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1.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(10): e26164, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobile health interventions provide significant strategies for improving access to health services, offering a potential solution to reduce the mental health treatment gap. Economic evaluation of this intervention is needed to help inform local mental health policy and program development. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents the protocol for an economic evaluation conducted alongside 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a psychological intervention delivered through a technological platform (CONEMO) to treat depressive symptoms in people with diabetes, hypertension, or both. METHODS: The economic evaluation uses a within-trial analysis to evaluate the incremental costs and health outcomes of CONEMO plus enhanced usual care in comparison with enhanced usual care from public health care system and societal perspectives. Participants are patients of the public health care services for hypertension, diabetes, or both conditions in São Paulo, Brazil (n=880) and Lima, Peru (n=432). Clinical effectiveness will be measured by reduction in depressive symptoms and gains in health-related quality of life. We will conduct cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses, providing estimates of the cost per at least 50% reduction in 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire scores, and cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. The measurement of clinical effectiveness and resource use will take place over baseline, 3-month follow-up, and 6-month follow-up in the intervention and control groups. We will use a mixed costing methodology (ie, a combination of top-down and bottom-up approaches) considering 4 cost categories: intervention (CONEMO related) costs, health care costs, patient and family costs, and productivity costs. We will collect unit costs from the RCTs and national administrative databases. The multinational economic evaluations will be fully split analyses with a multicountry costing approach. We will calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and present 95% CIs from nonparametric bootstrapping (1000 replicates). We will perform deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Finally, we will present cost-effectiveness acceptability curves to compare a range of possible cost-effectiveness thresholds. RESULTS: The economic evaluation project had its project charter in June 2018 and is expected to be completed in September 2021. The final results will be available in the second half of 2021. CONCLUSIONS: We expect to assess whether CONEMO plus enhanced usual care is a cost-effective strategy to improve depressive symptoms in this population compared with enhanced usual care. This study will contribute to the evidence base for health managers and policy makers in allocating additional resources for mental health initiatives. It also will provide a basis for further research on how this emerging technology and enhanced usual care can improve mental health and well-being in low- and middle-income countries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT12345678 (Brazil) and NCT03026426 (Peru); https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02846662 and https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03026426. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/26164.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258288, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substance use is highly prevalent among Chilean adolescents, and the damage it causes at the neurobiological, psychological, and social levels is known. However, there are no validated screening instruments that also assess risk and protective factors for this population in Chile, which is essential for evaluating future prevention interventions. OBJECTIVE: To determine the psychometric properties of the European Drug Addiction Prevention Trial Questionnaire (EU-Dap) questionnaire. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 13 schools in the city of Santiago de Chile. The sample included 2261 adolescents ranging from 10 to 14 years old. Linguistic and cultural adaptation was assessed using focus groups with adolescents, the construct validity was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis, and measures of its reliability were also determined. Furthermore, the associations regarding risk and protective factors with substance use were explored. RESULTS: Substance use questions were well understood and seemed to adequately capture the consumption of different drugs. Regarding the subscales of risk and protective factors, the analyses showed that most subscales had good psychometric properties, and few needed some degree of improvement (e.g., some items were removed). After the changes, most final subscales had good or adequate goodness of fit adjustments and good or acceptable internal consistency. Finally, the main associated factors with the substance use outcomes were: future substance use and school bonding for tobacco use; negative beliefs about alcohol, future substance use, school bonding and refusal skills for alcohol use; and negative beliefs about marihuana, positive attitudes towards drugs, risk perception, and substance abuse index for marihuana use. Normative beliefs increased the risk for all substances use. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that the EU-Dap is a valid and reliable instrument, and it may help to evaluate the effectiveness of drug use prevention interventions.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e052339, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518275

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Improving the mental health of young people is a global public health priority. In Latin America, young people living in deprived urban areas face various risk factors for mental distress. However, most either do not develop mental distress in the form of depression and anxiety, or recover within a year without treatment from mental health services. This research programme seeks to identify the personal and social resources that help young people to prevent and recover from mental distress. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A cross-sectional study will compare personal and social resources used by 1020 young people (aged 15-16 and 20-24 years) with symptoms of depression and/or anxiety and 1020 without. A longitudinal cohort study will follow-up young people with mental distress after 6 months and 1 year and compare resource use in those who do and do not recover. An experience sampling method study will intensively assess activities, experiences and mental distress in subgroups over short time periods. Finally, we will develop case studies highlighting existing initiatives that effectively support young people to prevent and recover from mental distress. The analysis will assess differences between young people with and without distress at baseline using t-tests and χ2 tests. Within the groups with mental distress, multivariate logistic regression analyses using a random effects model will assess the relationship between predictor variables and recovery. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approvals are received from Ethics Committee in Biomedical Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires; Faculty of Medicine-Research and Ethics Committee of the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá; Institutional Ethics Committee of Research of the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia and Queen Mary Ethics of Research Committee. Dissemination will include arts-based methods and target different audiences such as national stakeholders, researchers from different disciplines and the general public. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN72241383.

4.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e045481, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518246

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Common mental disorders (CMDs) are a leading cause of disability globally. CMDs are highly prevalent in Zimbabwe and have been addressed by an evidence-based, task-shifting psychological intervention called the Friendship Bench (FB). The task-shifted FB programme guides clients through problem-solving therapy. It was scaled up across 36 implementation sites in Zimbabwe in 2016. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study will employ a mixed-method framework. It aims to: (1) use quantitative survey methodologies organised around the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption and Implementation and Maintenance evaluation framework to assess the current scaleup of the FB intervention and classify 36 clinics according to levels of performance; (2) use qualitative focus group discussions and semistructured interviews organised around the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to analyse determinants of implementation success, as well as elucidate heterogeneity in implementation strategies through comparing high-performing and low-performing clinics; and (3) use the results from aims 1 and 2 to develop strategies to optimise the Friendship Bench intervention and apply this model in a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate potential improvements among low-performing clinics. The trial will be registered with the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry (www.pactr.org). The planned randomised controlled trial for the third research aim will be registered after completing aims one and two because the intervention is dependent on knowledge generated during these phases. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The research protocol received full authorisation from the Medical Research Council of Zimbabwe (MRCZ A/242). It is anticipated that changes in data collection tools and consent forms will take place at all three phases of the study and approval from MRCZ will be sought. All interview partners will be asked for informed consent. The research team will prioritise open-access publications to disseminate research results.

5.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-6, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409909

RESUMO

Objectives: To obtain evidence on the psychometric properties of the Patient Health Questionnaire - 9 (PHQ-9, one of the most extensively used tools for assessing depression) in the Brazilian older population.Method:Data on 3,356 Brazilian adults aged 60+ years living in Guarulhos, São Paulo state were used. The factor structure of the questionnaire was analysed using a factor analysis approach. The questionnaire's measurement equivalence was tested across gender, age, personal income, and education level groups. The scores were compared across groups based on the highest level of equivalence achieved. The questionnaire's internal consistency was analysed considering its factor structure.Results:A one-factor solution was identified as the most adequate factor structure, with the factor explaining 57.6% of the items' variance. The correlation of the resulting latent score with the overall raw sum score in the PHQ-9 was r = 0.96. Measurement equivalence regarding thresholds and loadings was achieved for all tested groups. On average, women, older, less educated, and poorer people had higher latent scores on the depression factor. The measure showed a good internal consistency with Revelle's omega total ωt=0.92.Conclusion:The results suggest that, among Brazilian older adults living in Guarulhos, São Paulo state, the PHQ-9 measures depressive symptomatology equivalently across different sociodemographic subgroups. Moreover, it can be scored using the raw sum of the item scores to adequately reflect different levels of depressive symptomatology.

6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 418, 2021 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression and chronic diseases are frequently comorbid public health problems. However, clinical guidelines often fail to consider comorbidities. This study protocol describes a cluster randomized trial (CRT) aimed to compare the effectiveness of a collaborative, computer-assisted, psycho-educational intervention versus enhanced usual care (EUC) in the treatment of depressed patients with hypertension and/or diabetes in primary care clinics (PCC) in Santiago, Chile. METHODS: Two-arm, single-blind, CRT carried out at two municipalities in Santiago, Chile. Eight PCC will be randomly assigned (1:1 ratio within each municipality, 4 PCC in each municipality) to the INTERVENTION or EUC. A total of 360 depressed patients, aged at least 18 years, with Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Item [PHQ-9] scores ≥15, and enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Program at the participating PCC. Patients with alcohol/substance abuse; current treatment for depression, bipolar disorder, or psychosis; illiteracy; severe impairment; and resident in long-term care facilities, will be excluded. Patients in both arms will be invited to use the Web page of the project, which includes basic health education information. Patients in the INTERVENTION will receive eight sessions of a computer-assisted, psycho-educational intervention delivered by trained therapists, a structured telephone calls to monitor progress, and usual medical care for chronic diseases. Therapists will receive biweekly and monthly supervision by psychologist and psychiatrist, respectively. A monthly meeting will be held between the PCC team and a member of the research team to ensure continuity of care. Patients in EUC will receive depression treatment according to clinical guidelines and usual medical care for chronic diseases. Outcome assessments will be conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months after enrollment. The primary outcome will be depression improvement at 6 months, defined as ≥50% reduction in baseline PHQ-9 scores. Intention-to-treat analyses will be performed. DISCUSSION: This study will be one of the first to provide evidence for the effectiveness of a collaborative, computer-assisted, psycho-educational intervention for depressed patients with chronic disease at primary care in a Latin American country. TRIAL REGISTRATION: retrospectively registered in ClinicalTrials.gov , first posted: November 3, 2020, under identifier: NCT04613076 .


Assuntos
Depressão , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Computadores , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Método Simples-Cego
7.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 26: 142-149, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A few instruments that identify and valuate health states are based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health States of the World Health Organization. One of them is the Health State Description (HSD) questionnaire first used in the World Health Survey (WHS) initiative (HSD-WHS), whose psychometric properties have not been evaluated in Chile. Additionally, the use of latent variables for the valuation process of health states has been scarcely investigated in the context of population health metrics. We aim to evaluate the psychometric properties and factorial structure of the HSD-WHS for Chile and describe a latent variable method for valuating health states associated with diseases. METHODS: We used data from the second Chilean National Health population-based survey from 2009 to 2010 (N = 5293). We explored the factorial structure of the HSD-WHS through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the reliability, and the discriminant validity of the latent variable of disability. Disability weights for diseases were calculated using a linear regression model. RESULTS: We found an adequate goodness of fit for a second-order model with 9 factors corresponding to disability domains (Tucker-Lewis index = 0.99, comparative fit index = 0.99, root mean square error of approximation = 0.060), and good reliability estimates (standardized α = 0.91). The rescaled (between 0 and 100) latent variable of disability showed significant difference according to the explored variables. We estimated disability weights for the following: (1) depressive episode, 13.6 (12.1-15.2), (2) hypertension, 1.6 (0.0-3.3), and (3) diabetes, 5.0 (2.5-7.4). CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the use of the HSD-WHS questionnaire in the Chilean population and a latent variable approach for valuating health states associated with diseases.

8.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e048742, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: ASSET (Health System Strengthening in sub-Saharan Africa) is a health system strengthening (HSS) programme involving eight work-packages (ie, a research study that addresses a specific need for HSS) that aims to develop solutions that support high-quality care. Here we present the protocol for the implementation science (IS) theme within ASSET (ASSET-ImplmentER) that aims to understand what HSS interventions work, for whom and how, and how IS methodologies can be adapted to improve the HSS interventions within resource-poor contexts. SETTINGS: Publicly funded health facilities in rural and urban areas in in Ethiopia, South Africa, Sierra Leone, and Zimbabwe. PARTICIPANTS: Research staff including principal investigators, coinvestigators, field staff, PhD students, and research assistants. INTERVENTIONS: Work-packages use a mixed-methods effectiveness-effectiveness hybrid designs. At the end of the pre-implementation phase, a workshop is held whereby the IS theme, jointly with ASSET work-packages apply IS determinant frameworks to research findings to identify factors that influence the effectiveness of delivering evidence-informed care. Determinants are used to select a set of HSS interventions for further evaluation, where work-packages also theorise selective mechanisms.In the piloting and rolling implementation phase, work-packages pilot the HSS interventions. An iterative process then begins involving evaluation, reflection and adaptation. Throughout this phase, IS determinant frameworks are applied to monitor and identify barriers/enablers to implementation. Selective mechanisms of action are also investigated. Implementation outcomes are evaluated using qualitative and quantitative methods. The psychometric properties of outcome measures including acceptability, appropriateness and feasibility are also evaluated. In a final workshop, work-packages come together, to reflect and explore the utility of the selected IS methods and provide suggestions for future use.Structured templates are used to organise and analyse common and heterogeneous patterns across work-packages. Qualitative data are analysed using thematic analysis and quantitative data are analysed using means and proportions. CONCLUSIONS: We use a novel combination of IS methods at a programmatic level to facilitate comparisons of determinants and mechanisms that influence the effectiveness of HSS interventions in achieving implementation outcomes across different contexts. The study also contributes conceptual development and clarification at the underdeveloped interface of IS, HSS and global health.The ASSET-ImplementER theme is considered minimal risk as we only interview researchers involved in the different work-packages. To this effect we have received approval from King's College London Ethics Committee for research that is considered minimal risk (Reference number: MRA-20/21-21772).


Assuntos
Ciência da Implementação , Etiópia , Humanos , Londres , Serra Leoa , África do Sul , Zimbábue
9.
JAMA ; 325(18): 1852-1862, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974019

RESUMO

Importance: Depression is a leading contributor to disease burden globally. Digital mental health interventions can address the treatment gap in low- and middle-income countries, but the effectiveness in these countries is unknown. Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of a digital intervention in reducing depressive symptoms among people with diabetes and/or hypertension. Design, Setting, and Participants: Participants with clinically significant depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9] score ≥10) who were being treated for hypertension and/or diabetes were enrolled in a cluster randomized clinical trial (RCT) at 20 sites in São Paulo, Brazil (N=880; from September 2016 to September 2017; final follow-up, April 2018), and in an individual-level RCT at 7 sites in Lima, Peru (N=432; from January 2017 to September 2017; final follow-up, March 2018). Interventions: An 18-session, low-intensity, digital intervention was delivered over 6 weeks via a provided smartphone, based on behavioral activation principles, and supported by nurse assistants (n = 440 participants in 10 clusters in São Paulo; n = 217 participants in Lima) vs enhanced usual care (n = 440 participants in 10 clusters in São Paulo; n = 215 participants in Lima). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a reduction of at least 50% from baseline in PHQ-9 scores (range, 0-27; higher score indicates more severe depression) at 3 months. Secondary outcomes included a reduction of at least 50% from baseline PHQ-9 scores at 6 months. Results: Among 880 patients cluster randomized in Brazil (mean age, 56.0 years; 761 [86.5%] women) and 432 patients individually randomized in Peru (mean age, 59.7 years; 352 [81.5%] women), 807 (91.7%) in Brazil and 426 (98.6%) in Peru completed at least 1 follow-up assessment. The proportion of participants in São Paulo with a reduction in PHQ-9 score of at least 50% at 3-month follow-up was 40.7% (159/391 participants) in the digital intervention group vs 28.6% (114/399 participants) in the enhanced usual care group (difference, 12.1 percentage points [95% CI, 5.5 to 18.7]; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.6 [95% CI, 1.2 to 2.2]; P = .001). In Lima, the proportion of participants with a reduction in PHQ-9 score of at least 50% at 3-month follow-up was 52.7% (108/205 participants) in the digital intervention group vs 34.1% (70/205 participants) in the enhanced usual care group (difference, 18.6 percentage points [95% CI, 9.1 to 28.0]; adjusted OR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.4 to 3.2]; P < .001). At 6-month follow-up, differences across groups were no longer statistically significant. Conclusions and Relevance: In 2 RCTs of patients with hypertension or diabetes and depressive symptoms in Brazil and Peru, a digital intervention delivered over a 6-week period significantly improved depressive symptoms at 3 months when compared with enhanced usual care. However, the magnitude of the effect was small in the trial from Brazil and the effects were not sustained at 6 months. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02846662 (São Paulo) and NCT03026426 (Lima).


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Depressão/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/psicologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Aplicativos Móveis , Telemedicina , Adulto , Brasil , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/enfermagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Peru , Smartphone
10.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(4)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906845

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although cash transfer programmes are not explicitly designed to improve mental health, by reducing poverty and improving the life chances of children and young people, they may also improve their mental health. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the evidence on the effectiveness of cash transfers to improve the mental health of children and young people in low-income and middle-income countries. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, EBSCOhost, Scientific Electronic Library Online, ISI Web of Science and Social Sciences Citation Index and grey literature (from January 2000 to July 2020) for studies which quantitatively assessed the impact of cash transfers on mental health in young people (aged 0-24 years), using a design that incorporated a control group. We extracted Cohen's d effects size and used a random-effects model for the meta-analysis on studies that measured depressive symptoms, I2 statistic and assessment of study quality. RESULTS: We identified 12 116 articles for screening, of which 12 were included in the systematic review (covering 13 interventions) and seven in the meta-analysis assessing impact on depressive symptoms specifically. There was high heterogeneity (I2=95.2) and a high risk of bias (0.38, 95% CIs: -5.08 to 5.85; p=0.86) across studies. Eleven interventions (85%) showed a significant positive impact of cash transfers on at least one mental health outcome in children and young people. However, no study found a positive effect on all mental health outcomes examined, and the meta-analysis showed no impact of cash transfers on depressive symptoms (0.02, 95% CIs: -0.19 to 0.23; p=0.85). CONCLUSION: Cash transfers may have positive effects on some mental health outcomes for young people, with no negative effects identified. However, there is high heterogeneity across studies, with some interventions showing no effects. Our review highlights how the effect of cash transfers may vary by social and economic context, culture, design, conditionality and mental health outcome.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Pobreza , Adolescente , Criança , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Renda
11.
Hum Resour Health ; 19(1): 16, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Task-shifting and technology in psychological interventions are two solutions to increasing access to mental health intervention and overcoming the treatment gap in low and middle-income countries. The CONEMO intervention combines a smartphone app with support from non-specialized professionals, aiming to treat depression in patients with diabetes and/or hypertension. The aim of this paper is to describe the process of recruitment, training and supervision of the non-specialized professionals who participated in the CONEMO task-shifting intervention in Brazil and Peru. METHODS: We described and analyzed data related to the recruitment, training and supervision of 62 nurse assistants from the health system in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and three hired nurses in Lima, Peru. The data were collected from information provided by nurses and nurse assistants, supervisor records from supervision meetings and the CONEMO platform database. RESULTS: We found that task-shifting was feasible using existing resources in Sao Paulo and additional human resources in Lima. Training and supervision were found to be crucial and well received by the staff; however, time was a limitation when using existing human resources. Ensuring technological competence prior to the start of the intervention was essential. Group supervision meetings allowed non-specialized professionals to learn from each other's experiences. CONCLUSION: Carefully considering recruitment, training and supervision of non-specialized professionals is important for effective task-shifting when delivering an mHealth intervention for depression. Opportunities and challenges of working in different health systems are described, which should be considered in future implementation, either for research or real settings. Trial registration NCT028406662 (Sao Paulo), NCT03026426 (Peru).

12.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(4): 340-346, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549174

RESUMO

Social protection measures can play an important part in securing livelihoods and in mitigating short-term and long-term economic, social, and mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, cash transfer programmes are currently being adapted or expanded in various low-income and middle-income countries to support individuals and families during the pandemic. We argue that the current crisis offers an opportunity for these programmes to focus on susceptible young people (aged 15-24 years), including those with mental health conditions. Young people living in poverty and with mental health problems are at particular risk of experiencing adverse health, wellbeing, and employment outcomes with long-term consequences. They are also at risk of developing mental health conditions during this pandemic. To support this population, cash transfer programmes should not only address urgent needs around food security and survival but expand their focus to address longer-term mental health impacts of pandemics and economic crises. Such an approach could help support young people's future life chances and break the vicious cycle between mental illness and poverty that spirals many young people into both socioeconomic and mental health disadvantage.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Saúde Mental , Política Pública , Adolescente , Países em Desenvolvimento , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/economia , Pobreza , Assistência Pública/economia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(1): 52-60, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154721

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: The aims of this study were twofold. First, to provide evidence of the validity and reliability of the Adolescent Lifestyle Profile-Revised 2 (ALP-R2) among adolescents in Chile; and second, to examine the relationship between the health-promoting behaviors measured by this scale and several demographic variables. Methods: Cross-sectional survey. Students attending grades 9 through 12 from schools representing low-, middle-, and high-income families were included. All schools were in the city of San Felipe, Chile. Students completed the ALP-R2, a fourty-four-item scale aiming to assess health-promoting behaviors. To evaluate validity and reliability, confirmatory factor analysis and omega coefficient calculation were conducted, respectively. Results: The sample size was 572 students (82.5% of the eligible population). More males (56.6%) than females (43.4%) participated in the study, and the mean age was 16.4 (SD, 1.3) years. The ALP-R2 had adequate adjustment indicators in the confirmatory factor analysis, which means that the data supports the original theoretical model (seven subscales). The highest internal consistency was obtained for the total scale (Ω = 0.87); and (among the subscales), physical activity (Ω = 0.85) and spiritual health (Ω = 0.78) had the highest reliability. Conclusions: The ALP-R2 appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess health-promoting behaviors among adolescents attending secondary schools.

14.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 36(4): 530-539, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098159

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to test if a behavioural activation (BA) programme was more effective than usual care at reducing the risk of conversion to major depression over 52 weeks among adults aged 65 years or older living in rural Western Australia. Secondary aims were to test if participants assigned to the BA intervention experienced greater decline in the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms than older adults treated with usual care over 26 and 52 weeks, as well as greater improvement in physical and mental health-related quality of life. METHODS: Randomised controlled clinical trial that started recruitment in February 2016 in rural Western Australia. We used the electoral roll to invite adults aged 65 years or over living in suitable regions of Western Australia to take part in the study. We recruited those who consented and screened positive to at least one of the two Whooley questions: feeling down/depressed/hopeless or little interest or pleasure over the past month. Participants were randomly assigned to usual care or usual care plus a phone-delivered BA program (1:1). The intervention consisted of a self-managed BA program supported by three 45-min phone sessions delivered by a BA therapist over a period of 8 weeks. We used the DSM-5 criteria to establish the presence of a major depressive episode, and Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale and SF-36 to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety and quality of life. RESULTS: Of the 309 older adults randomised, 307 started the trial: 153 usual care and 154 BA (computer-generated random permuted even blocks ranging in size from 8 to 20). Six participants developed a major depressive episode during follow-up, four of them in the usual care group (odds ratio of depression associated with the intervention = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.04, 3.49-blind assessment). Seventy-three (23.8%) participants were lost over 52 weeks-there were no differences between usual care and intervention group. Intention-to-treat analyses using mixed regression models found modest non-significant effects of the BA intervention, while complete-case analyses showed that participants treated with BA compared with usual care experienced significant improvements in depression and anxiety symptoms over 52 weeks, as well as improved mental health quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Few participants developed a major depressive episode during follow-up. The BA intervention was associated with improved symptoms of depression and anxiety, although the clinical significance of these benefits remains unclear.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Austrália Ocidental
15.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 97(1): 52-60, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were twofold. First, to provide evidence of the validity and reliability of the Adolescent Lifestyle Profile-Revised 2 (ALP-R2) among adolescents in Chile; and second, to examine the relationship between the health-promoting behaviors measured by this scale and several demographic variables. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey. Students attending grades 9 through 12 from schools representing low-, middle-, and high-income families were included. All schools were in the city of San Felipe, Chile. Students completed the ALP-R2, a fourty-four-item scale aiming to assess health-promoting behaviors. To evaluate validity and reliability, confirmatory factor analysis and omega coefficient calculation were conducted, respectively. RESULTS: The sample size was 572 students (82.5% of the eligible population). More males (56.6%) than females (43.4%) participated in the study, and the mean age was 16.4 (SD, 1.3) years. The ALP-R2 had adequate adjustment indicators in the confirmatory factor analysis, which means that the data supports the original theoretical model (seven subscales). The highest internal consistency was obtained for the total scale (Ω=0.87); and (among the subscales), physical activity (Ω=0.85) and spiritual health (Ω=0.78) had the highest reliability. CONCLUSIONS: The ALP-R2 appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess health-promoting behaviors among adolescents attending secondary schools.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Adolescente , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Psychiatr Res ; 133: 223-246, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360867

RESUMO

In low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), emerging digital mental health interventions should be accompanied by regular and comprehensive assessment of available scientific evidence. This review aims to support efforts to monitor progress in digital mental health research, ensuring new evidence can guide researchers, clinicians, policymakers and program managers positioned to adopt and implement these digitally-enabled treatments. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, an electronic database search from 2016 to 2020 yielded 37 digital intervention studies for detection, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and/or management of a broad range of mental disorders in 13 LMICs. This date range was selected to update previous reviews. Most studies involved online interventions and many reported feasibility and acceptability, reflected by participant satisfaction or program adherence. About half the studies (N = 23) reported clinical benefits based on changes in mental health. For depression and mood disorders, some digital interventions showed improvements in depressive symptoms, quality of life, treatment adherence, and recovery. However, sample sizes were small and studies focused primarily on adults. Further limiting generalizability was the lack of consistency in clinical assessment and measurement tools between studies. No studies reported worsening symptoms, negative acceptability or dissatisfaction with digital interventions, suggesting possible publication bias. While digital interventions show promise, it remains difficult to conclude that digital interventions are effective from these studies, as it is prudent to exercise caution before drawing conclusions about clinical effectiveness. This review reflects continued growth in digital mental health research in LMICs and further highlights the need for rigorous evaluation of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Transtornos Mentais , Adulto , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Pobreza , Qualidade de Vida
17.
Psychol Med ; : 1-8, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment (GAD-7) are widely used in the evaluation of interventions for depression and anxiety. The smallest reduction in depressive symptoms that matter to patients is known as the Minimum Clinically Important Difference (MCID). Little empirical study of the MCID for these scales exists. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 400 patients in UK primary care were interviewed on four occasions, 2 weeks apart. At each time point, participants completed all three questionnaires and a 'global rating of change' scale (GRS). MCID estimation relied on estimated changes in symptoms according to reported improvement on the GRS scale, stratified by baseline severity on the Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R). RESULTS: For moderate baseline severity, those who reported improvement on the GRS had a reduction of 21% (95% confidence interval (CI) -26.7 to -14.9) on the PHQ-9; 23% (95% CI -27.8 to -18.0) on the BDI-II and 26.8% (95% CI -33.5 to -20.1) on the GAD-7. The corresponding threshold scores below which participants were more likely to report improvement were -1.7, -3.5 and -1.5 points on the PHQ-9, BDI-II and GAD-7, respectively. Patients with milder symptoms require much larger reductions as percentage of their baseline to endorse improvement. CONCLUSIONS: An MCID representing 20% reduction of scores in these scales, is a useful guide for patients with moderately severe symptoms. If treatment had the same effect on patients irrespective of baseline severity, those with low symptoms are unlikely to notice a benefit. FUNDING: Funding. National Institute for Health Research.

18.
Trials ; 21(1): 914, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The elderly population has been growing in most low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and depression is a common condition among these populations. The lack of integration between mental health and primary healthcare services and the shortage of mental health specialists in the public health system contribute to underdiagnosis and undertreatment of depression. One of the strategies to reduce this gap is task shifting and collaborative care treatments. This study therefore aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a collaborative care psychosocial intervention to improve the clinical management of depression among elderly people in poor neighbourhoods in Guarulhos, Brazil. METHODS: Two-arm, cluster randomised controlled trial with Basic Health Units as the clusters and a 1:1 allocation ratio. Twenty Basic Health Units have been randomly selected and randomised to control or intervention arms. We aim to recruit 1440 adults (72 per cluster) aged 60 years or over identified with depression (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score ≥ 10). The control arm participants will receive an enhanced usual care, while the intervention arm participants will receive an enhanced usual care and a 17-week psychosocial intervention programme delivered at home by community health workers with the help of an application installed on tablet computers. The primary outcome is the proportion with depression recovery (PHQ-9 < 10) at 8 months' follow-up. We will also assess the maintenance of any earlier clinical gains and the cost-effectiveness of the intervention at 12 months. DISCUSSION: This is the first randomised trial to investigate a collaborative care intervention to treat depression among poor elderly in LMIC/Latin America. This is a major public health problem worldwide, but in these countries, there are no locally tested, evidence-based interventions available to date. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN57805470 . Registered on 25 April 2019.


Assuntos
Depressão , Intervenção Psicossocial , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e036299, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine and adapt a conceptual framework of the working alliance (WA) in the context of a low-intensity blended (psychological well-being practitioner (PWP) plus computerised program) cognitive behavioural therapy intervention (b-CBT) for depression. DESIGN: Patient involvement was enlisted to collaboratively shape the design of the project from the onset, before data collection. In-depth semi-structured interviews were carried out with participants who experienced b-CBT as part of the E-compared trial. A thematic analysis was conducted using a constant comparative method informed by grounded theory. SETTING: Recruitment was carried out in four psychological primary care services across the UK. PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen trial participants with major depressive disorder who completed at least one computerised program and face-to-face session with a PWP in the b-CBT arm were recruited to the study. RESULTS: Qualitative interviews that were guided by WA theory and patient involvement, revealed four themes: (1) a healthcare provider (PWP and computerised program) with good interpersonal competencies for building a working relationship with the client ('bond'); (2) collaborative efforts between the client and the provider to appropriately identify what the client hopes to achieve through therapy ('goals'); (3) the selection of acceptable therapeutic activities that address client goals and the availability of responsive support ('task') and (4) the promotion of active engagement and autonomous problem solving ('usability heuristics'). Participants described how the PWP and computerised program uniquely and collectively contributed to different WA needs. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to offer a preliminary conceptual framework of WA in b-CBT for depression, and how such demands can be addressed through blended PWP-computerised program delivery. These findings can be used to promote WA in technological design and clinical practice, thereby promoting engagement to b-CBT interventions and effective deployment of practitioner and program resources. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN12388725.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Análise Custo-Benefício , Depressão/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Humanos , Saúde Mental
20.
Trials ; 21(1): 745, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving children and young people's provision for mental health is a current health priority in England. Secondary school teachers have worse mental health outcomes than the general working population, which the Wellbeing in Secondary Education (WISE) cluster randomised controlled trial aimed to improve. The WISE intervention comprised a Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training package delivered to at least 16% of staff, a short mental health awareness session to all teachers and development of a staff peer support service. Twenty-five schools were randomised to intervention or control arms. This paper reports findings regarding the extent of uptake and fidelity of the intervention. METHODS: Mixed methods data collection comprised researcher observations of training delivery, training participant evaluation forms, trainer and peer supporter interviews, peer supporter feedback meetings, logs of support provided, and teacher questionnaires. Quantitative data were summarised descriptively, while thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data. RESULTS: In the 12 schools assigned to the intervention arm, 113 (8.6%) staff completed the 2-day standard MHFA training course, and a further 146 (11.1%) staff completed the 1-day MHFA for schools and colleges training. In seven (58.3%) schools, the required 8% of staff completed the MHFA training packages. A 1-h mental health awareness-raising session was attended by 666 (54.5%) staff. Delivery of the MHFA training package was achieved with high levels of fidelity and quality across schools. All schools set up the peer support service following training, with a majority adhering to most of the operational guidelines developed from the pilot study at the outset. Teachers reported limited use of the peer support service during follow-up. At the 1-year follow-up, only three (25.0%) schools indicated they had re-advertised the service and there was evidence of a reduction in support from senior leadership. CONCLUSION: The MHFA training package was delivered with reasonably high fidelity, and a staff peer support service was established with general, but not complete, adherence to guidelines. In some schools, insufficient staff received MHFA training and levels of delivery of the peer support service compromised intervention dose and reach. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 95909211 . Registered on 15 January 2016.


Assuntos
Primeiros Socorros , Saúde Mental/educação , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Criança , Inglaterra , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Projetos Piloto , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Apoio Social
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