47), fibronectin (FN), ED-A-FN, and periostin and activation of the Smad pathway were evaluated through Western blot analysis. α-SMA and actin fibers were identified by immunofluorescence. TGF-ß1, TNF-α, and α-SMA were identified by immunohistochemistry in biopsies of inflamed human gingival tissues. TGF-ß1 activity was evaluated using a plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) reporter transfected in HGFs. RESULTS: TGF-ß1 stimulated the differentiation of myofibroblasts as evidenced by strong expression of α-SMA and ED-A-FN. Moreover, TGF-ß1 induced the production of type I collagen, HSP-47, FN, and periostin. Costimulation with TNF-α and TGF-ß1 significantly reduced the expression of all the above-mentioned proteins. TNF-α also inhibited the activation of the Smad2/3 pathway and the activity of the PAI-1 reporter. CONCLUSIONS: TNF-α inhibits several cell responses induced by TGF-ß1, including the differentiation of myofibroblasts, the activation of the Smad signaling pathway, and the production of key molecules involved in tissue repair, such as type I collagen, FN, and periostin. The interaction between cytokines may explain the delayed tissue repair observed in chronic inflammation of gingival tissues.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengiva/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Actinas/biossíntese , Adulto , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/biossíntese , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Periodontite Crônica/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo I/biossíntese , Feminino , Fibronectinas/biossíntese , Gengiva/citologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo
14.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 18(22): 8085-91, 2010 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20934349

RESUMO

A bioorganometallic approach to malaria therapy led to the discovery of ferroquine (FQ, SSR97193). To assess the importance of the electronic properties of the ferrocenyl group, cyclopentadienyltricarbonylrhenium analogues related to FQ, were synthesized. The reaction of [N-(7-chloro-4-quinolinyl)-1,2-ethanodiamine] with the cyrhetrenylaldehyde complexes (η(5)-C(5)H(4)CHO)Re(CO)(3) and [η(5)-1,2-C(5)H(3)(CH(2)OH)(CHO)]Re(CO)(3) produces the corresponding imine derivatives [η(5)-1,2-C(5)H(3)(R)(CHN-CH(2)CH(2)NH-QN)]Re(CO)(3) R=H 3a; R=CH(2)OH 3b; QN=N-(7-Cl-4-quinolinyl). Reduction of 3a and 3b with sodium borohydride in methanol yields quantitatively the amine complexes [η(5)-1,2-C(5)H(3)(R)(CH(2)-NH-CH(2)CH(2)NH-QN)]Re(CO)(3) R=H 4a; R=CH(2)OH 4b. To establish the role of the cyrethrenyl moiety in the antimalarial activity of this series, purely organic parent compounds were also synthesized and tested. Evaluation of antimalarial activity measured in vitro against the CQ-resistant strains (W2) and the CQ-susceptible strain (3D7) of Plasmodium falciparum indicates that these cyrhetrene conjugates are less active compared to their ferrocene and organic analogues. These data suggest an original mode-of-action of FQ and ferrocenyl analogues in relationship with the redox pharmacophore.


Assuntos
Aminoquinolinas/química , Antimaláricos/síntese química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Rênio/química , Antimaláricos/química , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Metalocenos , Compostos Organometálicos/síntese química , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Oxirredução , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos
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