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1.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504405

RESUMO

AIMS: The CLIMA study, on the relationship between coronary plaque morphology of the left anterior descending artery and twelve months clinical outcome, was designed to explore the predictive value of multiple high-risk plaque features in the same coronary lesion [minimum lumen area (MLA), fibrous cap thickness (FCT), lipid arc circumferential extension, and presence of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-defined macrophages] as detected by OCT. Composite of cardiac death and target segment myocardial infarction was the primary clinical endpoint. METHODS AND RESULTS: From January 2013 to December 2016, 1003 patients undergoing OCT evaluation of the untreated proximal left anterior descending coronary artery in the context of clinically indicated coronary angiogram were prospectively enrolled at 11 independent centres (clinicaltrial.gov identifier NCT02883088). At 1-year, the primary clinical endpoint was observed in 37 patients (3.7%). In a total of 1776 lipid plaques, presence of MLA <3.5 mm2 [hazard ratio (HR) 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.0], FCT <75 µm (HR 4.7, 95% CI 2.4-9.0), lipid arc circumferential extension >180° (HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8), and OCT-defined macrophages (HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.1) were all associated with increased risk of the primary endpoint. The pre-specified combination of plaque features (simultaneous presence of the four OCT criteria in the same plaque) was observed in 18.9% of patients experiencing the primary endpoint and was an independent predictor of events (HR 7.54, 95% CI 3.1-18.6). CONCLUSION: The simultaneous presence of four high-risk OCT plaque features was found to be associated with a higher risk of major coronary events.

2.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435004

RESUMO

Interaction between arterial stiffness and hypertension plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, assessment of arterial stiffness may provide a tool for estimating cardiovascular risk and monitoring therapy in hypertensive patients. Radiofrequency-based vascular ultrasound allows accurate noninvasive assessment of local mechanical properties of large arteries, but for its use in clinical practice, reference values according to age and sex are mandatory for each vascular site. To provide reference values for common carotid artery stiffness as assessed by an echo-tracking imaging system Hitachi-Aloka, we pooled measurements collected in 1847 healthy subjects aged 3-74 years (1008 males and 839 females) recruited in 14 European centers in the E-tracking International Collaboration (ETIC). Statistical models were developed to describe relationships of different stiffness indices with age and to calculate median values and Z-scores corresponding to ± 1 and ± 2 standard deviations. In our apparently healthy population, age accounted for 53% of variability in the elastic modulus (epsilon), 39% in arterial compliance, 47% in stiffness index (ß), and 56% in local pulse wave velocity; on average, blood pressure accounted for a further 7.5% of variability. Dependence on age was not linear; changes in mean values increased at older ages, especially for epsilon and ß. There was an interaction between age and gender for arterial compliance, which was higher in males. We present nomograms and a software that can be used for the automated calculation of Z-scores for local carotid stiffness in individual patients. These tools can be used to establish prognostic indicators or surrogate targets for treatment monitoring.

3.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445768

RESUMO

The surgical approach to the axilla in breast cancer has been a controversial issue for more than three decades. Data from recently published trials have provided practice-changing recommendations in this scenario. However, further controversies have been triggered in the surgical community, resulting in heterogeneous diffusion of these recommendations. The development of clinical guidelines for the management of the axilla in patients with breast cancer is a work in progress. A multidisciplinary team discussion was held at the research hospital Policlinico San Matteo from the Università degli Studi di Pavia with the aim to update recommendations for the management of the axilla in patients with breast cancer. An evidence-based approach is presented. Our multidisciplinary panel determined that axillary dissection after a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy may be avoided in cN0 patients with micro/macrometastasis to ≤2 sentinel nodes, with age ≥40y, lesions ≤3 cm, who have not received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and have planned breast conservation (BCS) with whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT). Cases with gross (>2 mm) ECE in SLNs are evaluated on individual basis for completion ALND, axillary radiotherapy or omission of both. Patients fulfilling the criteria listed above who undergo mastectomy, may also avoid axillary dissection after multidisciplinary discussion of individual cases for consideration of axillary irradiation. Women 70 years or older with hormone receptors positive invasive lesions ≤3 cm, clinically negative nodes, and serious or multiple comorbidities who undergo BCS with WBRT, may forgo axillary staging/surgery (if mastectomy or larger tumor, comorbidities and life expectancy are taken into account).

4.
Heart ; 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) predicts mortality and the development of heart failure in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Mid-regional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) is a stable by-product of production of atrial natriuretic peptide. We sought to compare the prognostic value of MR-proANP and NT-proBNP in HCM. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled a cohort of patients with HCM from different European centres and followed them. All patients had clinical, ECG and echocardiographic evaluation and measurement of MR-proANP and NT-proBNP at inclusion. RESULTS: Of 357 patients enrolled, the median age was 52 (IQR: 36-65) years. MR-proANP and NT-proBNP were both independently associated with age, weight, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), wall thickness and left atrial dimension. During a median follow-up of 23 months, 32 patients had a primary end point defined as death (n=6), heart transplantation (n=8), left ventricular assist device implantation (n=1) or heart failure hospitalisation (n=17). Both NT-proBNP and MR-proANP (p<10-4) were strongly associated with the primary endpoint, and the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for both peptides were not significantly different. However, in a multiple stepwise regression analysis, the best model for predicting outcome was NYHA 1-2 vs 3-4 (HR=0.35, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.77, p<0.01), LVEF (HR=0.96, 95% CI 0.94 to 0.98, p=0.0005) and MR-proANP (HR=3.77, 95% CI 2.01 to 7.08, p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: MR-proANP emerges as a valuable biomarker for the prediction of death and heart failure related events in patients with HCM.

6.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 553-576, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989768

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and an important cause of heart failure (HF). Current knowledge on incidence, pathophysiology and natural history of HF in cardiomyopathies is limited, and distinct features of their therapeutic responses have not been systematically addressed. Therefore, this position paper focuses on epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history and latest developments in treatment of HF in patients with dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM) and restrictive (RCM) cardiomyopathies. In DCM, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has high incidence and prevalence and represents the most frequent cause of death, despite improvements in treatment. In addition, advanced HF in DCM is one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In HCM, HF with preserved ejection (HFpEF) affects most patients with obstructive, and ∼10% of patients with non-obstructive HCM. A timely treatment is important, since development of advanced HF, although rare in HCM, portends a poor prognosis. In RCM, HFpEF is common, while HFrEF occurs later and more frequently in amyloidosis or iron overload/haemochromatosis. Irrespective of RCM aetiology, HF is a harbinger of a poor outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of HF in cardiomyopathies have significant implications for therapeutic decision-making. In addition, new aetiology-specific treatment options (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy, transthyretin stabilizers, immunoadsorption, immunotherapy, etc.) have shown a potential to improve outcomes. Still, causative therapies of many cardiomyopathies are lacking, highlighting the need for the development of effective strategies to prevent and treat HF in cardiomyopathies.

12.
Open Heart ; 5(2): e000915, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402260

RESUMO

Objective: Two LMNA genotype-phenotype cardiac correlations are reported: first, that cardiac involvement in multisystem laminopathies prevails with mutations upstream of the nuclear localisation signal (NLS); second, that worse outcomes occur with non-missense (compared with missense) mutations. We tested whether LMNA mutation DNA location and mutation subtype can predict phenotype severity in patients with lamin heart disease. Methods: We used a semantic workflow platform and manual electronic literature search to identify published LMNA mutations with cardiac-predominant phenotype. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) assembled lamin heart disease into classes based on phenotype severity. 176 reported causative mutations were classified and any relationships to mutation location/subtype assessed by contingency analysis. Results: More adverse phenotype was associated with mutation location upstream of the NLS (p=0.014, OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.19 to 4.80) but not with non-missense mutations (p=0.337, OR 1.36, 95% CI 0.72 to 2.57), although an association with non-missense mutations was identified in a subcluster with malignant ventricular arrhythmia (p=0.005, OR 2.64, 95% CI 0.76 to 9.21). HCA limited to the 65 mutations described on ClinVar as pathogenic/likely pathogenic showed similar findings (upstream of NLS, p=0.030, OR 4.78, 95% CI 1.28 to 17.83; non-missense, p=0.121, OR 2.64, 95% CI 0.76 to 9.21) as did analysis limited to pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics standards. Conclusion: Cardiac patients with an LMNA mutation located upstream versus downstream of the NLS have a more adverse cardiac phenotype, and some missense mutations can be as harmful as non-missense ones.

13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(20): 2485-2506, 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442292

RESUMO

Hereditary muscular diseases commonly involve the heart. Cardiac manifestations encompass a spectrum of phenotypes, including both cardiomyopathies and rhythm disorders. Common biomarkers suggesting cardiomuscular diseases include increased circulating creatine kinase and/or lactic acid levels or disease-specific metabolic indicators. Cardiac and extra-cardiac traits, imaging tests, family studies, and genetic testing provide precise diagnoses. Cardiac phenotypes are mainly dilated and hypokinetic in dystrophinopathies, Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophies, and limb girdle muscular dystrophies; hypertrophic in Friedreich ataxia, mitochondrial diseases, glycogen storage diseases, and fatty acid oxidation disorders; and restrictive in myofibrillar myopathies. Left ventricular noncompaction is variably associated with the different myopathies. Conduction defects and arrhythmias constitute a major phenotype in myotonic dystrophies and skeletal muscle channelopathies. Although the actual cardiac management is rarely based on the cause, the cardiac phenotypes need precise characterization because they are often the only or the predominant manifestations and the prognostic determinants of many hereditary muscle disorders.

15.
Case Rep Surg ; 2018: 7597215, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254783

RESUMO

Introduction: In selected patients, the absorbable fibrin patch TachoSil® is superior to standard surgical treatment in reducing air leakage after pulmonary lobectomy. Pulmonary involvement is not considered a main feature of Marfan syndrome (MFS); however, spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) with a high rate of recurrence is frequently reported. We describe the use of TachoSil® in the supportive treatment of recurrent pneumothorax in a girl with MFS. Case Report: A 12-year-old girl with a previous diagnosis of MFS and recurrent history of left spontaneous pneumothorax was submitted to thoracoscopic atypical lung resection. Two patches (9.5 × 4.8 cm) were cut from the adhesive/foam complex (TachoSil®) and were pressed against the sutured area as supportive treatment. The patient recovered with no further SP recurrences. Conclusions: The use of the TachoSil® surgical patch may be useful in pneumothorax supportive treatment, particularly in pediatric MFS by ameliorating the mechanical strength of the lung.

18.
Int J Cardiol ; 269: 350-355, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autopsy studies shed light on the interplay between fatal acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and features of plaque vulnerability. This is a prospective pilot study designed for generating a new in vivo imaging grading system of plaque vulnerability. METHODS: We studied 87 coronary vessels in 63 consecutive patients: 48 with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) and 15 with stable coronary artery disease using IntraVascular-Ultrasound Near-Infrared-Spectroscopy (IVUS-NIRS) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). We identified 99 lesions: 21 were the ACS culprit lesions (18 ulcerations and 3 with intact fibrous cap), 78 were non-culprit lesions including plaques located in the same ACS culprit vessel (N12), plaques located in a non-culprit vessel in patients with ACS (28) and target lesions of stable patients (N 38). A second analysis focused on lipid plaques, comparing the 18 ACS culprit ulcerated lesions and the 55 non-culprit lesions. RESULTS: The co-presence of the following three features of vulnerability [Minimal Luminal Area (MLA) <4 mm2, Fibrous Cap Thickness (FCT) < 75 µm and superficial macrophages] was by far more frequent in ACS culprit lesions than in controls (OR 40.6 for all lesions and OR 45.7 for ulcerated culprit lesions only). The triple-feature OCT grading identified vulnerable plaques with a much higher accuracy than that obtained applying each single feature of vulnerability. CONCLUSIONS: The co-presence of the 3 OCT features of vulnerability (MLA < 4 mm2, FCT < 75 µm and superficial macrophages) identifies culprit ACS lesions with a very high odd ratio. This finding could set the basis for a new OCT vulnerability grading system including superficial macrophages.

19.
Cardiovasc Res ; 114(10): 1287-1303, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800419

RESUMO

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) frequently affects relatively young, economically, and socially active adults, and is an important cause of heart failure and transplantation. DCM is a complex disease and its pathological architecture encounters many genetic determinants interacting with environmental factors. The old perspective that every pathogenic gene mutation would lead to a diseased heart, is now being replaced by the novel observation that the phenotype depends not only on the penetrance-malignancy of the mutated gene-but also on epigenetics, age, toxic factors, pregnancy, and a diversity of acquired diseases. This review discusses how gene mutations will result in mutation-specific molecular alterations in the heart including increased mitochondrial oxidation (sarcomeric gene e.g. TTN), decreased calcium sensitivity (sarcomeric genes), fibrosis (e.g. LMNA and TTN), or inflammation. Therefore, getting a complete picture of the DCM patient will include genomic data, molecular assessment by preference from cardiac samples, stratification according to co-morbidities, and phenotypic description. Those data will help to better guide the heart failure and anti-arrhythmic treatment, predict response to therapy, develop novel siRNA-based gene silencing for malignant gene mutations, or intervene with mutation-specific altered gene pathways in the heart.This article is part of the Mini Review Series from the Varenna 2017 meeting of the Working Group of Myocardial Function of the European Society of Cardiology.

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