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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18699, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548500

RESUMO

Understanding the variables that influence microbiome studies is critical for successful translational research. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex group of diseases that can present at multiple locations within the Gastrointestinal tract. Here, using the FAMISHED study cohort, we aimed to investigate the relationship between IBD condition, IBD disease location, and the microbiome. Signatures of the microbiome, including measures of diversity, taxonomy, and functionality, all significantly differed across the three different IBD conditions, Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and microscopic colitis (MC). Notably, when stratifying by disease location, patients with CD in the terminal ileum were more similar to healthy controls than patients with CD in the small bowel or colon, however no differences were observed at different disease locations across patients with UC. Change in taxonomic composition resulted in changes in function, with CD at each disease location, UC and MC all having unique functional dysbioses. CD patients in particular had deficiencies in Short-Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA) pathways. Our results demonstrate the complex relationship between IBD and the microbiome and highlight the need for consistent strategies for the stratification of clinical cohorts and downstream analysis to ensure results across microbiome studies and clinical trials are comparable.

2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450881

RESUMO

Electronic noses (e-nose) offer potential for the detection of cancer in its early stages. The ability to analyse samples in real time, at a low cost, applying easy-to-use and portable equipment, gives e-noses advantages over other technologies, such as Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). For diseases such as cancer with a high mortality, a technology that can provide fast results for use in routine clinical applications is important. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the highest occurring cancers and has high mortality rates, if diagnosed late. In our study, we investigated the use of portable electronic nose (PEN3), with further analysis using GC-TOF-MS, for the analysis of gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to profile the urinary metabolome of colorectal cancer. We also compared the different cancer stages with non-cancers using the PEN3 and GC-TOF-MS. Results obtained from PEN3, and GC-TOF-MS demonstrated high accuracy for the separation of CRC and non-cancer. PEN3 separated CRC from non-cancerous group with 0.81 AUC (Area Under the Curve). We used data from GC-TOF-MS to obtain a VOC profile for CRC, which identified 23 potential biomarker VOCs for CRC. Thus, the PEN3 and GC-TOF-MS were found to successfully separate the cancer group from the non-cancer group.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Nariz Eletrônico , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Metaboloma , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359689

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known to be associated with protein alterations and extracellular fibrous deposition. We investigated the urinary proteomic profiles of HCC patients in this prospective cross sectional multicentre study. 195 patients were recruited from the UK (Coventry) and Germany (Hannover) between 1 January 2013 and 30 June 2019. Out of these, 57 were HCC patients with a background of liver cirrhosis (LC) and 138 were non-HCC controls; 72 patients with LC, 57 with non-cirrhotic liver disease and 9 with normal liver function. Analysis of the urine samples was performed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). Peptide sequences were obtained and 31 specific peptide markers for HCC were identified and further integrated into a multivariate classification model. The peptide model demonstrated 79.5% sensitivity and 85.1% specificity (95% CI: 0.81-0.93, p < 0.0001) for HCC and 4.1-fold increased risk of death (95% CI: 1.7-9.8, p = 0.0005). Proteases potentially involved in HCC progression were mapped to the N- and C-terminal sequence motifs of the CE-MS peptide markers. In silico protease prediction revealed that kallikrein-6 (KLK6) elicits increased activity, whilst Meprin A subunit α (MEP1A) has reduced activity in HCC compared to the controls. Tissue expression of KLK6 and MEP1A was subsequently verified by immunohistochemistry.

5.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 54(1): 14-23, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Faecal immunochemical test (FIT) is emerging as a valid test to rule-out the presence of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the accuracy of FIT is dependent on the cut-off applied. An additional low-cost test could improve further detection of CRC. AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy of combined FIT and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the detection of CRC within symptomatic populations. METHODS: Systematic reviews on the diagnostic accuracy of FIT and VOC, for the detection of CRC, were updated. Meta-analyses were performed adopting a bivariate model for sensitivity and specificity. Clinical utility of combined FIT and VOC was estimated using Fagan's nomogram. Post-test probability of FIT negatives was used as a pre-test probability for VOC. RESULTS: The pooled sensitivity and specificity of FIT at 10 µg/g faeces, for the detection of CRC, were 0.914 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.894-0.936) and 0.783 (CI = 0.850-0.696), respectively. For VOC, the sensitivity was 0.837 (CI = 0.781-0.881) and the specificity was 0.803 (CI = 0.870-0.712). The area under the curve for FIT and VOC were 0.926 and 0.885, respectively. In a population with 5% CRC prevalence, the estimated probability of having CRC following a negative FIT was 0.5% and following both negative FIT and VOC was 0.1%. CONCLUSIONS: In a FIT-negative symptomatic population, VOC can be a good test to rule-out the presence of CRC. The estimated probability reduction by 0.4% when both tests being negative offers adequate safety netting in primary care for the exclusion of CRC. The number needed to colonoscope to identify one CRC is eight if either FIT or VOC positive. Cost-effectiveness and clinical accuracy of this approach will need further evaluation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Fezes , Humanos , Sangue Oculto , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
Colorectal Dis ; 23(7): 1649-1657, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991166

RESUMO

AIM: The faecal immunochemical test (FIT) is currently utilized in both symptomatic and screening populations, but little is known about factors that affect its performance. For example, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy has been purported to increase false negative rates. This has significant implications given the extent of PPI prescriptions. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of the FIT for the detection of colorectal neoplasms and the impact of PPI therapy on its diagnostic accuracy. METHOD: Symptomatic patients referred on the suspected cancer pathway and those on polyp surveillance between 2015 and 2019 were approached to participate. Estimates of the accuracy of FIT at different cut-off levels in diagnosing colorectal neoplasms were made. Logistic regression was used to assess the effect of PPIs on the FIT results. RESULTS: A total of 667 participants were eligible for the final analysis. At a cut-off of 10 µg/g faeces, the overall sensitivity and specificity of FIT for the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) was 0.85 (95% CI 0.71-0.94) and 0.81 (95% CI 0.78-0.84), respectively. For the detection of advanced neoplasia, the sensitivity was 0.70 (95% CI 0.58-0.79) and the specificity was 0.83 (95% CI 0.80-0.86). At higher thresholds, the sensitivity steadily declined whilst specificity increased. PPI therapy did not have a significant effect on performance of the FIT. CONCLUSION: FIT is a good rule-out test for the detection of CRC and advanced neoplasia at lower thresholds. PPI therapy does not appear to have an effect on its diagnostic performance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Fezes/química , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Sangue Oculto , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
World J Surg ; 45(8): 2447-2453, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982189

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) can occur due to disruption to the enterohepatic circulation, e.g. following cholecystectomy. Post-cholecystectomy diarrhoea has been reported in 2.1-57.2% of patients; however, this is not necessarily due to BAD. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of bile acid diarrhoea diagnosis after cholecystectomy and to consider investigation practices. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of electronic databases from five large centres detailing patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy between 2013 and 2017 was cross-referenced with a list of patients who underwent 75SeHCAT testing. A 7-day retention time of <15% was deemed to be positive. Patient demographics and time from surgery to investigation were collected and compared for significance (p < 0.05). RESULTS: A total of 9439 patients underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2017 in the five centres. In total, 202 patients (2.1%) underwent investigation for diarrhoea via 75SeHCAT, of which 64 patients (31.6%) had a 75SeHCAT test result of >15%, while 62.8% of those investigated were diagnosed with bile acid diarrhoea (BAD). In total, 133 (65.8%) patients also underwent endoscopy and 74 (36.6%) patients had a CT scan. Median time from surgery to 75SeHCAT test was 672 days (SD ± 482 days). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Only a small proportion of patients, post-cholecystectomy, were investigated for diarrhoea with significant time delay to diagnosis. The true prevalence of BAD after cholecystectomy may be much higher, and clinicians need to have an increased awareness of this condition due to its amenability to treatment. 75SeHCAT is a useful tool for diagnosis of bile acid diarrhoea.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Diarreia , Colecistectomia/efeitos adversos , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
HPB (Oxford) ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methylated septin 9 (mSEPT9) has a role in hepatocarcinogenesis. We evaluated mSEPT9 performance in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and those at risk of HCC METHODS: Using Epi-proColon® V2.0 assay adapted for 1 mL plasma, we investigated mSEPT9 sensitivity, specificity, associations with influential covariates and relation to death. RESULTS: Of 141 participants included, 136 had liver disease, 38 with HCC (mean-age 71 years) and 103 without HCC (mean-age 56.8 years), with further five without liver disease. 41 patients died (23 HCC) by the end of the study follow-up period. In HCC, mSEPT9 sensitivity and specificity were 89.47% (CI:75.20%-97.06%) and 81.55% (CI:72.70%-88.51%), whilst alpha fetoprotein (AFP) sensitivity and specificity were 50% (CI:33.38%-66.62%) and 97.09% (CI:91.72%-99.40%), respectively. Age-adjusted logistic regression showed mSEPT9 was associated with age, body mass index, HCC, liver cirrhosis, AFP, platelets, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio, albumin-bilirubin grade and fibrosis-4 index (p < 0.05). Odds for HCC patients to have positive mSEPT9 were 27.4 times more than those without HCC. Time-to-death was associated with mSEPT9 positivity (p < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier curves showed higher HCC survival with mSEPT9 compared to AFP. CONCLUSIONS: The mSEPT9 offers potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for HCC. After adjusting for age, mSEPT9 remained associated with liver function, liver fibrosis and inflammatory surrogate markers.

9.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922256

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) biomarkers are lacking in clinical practice. We therefore explored the pattern and composition of urinary volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in HCC patients. This was done in order to assess the feasibility of a potential non-invasive test for HCC, and to enhance our understanding of the disease. This pilot study recruited 58 participants, of whom 20 were HCC cases and 38 were non-HCC cases. The non-HCC cases included healthy individuals and patients with various stages of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including those with and without fibrosis. Urine was analysed using gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) and gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). GC-IMS was able to separate HCC from fibrotic cases with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.97 (0.91-1.00), and from non-fibrotic cases with an AUC of 0.62 (0.48-0.76). For GC-TOF-MS, a subset of samples was analysed in which seven chemicals were identified and tentatively linked with HCC. These include 4-methyl-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (2TMS derivative), 2-butanone, 2-hexanone, benzene, 1-ethyl-2-methyl-, 3-butene-1,2-diol, 1-(2-furanyl)-, bicyclo(4.1.0)heptane, 3,7,7-trimethyl-, [1S-(1a,3ß,6a)]-, and sulpiride. Urinary VOC analysis using both GC-IMS and GC-TOF-MS proved to be a feasible method of identifying HCC cases, and was also able to enhance our understanding of HCC pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/urina , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/urina , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/urina , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Curva ROC , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Urinálise/métodos
10.
Pediatr Res ; 89(2): 263-268, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are hydrocarbons that originate within different healthy and diseased tissues. VOCs can be secreted into the circulation and then excreted in the urine and faeces. In the lungs, VOCs are locally produced and can be detected in exhaled breath. VOCs can be identified using non-invasive techniques, which make their use in preterm infants safe and desirable. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature in PubMed, Embase and Web of Science was conducted looking for VOCs techniques and diagnostic performance in preterm infants. A total of 50 articles identified with only seven papers were included in the final analysis in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). RESULTS: VOCs could diagnose necrotising enterocolitis up to 4 days before a clinical diagnosis; for late onset sepsis, up to 3 days before; and for bronchopulmonary dysplasia, up to 2 weeks before. In addition to these diagnostic uses, VOCs analysis could also distinguish breastfed from formula-fed preterm neonates in the first month of life. CONCLUSION: VOCs analysis is a non-invasive tool that makes the use in preterm infants of preference. VOCs analytic techniques require more research and consensus between researchers to overcome their limitations. IMPACT: Volatile organic compounds are hydrocarbons that can separate between healthy and diseased states in preterm infants. Biomarker panels developed from volatile organic compounds are potential diagnostic tools. The non-invasive nature of acquiring volatile organic compounds markers make it desirable in the paediatric patients. Research into exact chemical components of the volatile organic compounds can inform about the pathophysiology of disease in preterm infants. More robust longitudinal studies with repeated experiments are required before volatile organic compounds can be applied in clinical practice.

11.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 9(2): 229-247, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation is an emerging therapeutic option, particularly for the treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection. Stool banks that organise recruitment and screening of faeces donors are being embedded within the regulatory frameworks described in the European Union Tissue and Cells Directive and the technical guide to the quality and safety of tissue and cells for human application, published by the European Council. OBJECTIVE: Several European and international consensus statements concerning faecal microbiota transplantation have been issued. While these documents provide overall guidance, we aim to provide a detailed description of all processes that relate to the collection, handling and clinical application of human donor stool in this document. METHODS: Collaborative subgroups of experts on stool banking drafted concepts for all domains pertaining to stool banking. During a working group meeting in the United European Gastroenterology Week 2019 in Barcelona, these concepts were discussed and finalised to be included in our overall guidance document about faecal microbiota transplantation. RESULTS: A guidance document for all domains pertaining to stool banking was created. This document includes standard operating manuals for several processes involved with stool banking, such as handling of donor material, storage and donor screening. CONCLUSION: The implementation of faecal microbiota transplantation by stool banks in concordance with our guidance document will enable quality assurance and guarantee the availability of donor faeces preparations for patients.

13.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 13: 1756284820937089, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281933

RESUMO

Background and aims: Biologic therapy has emerged as an effective modality amongst the medical treatment options available for ulcerative colitis (UC). However, its impact on post-operative care in patients with UC is still debatable. This review evaluates the risk of post-operative complications following biologic treatment in patients with UC. Methods: A systematic search of the relevant databases was conducted with the aim of identifying studies that compared the post-operative complication rates of UC patients who were either exposed or not exposed to a biologic therapy prior to their surgery. Outcomes of interest included both infection-related complications and overall surgical morbidity. Pooled odds-ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Review Manager 5.3. Results: In all, 20 studies, reviewing a total of 12,494 patients with UC, were included in the meta-analysis. Of these, 2254 patients were exposed to a biologic therapy prior to surgery. The pooled ORs for infection-related complications (n = 8067) and overall complications (n = 11,869) were 0.98 (95% CI 0.66-1.45) and 1.14 (95% CI 1.04-1.28), respectively, which suggested that there was no significant association between the use of pre-operative biologic therapy and post-operative complications. Interestingly, the interval between the last dose of biologic therapy and surgery did not influence the risk of having a post-operative infection. Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that pre-operative biologic therapy does not increase the overall risk of having post-operative infection-related or other complications. PROSPERO registration id-CRD42019141827.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20436, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235223

RESUMO

Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) is a common disorder resulting from increased loss of bile acids (BAs), overlapping irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea (IBS-D). The gut microbiota metabolises primary BAs to secondary BAs, with differing impacts on metabolism and homeostasis. The aim of this study was to profile the microbiome, metabolic products and bile acids in BAD. Patients with BAD diagnosed by SeHCAT testing, were compared with other IBS-D patients, and healthy controls. Faecal 16S ribosomal RNA gene analysis was undertaken. Faecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and urinary volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured. BAs were quantified in serum and faeces. Faecal bacterial diversity was significantly reduced in patients with BAD. Several taxa were enriched compared to IBS-D. SCFA amounts differed in BAD, controls and IBS-D, with significantly more propionate in BAD. Separation of VOC profiles was evident, but the greatest discrimination was between IBS-D and controls. Unconjugated and primary BA in serum and faeces were significantly higher in BAD. The faecal percentage primary BA was inversely related to SeHCAT. BAD produces dysbiosis, with metabolite differences, including VOC, SCFA and primary BAs when compared to IBS-D. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into the pathophysiology of BAD.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/análise , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Diarreia/patologia , Metabolômica/métodos , Esteatorreia/patologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Diarreia/metabolismo , Diarreia/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Esteatorreia/metabolismo , Esteatorreia/microbiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/urina
15.
EBioMedicine ; 62: 103083, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis is a consequence of chronic inflammation and is associated with protein changes within the hepatocytes structure. In this study, we aimed to investigate if this is reflected by the urinary proteome and can be explored to diagnose liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease. METHODS: In a multicentre combined cross-sectional and prospective diagnostic test validation study, 129 patients with varying degrees of liver fibrosis and 223 controls without liver fibrosis were recruited. Additionally, 41 patients with no liver, but kidney fibrosis were included to evaluate interference with expressions of kidney fibrosis. Urinary low molecular weight proteome was analysed by capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS) and a support vector machine marker model was established by integration of peptide markers for liver fibrosis. FINDINGS: CE-MS enabled identification of 50 urinary peptides associated with liver fibrosis. When combined into a classifier, LivFib-50, it separated patients with liver fibrosis (N = 31) from non-liver disease controls (N = 123) in cross-sectional diagnostic phase II evaluation with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.94 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.89-0.97, p<0.0001). When adjusted for age, LivFib-50 demonstrated an AUC of 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89-0.97, p<0.0001) in chronic liver disease patients with (N = 19) or without (N = 17) liver fibrosis progression. In this prospective diagnostic phase III validation set, age-adjusted LivFib-50 showed 84.2% sensitivity (95% CI: 60.4-96.6) and 82.4% specificity (95% CI: 56.6-96.2) for detection of liver fibrosis. The sequence-identified peptides are mainly fragments of collagen chains, uromodulin and Na/K-transporting ATPase subunit γ. We also identified ten putative proteolytic cleavage sites, eight were specific for matrix metallopeptidases and two for cathepsins. INTERPRETATION: In liver fibrosis, urinary peptides profiling offers potential diagnostic markers and leads to discovery of proteolytic sites that could be targets for developing anti-fibrotic therapy.

16.
J Breath Res ; 15(1): 017102, 2020 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the human body, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are produced by different tissues then secreted in different body fluids and subsequently excreted. Here we explore a non-invasive method for the detection of liver, prostate and bladder cancers. METHODS: We recruited 140 cases. There were 31 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), 62 prostate carcinomas, 29 bladder carcinomas and 18 non-cancer cases. Male to female ratio was 5:1 and mean age was 72 years. Urinary VOCs were detected by applying solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique. RESULTS: The sensitivity for detection of HCC with normal alpha fetoprotein (AFP) was 68% (SE 0.06, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.81 and P < 0.005). The VOCs sensitivity in the detection of HCC cases with raised AFP was 83%. (SE 0.05, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.93 and P < 0.0001). The VOCs sensitivity for prostate cancer detection was 70% (SE 0.049, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.79 and P < 0.0002) and sensitivity for bladder cancer detection was 81% (SE 0.052, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.91 and P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: SPME urinary VOCs analysis was able to differentiate between controls and each of hepatocellular, prostate and bladder cancers. This suggests that urinary VOCs are cancer specific and could potentially be used as a diagnostic method.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/classificação , Neoplasias/urina , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/urina , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Testes Respiratórios , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Neurais de Computação , Análise de Componente Principal , Curva ROC , Microextração em Fase Sólida
17.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 52(11-12): 1658-1675, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ongoing UNIFI long-term extension evaluates subcutaneous ustekinumab for moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis (UC) from weeks 44 through 220. AIMS: To assess efficacy (through week 92) and safety (through week 96) during the long-term extension METHODS: Overall, 399 responders to intravenous ustekinumab induction and who were randomised to maintenance therapy were treated in the long-term extension (115 received subcutaneous placebo, 141 received ustekinumab 90 mg every 12 weeks [q12w], and 143 received ustekinumab 90 mg q8w). Placebo treatment was discontinued at unblinding after week 44. Partial Mayo scores were collected every 12 weeks and at each dosing visit after unblinding. Safety was evaluated throughout. RESULTS: Among all patients randomised in maintenance, symptomatic remission rates (stool frequency = 0/1; rectal bleeding = 0) at week 92 were, 64.5% and 67.6% in the ustekinumab q12w and q8w groups, respectively. Among randomised patients treated in the long-term extension, 78.7% and 83.2% of patients receiving q12w and q8w, respectively, attained symptomatic remission at week 92; >95% of patients in symptomatic remission at week 92 were corticosteroid-free. Both ustekinumab groups maintained efficacy through week 92. From weeks 44 to 96, adverse events (AEs) per hundred patient-years (PY) of follow-up for combined ustekinumab vs placebo were: 255.68 vs 267.93; serious AEs, 9.34 vs 12.69; malignancies (including non-melanoma skin cancers), 0.93 vs 1.49; and serious infections, 2.33 vs 2.99. One patient with multiple comorbidities who received one ustekinumab dose after dose adjusting from placebo experienced a fatal cardiac arrest. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of ustekinumab in patients with UC was sustained through 92 weeks. No new safety signals were observed (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02407236).


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Ustekinumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 20(5): 463-467, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934038

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study hospitalised COVID-19 patients' mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission with covariates of interest (age, gender, ethnicity, clinical presentation, comorbidities and admission laboratory findings). METHODS: Logistic regression analyses were performed for patients admitted to University Hospital, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, between 24 January 2020 - 13 April 2020. RESULTS: There were 321 patients hospitalised. Median age was 73 years and 189 (59%) were male. Ethnicity was divided between Caucasian (77%), and black, Asian, and minority ethnic (BAME) groups (23%). Commonest symptoms were dyspnoea (62.9%), fever (59.1%) and cough (56%). Gastrointestinal symptoms amounted to 11.8%.Forty-four patients (13.7%) received ICU care. ICU male to female ratio was 3:1 (p=0.027; odds ratio (OR) 2.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.9), BAME (p=0.008; OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.3-4.9), age >65 years (p=0.026; OR 0.28; 95% CI 0.09-0.93), heart disease (p=0.009; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.1-0.6) and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP; p<0.001; OR 1.004; 95% CI 1.002-1.008) were associated with ICU admission.One-hundred and four patients (32.4%) died. Age >65 years (p=0.011; OR 5; 95% CI 1.6-21.9), neutrophils (p=0.047), neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (NLR; p=0.028), CRP (p<0.001) and albumin (p=0.002) were associated with mortality. When analysis adjusted for age, CRP (p<0.001; OR 1.006; 95% CI 1.004-1.008) and albumin (p=0.005; OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.90-0.98) remained associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has high mortality. BAME and male patients were associated with ICU admission. High CRP and low albumin (after correcting for age) were associated with mortality.


Assuntos
Albuminas/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Causas de Morte , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Reino Unido
20.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(33): 5022-5049, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a frequent cause of cancer related death globally. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and albumin bilirubin (ALBI) grade are emerging prognostic indicators in HCC. AIM: To study published literature of NLR and ALBI over the last five years, and to validate NLR and ALBI locally in our centre as indicators of HCC survival. METHODS: A systematic review of the published literature on PubMed of NLR and ALBI in HCC over the last five years. The search followed the guidelines of the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Additionally, we also investigated HCC cases between December 2013 and December 2018 in our centre. RESULTS: There were 54 studies describing the relation between HCC and NLR and 95 studies describing the relation between HCC and ALBI grade over the last five years. Our local cohort of patients showed NLR to have a significant negative relationship to survival (P = 0.011). There was also significant inverse relationship between the size of the largest HCC nodule and survival (P = 0.009). Median survival with alpha fetoprotein (AFP) < 10 KU/L was 20 mo and with AFP > 10 KU/L was 5 mo. We found that AFP was inversely related to survival, this relationship was not statically significant (P = 0.132). Mean survival for ALBI grade 1 was 37.7 mo, ALBI grade 2 was 13.4 months and ALBI grade 3 was 4.5 mo. ALBI grades performed better than Child Turcotte Pugh score in detecting death from HCC. CONCLUSION: NLR and ALBI grade in HCC predict survival better than the conventional alpha fetoprotein. ALBI grade performs better than Child Turcotte Pugh score. These markers are done as part of routine clinical care and in cases of normal alpha fetoprotein, these markers could give a better understanding of the patient disease progression. NLR and ALBI grade could have a role in modified easier to learn staging and prognostic systems for HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Albuminas , Bilirrubina , Criança , Humanos , Linfócitos , Neutrófilos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
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