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1.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 46: 14-27, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735708

RESUMO

The likely involvement of inflammation and oxidative stress (IOS) in mental disease has led to advocate anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory drugs as therapeutic strategies in the treatment of schizophrenia. Since omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3) show anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective properties, we aim to evaluate whether ω-3 treatment during adolescence in the maternal immune stimulation (MIS) animal model of schizophrenia could prevent the brain and behavioural deficits described in adulthood. At gestational day 15, PolyI:C (4 mg/kg) or saline (VH) were injected to pregnant Wistar rats. Male offspring received ω-3 (800 mg/kg) or saline (Sal) daily from postnatal day (PND) 35-49, defining 4 groups: MIS-ω-3; MIS-Sal; VH-ω-3 and VH-Sal. At PND70, rats were submitted to prepulse inhibition test (PPI). FDG-PET and T2-weighted MRI brain studies were performed in adulthood and analyzed by means of SPM12. IOS markers were measured in selected brain areas. MIS-offspring showed a PPI deficit compared with VH-offspring and ω-3 treatment prevented this deficit. Also, ω-3 reduced the brain metabolism in the deep mesencephalic area and prevented the volumetric abnormalities in the hippocampus but not in the ventricles in MIS-offspring. Besides, ω-3 reduced the expression of iNOS and Keap1 and increased the activity/concentration of HO1, NQO1 and GPX. Our study demonstrates that administration of ω-3 during adolescence prevents PPI behavioural deficits and hippocampal volumetric abnormalities, and partially counteracts IOS deficits via iNOS and Nrf2-ARE pathways in the MIS model. This study highlights the need for novel strategies based on anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant compounds to alter the disease course in high-risk populations at early stages.

3.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perceived discrimination is associated with worse mental health. Few studies have assessed whether perceived discrimination (i) is associated with the risk of psychotic disorders and (ii) contributes to an increased risk among minority ethnic groups relative to the ethnic majority. METHODS: We used data from the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions Work Package 2, a population-based case-control study of incident psychotic disorders in 17 catchment sites across six countries. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between perceived discrimination and psychosis using mixed-effects logistic regression models. We used stratified and mediation analyses to explore differences for minority ethnic groups. RESULTS: Reporting any perceived experience of major discrimination (e.g. unfair treatment by police, not getting hired) was higher in cases than controls (41.8% v. 34.2%). Pervasive experiences of discrimination (≥3 types) were also higher in cases than controls (11.3% v. 5.5%). In fully adjusted models, the odds of psychosis were 1.20 (95% CI 0.91-1.59) for any discrimination and 1.79 (95% CI 1.19-1.59) for pervasive discrimination compared with no discrimination. In stratified analyses, the magnitude of association for pervasive experiences of discrimination appeared stronger for minority ethnic groups (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.12-2.68) than the ethnic majority (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 0.65-3.10). In exploratory mediation analysis, pervasive discrimination minimally explained excess risk among minority ethnic groups (5.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Pervasive experiences of discrimination are associated with slightly increased odds of psychotic disorders and may minimally help explain excess risk for minority ethnic groups.

5.
Health Place ; 69: 102555, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744489

RESUMO

The links between psychosis and socio-economic disadvantage have been widely studied. No previous study has analysed the interrelationships and mutual influences between functioning dimensions in first episode of psychosis (FEP) according to their neighbourhood household income, using a multidimensional and transdiagnostic perspective. 170 patients and 129 controls, participants in an observational study (AGES-CM), comprised the study sample. The WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) was used to assess functioning, whereas participants' postcodes were used to obtain the average household income for each neighbourhood, collected by the Spanish National Statistics Institute (INE). Network analyses were conducted with the aim of defining the interrelationships between the different dimensions of functioning according to the neighbourhood household income. Our results show that lower neighbourhood socioeconomic level is associated with lower functioning in patients with FEP. Moreover, our findings suggest that "household responsibilities" plays a central role in the disability of patients who live in low-income neighbourhoods, whereas "dealing with strangers" is the most important node in the network of patients who live in high-income neighbourhoods. These results could help to personalize treatments, by allowing the identification of potential functioning areas to be prioritized in the treatment of FEP according to the patient's neighbourhood characteristics.

6.
Psychiatry Res ; 298: 113795, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582524

RESUMO

Reversal learning deficits following reward and punishment processing are observed across disruptive behaviors (DB) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and have been associated with callous-unemotional (CU) traits. However, it remains unknown to what extent these altered reinforcement sensitivities are linked to the co-occurrence of oppositional traits, ADHD symptoms, and CU traits. Reward and punishment sensitivity and perseverative behavior were therefore derived from a probabilistic reversal learning task to investigate reinforcement sensitivity in participants with DB (n=183, ODD=62, CD=10, combined=57, age-range 8-18), ADHD (n=144, age-range 11-28), and controls (n=191, age-range 8-26). The SNAP-IV and Conners rating scales were used to assess oppositional and ADHD traits. The Inventory of CU traits was used to assess CU traits. Decreased reward sensitivity was associated with ADHD symptom severity (p=0.018) if corrected for oppositional symptoms. ADHD symptomatology interacted with oppositional behavior on perseveration (p=0.019), with the former aggravating the effect of oppositional behavior on perseveration and vice versa. Within a pooled sample, reversal learning alterations were associated with the severity of ADHD symptoms, underpinned by hyposensitivity to reward and increased perseveration. These results show ADHD traits, as opposed to oppositional behavior and CU traits, is associated with decreased reward-based learning in adolescents and adults.

7.
J Psychiatr Res ; 136: 265-273, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621912

RESUMO

The relationship between psychotic symptoms and global measures of functioning has been widely studied. No previous study has assessed so far the interplay between specific clinical symptoms and particular areas of functioning in first-episode psychosis (FEP) using network analysis methods. A total of 191 patients with FEP (age 24.45 ±â€¯6.28 years, 64.9% male) participating in an observational and longitudinal study (AGES-CM) comprised the study sample. Functioning problems were assessed with the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS), whereas the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess symptom severity. Network analysis were conducted with the aim of analysing the patterns of relationships between the different dimensions of functioning and PANSS symptoms and factors at baseline. According to our results, the most important nodes were "conceptual disorganization", "emotional withdrawal", "lack of spontaneity and flow of conversation", "delusions", "unusual thought content", "dealing with strangers" and "poor rapport". Our findings suggest that these symptoms and functioning dimensions should be prioritized in the clinical assessment and management of patients with FEP. These areas may also become targets of future early intervention strategies, so as to improve quality of life in this population.

8.
Psychol Med ; : 1-13, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychosis rates are higher among some migrant groups. We hypothesized that psychosis in migrants is associated with cumulative social disadvantage during different phases of migration. METHODS: We used data from the EUropean Network of National Schizophrenia Networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) case-control study. We defined a set of three indicators of social disadvantage for each phase: pre-migration, migration and post-migration. We examined whether social disadvantage in the pre- and post-migration phases, migration adversities, and mismatch between achievements and expectations differed between first-generation migrants with first-episode psychosis and healthy first-generation migrants, and tested whether this accounted for differences in odds of psychosis in multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: In total, 249 cases and 219 controls were assessed. Pre-migration (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.06-2.44, p = 0.027) and post-migration social disadvantages (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.02-3.51, p = 0.044), along with expectations/achievements mismatch (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03-1.26, p = 0.014) were all significantly associated with psychosis. Migration adversities (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.672-2.06, p = 0.568) were not significantly related to the outcome. Finally, we found a dose-response effect between the number of adversities across all phases and odds of psychosis (⩾6: OR 14.09, 95% CI 2.06-96.47, p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative effect of social disadvantages before, during and after migration was associated with increased odds of psychosis in migrants, independently of ethnicity or length of stay in the country of arrival. Public health initiatives that address the social disadvantages that many migrants face during the whole migration process and post-migration psychological support may reduce the excess of psychosis in migrants.

9.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615640

RESUMO

The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis copy number variant (ENIGMA-CNV) and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Working Groups (22q-ENIGMA WGs) were created to gain insight into the involvement of genetic factors in human brain development and related cognitive, psychiatric and behavioral manifestations. To that end, the ENIGMA-CNV WG has collated CNV and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from ~49,000 individuals across 38 global research sites, yielding one of the largest studies to date on the effects of CNVs on brain structures in the general population. The 22q-ENIGMA WG includes 12 international research centers that assessed over 533 individuals with a confirmed 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, 40 with 22q11.2 duplications, and 333 typically developing controls, creating the largest-ever 22q11.2 CNV neuroimaging data set. In this review, we outline the ENIGMA infrastructure and procedures for multi-site analysis of CNVs and MRI data. So far, ENIGMA has identified effects of the 22q11.2, 16p11.2 distal, 15q11.2, and 1q21.1 distal CNVs on subcortical and cortical brain structures. Each CNV is associated with differences in cognitive, neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric traits, with characteristic patterns of brain structural abnormalities. Evidence of gene-dosage effects on distinct brain regions also emerged, providing further insight into genotype-phenotype relationships. Taken together, these results offer a more comprehensive picture of molecular mechanisms involved in typical and atypical brain development. This "genotype-first" approach also contributes to our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of brain disorders. Finally, we outline future directions to better understand effects of CNVs on brain structure and behavior.

10.
Schizophr Res ; 228: 462-471, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581586

RESUMO

The etiology of psychotic disorders is still unknown, but in a subgroup of patients symptoms might be caused by an autoimmune reaction. In this study, we tested patterns of autoimmune reactivity against potentially novel hippocampal antigens. Serum of a cohort of 621 individuals with psychotic disorders and 257 controls were first tested for reactivity on neuropil of rat brain sections. Brain reactive sera (67 diseased, 27 healthy) were further tested for antibody binding to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) isotype 65 and 67 by cell-based assay (CBA). A sub-cohort of 199 individuals with psychotic disorders and 152 controls was tested for the prevalence of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) on HEp2-substrate as well as for reactivity to double-stranded DNA, ribosomal P (RPP), and cardiolipin (CL). Incubation of rat brain with serum resulted in unidentified hippocampal binding patterns in both diseased and control groups. Upon screening with GAD CBA, one of these patterns was identified as GAD65 in one individual with schizophrenia and also in one healthy individual. Two diseased and two healthy individuals had low antibody levels targeting GAD67 by CBA. Antibody reactivity on HEp-2-substrate was increased in patients with schizoaffective disorder, but only in 3 patients did antibody testing hint at a possible diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Although reactivity of serum to intracellular antigens might be increased in patients with psychotic disorder, no specific targets could be identified. GAD antibodies are very rare and do not seem increased in serum of patients with psychotic disorders.

12.
Eur Psychiatry ; 64(1): e7, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) have worse physical health and reduced life expectancy compared to the general population. In 2009, the European Psychiatric Association, the European Society of Cardiology and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes published a position paper aimed to improve cardiovascular and diabetes care in patients with severe mental illnesses. However, the initiative did not produce the expected results. Experts in SSD or in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases convened to identify main issues relevant to management of cardiometabolic risk factors in schizophrenia patients and to seek consensus through the Delphi method. METHODS: The steering committee identified four topics: 1) cardiometabolic risk factors in schizophrenia patients; 2) cardiometabolic risk factors related to antipsychotic treatment; 3) differences in antipsychotic cardiometabolic profiles; 4) management of cardiometabolic risk. Twelve key statements were included in a Delphi questionnaire delivered to a panel of expert European psychiatrists. RESULTS: Consensus was reached for all statements with positive agreement higher than 85% in the first round. European psychiatrists agreed on: 1) high cardiometabolic risk in patients with SSD, 2) importance of correct risk management of cardiometabolic diseases, from lifestyle modification to treatment of risk factors, including the choice of antipsychotic drugs with a favourable cardiometabolic profile. The expert panel identified the psychiatrist as the central coordinating figure of management, possibly assisted by other specialists and general practitioners. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates high level of agreement among European psychiatrists regarding the importance of cardiovascular risk assessment and management in subjects with SSD.

13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414498

RESUMO

Important questions remain about the profile of cognitive impairment in psychotic disorders across adulthood and illness stages. The age-associated profile of familial impairments also remains unclear, as well as the effect of factors, such as symptoms, functioning, and medication. Using cross-sectional data from the EU-GEI and GROUP studies, comprising 8455 participants aged 18 to 65, we examined cognitive functioning across adulthood in patients with psychotic disorders (n = 2883), and their unaffected siblings (n = 2271), compared to controls (n = 3301). An abbreviated WAIS-III measured verbal knowledge, working memory, visuospatial processing, processing speed, and IQ. Patients showed medium to large deficits across all functions (ES range = -0.45 to -0.73, p < 0.001), while siblings showed small deficits on IQ, verbal knowledge, and working memory (ES = -0.14 to -0.33, p < 0.001). Magnitude of impairment was not associated with participant age, such that the size of impairment in older and younger patients did not significantly differ. However, first-episode patients performed worse than prodromal patients (ES range = -0.88 to -0.60, p < 0.001). Adjusting for cannabis use, symptom severity, and global functioning attenuated impairments in siblings, while deficits in patients remained statistically significant, albeit reduced by half (ES range = -0.13 to -0.38, p < 0.01). Antipsychotic medication also accounted for around half of the impairment in patients (ES range = -0.21 to -0.43, p < 0.01). Deficits in verbal knowledge, and working memory may specifically index familial, i.e., shared genetic and/or shared environmental, liability for psychotic disorders. Nevertheless, potentially modifiable illness-related factors account for a significant portion of the cognitive impairment in psychotic disorders.

15.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(12): 1013, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220192
16.
J Psychiatr Res ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Questionnaires are the current hallmark for quantifying social functioning in human clinical research. In this study, we compared self- and proxy-rated (caregiver and researcher) assessments of social functioning in Schizophrenia (SZ) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and evaluated if the discrepancy between the two assessments is mediated by disease-related factors such as symptom severity. METHODS: We selected five items from the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS) to assess social functioning in 53 AD and 61 SZ patients. Caregiver- and researcher-rated assessments of social functioning were used to calculate the discrepancies between self-rated and proxy-rated assessments. Furthermore, we used the number of communication events via smartphones to compare the questionnaire outcomes with an objective measure of social behaviour. RESULTS: WHODAS results revealed that both AD (p < 0.001) and SZ (p < 0.004) patients significantly overestimate their social functioning relative to the assessment of their caregivers and/or researchers. This overestimation is mediated by the severity of cognitive impairments (MMSE; p = 0.019) in AD, and negative symptoms (PANSS; p = 0.028) in SZ. Subsequently, we showed that the proxy scores correlated more strongly with the smartphone communication events of the patient when compared to the patient-rated questionnaire scores (self; p = 0.076, caregiver; p < 0.001, researcher-rated; p = 0.046). CONCLUSION: Here we show that the observed overestimation of WHODAS social functioning scores in AD and SZ patients is partly driven by disease-related biases such as cognitive impairments and negative symptoms, respectively. Therefore, we postulate the development and implementation of objective measures of social functioning that may be less susceptible to such biases.

18.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 568982, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192693

RESUMO

Introduction: Although attenuated psychotic symptoms often occur for the first time during adolescence, studies focusing on adolescents are scarce. Attenuated psychotic symptoms form the criteria to identify individuals at increased clinical risk of developing psychosis. The study of individuals with these symptoms has led to the release of the DSM-5 diagnosis of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (APS) as a condition for further research. We aimed to characterize and compare hospitalized adolescents with DSM-5-APS diagnosis vs. hospitalized adolescents without a DSM-5-APS diagnosis. Methods: Interviewing help-seeking, hospitalized adolescents (aged 12-18 years) and their caregivers independently with established research instruments, we (1) evaluated the presence of APS among non-psychotic adolescents, (2) characterized and compared APS and non-APS individuals regarding sociodemographic, illness and intervention characteristics, (3) correlated psychopathology with levels of functioning and severity of illness and (4) investigated the influence of individual clinical, functional and comorbidity variables on the likelihood of participants to be diagnosed with APS. Results: Among 248 consecutively recruited adolescents (age=15.4 ± 1.5 years, females = 69.6%) with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders, 65 (26.2%) fulfilled APS criteria and 183 (73.8%) did not fulfill them. Adolescents with APS had higher number of psychiatric disorders than non-APS adolescents (3.5 vs. 2.4, p < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.77), particularly, disruptive behavior disorders (Cramer's V = 0.16), personality disorder traits (Cramer's V = 0.26), anxiety disorders (Cramer's V = 0.15), and eating disorders (Cramer's V = 0.16). Adolescents with APS scored higher on positive (Cohen's d = 1.5), negative (Cohen's d = 0.55), disorganized (Cohen's d = 0.51), and general symptoms (Cohen's d = 0.84), and were more severely ill (Cohen's d = 1.0) and functionally impaired (Cohen's d = 0.31). Negative symptoms were associated with lower functional levels (Pearson ρ = -0.17 to -0.20; p = 0.014 to 0.031). Global illness severity was associated with higher positive, negative, and general symptoms (Pearson ρ = 0.22 to 0.46; p = 0.04 to p < 0.001). APS status was independently associated with perceptual abnormalities (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.6-2.5, p < 0.001), number of psychiatric diagnoses (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2-2.0, p = 0.002), and impaired stress tolerance (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1-1.7, p = 0.002) (r 2 = 0.315, p < 0.001). Conclusions: A considerable number of adolescents hospitalized with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders meet DSM-5-APS criteria. These help-seeking adolescents have more comorbid disorders and more severe symptoms, functional impairment, and severity of illness than non-APS adolescents. Thus, they warrant high intensity clinical care.

19.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 41: 28-39, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162291

RESUMO

Promotion of good mental health in young people is important. Our aim was to evaluate the consistency and magnitude of the efficacy of universal/selective interventions to promote good mental health. A systematic PRISMA/RIGHT-compliant meta-analysis (PROSPERO: CRD42018088708) search of Web of Science until 04/31/2019 identified original studies comparing the efficacy of universal/selective interventions for good mental health vs a control group, in samples with a mean age <35 years. Meta-analytical random-effects model, heterogeneity statistics, assessment of publication bias, study quality and sensitivity analyses investigated the efficacy (Hedges' g=effect size, ES) of universal/selective interventions to promote 14 good mental health outcomes defined a-priori. 276 studies were included (total participants: 159,508, 79,142 interventions and 80,366 controls), mean age=15.0 (SD=7.4); female=56.0%. There was a significant overall improvement in 10/13 good mental health outcome categories that could be meta-analysed: compared to controls, interventions significantly improved (in descending order of magnitude) mental health literacy (ES=0.685, p<0.001), emotions (ES=0.541, p<0.001), self-perceptions and values (ES=0.49, p<0.001), quality of life (ES=0.457, p=0.001), cognitive skills (ES=0.428, p<0.001), social skills (ES=0.371, p<0.001), physical health (ES=0.285, p<0.001), sexual health (ES=0.257, p=0.017), academic/occupational performance (ES=0.211, p<0.001) and attitude towards mental disorders (ES=0.177, p=0.006). Psychoeducation was the most effective intervention for promoting mental health literacy (ES=0.774, p<0.001) and cognitive skills (ES=1.153, p=0.03). Physical therapy, exercise and relaxation were more effective than psychoeducation and psychotherapy for promoting physical health (ES=0.498, p<0.001). In conclusion, several universal/selective interventions can be effective to promote good mental health in young people. Future research should consolidate and extend these findings.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147348

RESUMO

Disruptive behavior during childhood and adolescence is heterogeneous and associated with several psychiatric disorders. The identification of more homogeneous subgroups might help identify different underlying pathways and tailor treatment strategies. Children and adolescents (aged 8-18) with disruptive behaviors (N = 121) and healthy controls (N = 100) were included in a European multi-center cognition and brain imaging study. They were assessed via a battery of standardized semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. K-means cluster-model analysis was carried out to identify subgroups within the group with disruptive behaviors, based on clinical symptom profiles, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and proactive and reactive aggression. The resulting subgroups were then compared to healthy controls with regard to these clinical variables. Three distinct subgroups were found within the group with disruptive behaviors. The High CU Traits subgroup presented elevated scores for CU traits, proactive aggression and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, as well as a higher proportion of comorbidities (CD + oppositional defiant disorder + attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The ADHD and Affective Dysregulation subgroup showed elevated scores for internalizing and ADHD symptoms, as well as a higher proportion of females. The Low Severity subgroup had relatively low levels of psychopathology and aggressive behavior compared to the other two subgroups. The High CU Traits subgroup displayed more antisocial behaviors than the Low Severity subgroup, but did not differ when compared to the ADHD and Affective Dysregulation subgroup. All three subgroups differed significantly from the healthy controls in all the variables analyzed. The present study extends previous findings on subgrouping children and adolescents with disruptive behaviors using a multidimensional approach and describes levels of anxiety, affective problems, ADHD, proactive aggression and CU traits as key factors that differentiate conclusively between subgroups.

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