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1.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(2): e2018376, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401878

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the spatial distribution and temporal trend of human resources for the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) and the Supplemental Health sector. METHODS: an ecological study was conducted in the country's 27 Federative Units (FUs); SUS Information Technology Department (DATASUS) data were used relating to the doctor, dental surgeon, nurse and nursing technician personnel categories for the period 2005-2016; Prais-Winsten regression was used to assess the time trend. RESULTS: there was an rising trend of Supplemental Health Sector human resources in all personnel categories, with an mean annual increase of 0.054 (95%CI: 0.031;0.076); with regard to SUS, there was an increase in dental surgeons and nursing technicians, with annual increases of 0.008 (95%CI: 0.003;0.011), and 0.066 (95%CI 0.022; 0.087), respectively, while in most FU, nurses showed a stationary trend and doctors showed a stationary or falling trend. CONCLUSION: inequalities were found in human resource distribution, reflecting the health system crisis.

2.
Trop Med Int Health ; 25(7): 839-849, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remains a serious public health problem worldwide. Accordingly, this study sought to identify individual, community and access to health services risk factors for MDR-TB. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of all TB cases diagnosed between 2006 and 2016 in the state of São Paulo. A Bayesian spatial hierarchical analysis with a multilevel design was carried out. RESULTS: It was identified that the history of previous TB treatment (Odds Ratios [OR]:13.86, 95% credibility interval [95% CI]:12.06-15.93), positive sputum culture test (OR: 5.26, 95% CI: 4.44-6.23), diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.87-2.91), residing at a standard address (OR: 2.62, 95% CI: 1.91-3.60), positive sputum smear microscopy (OR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.44-2.12), cavitary pulmonary TB (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.14-1.60) and diagnosis performed due to spontaneous request (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.10-1.46) were associated with MDR-TB. Furthermore, municipalities that performed HIV tests in less than 42.65% of patients with TB (OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.25-1.79), that diagnosed TB cases only after death (OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.17-1.93) and that had more than 20.16% of their population with income between » and ½ of one minimum wage (OR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.30-1.87) were also related to the MDR-TB. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of these predictive factors may help to develop more comprehensive disease prevention strategies for MDR-TB, avoiding the risks expressed regarding drug resistance expansion.

3.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(4): e00015619, 2020.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267382

RESUMO

Immunization is known to be one of the most successful and cost-effective health interventions, resulting in the eradication and control of various diseases in the world. However, Brazil has experienced a worrisome drop in vaccination coverage, associated with the resurgence of various previously controlled or eradicated diseases. This study thus conducted a situational diagnosis weighing Brazil's different regions and time trends in vaccination coverage in order to identify areas with reduction in vaccination coverage for BCG, poliomyelitis, and MMR. This ecological study collected data on the number of children up to one year of age who had been vaccinated with these three vaccines from 2006 to 2016, according to municipality (county). Data were obtained from the Brazilian Health Informatics Department. A spatial scan was performed, analyzing spatial variations in the time trends for vaccination coverage. Downward trends were seen in the number of immunizations in Brazil, with reductions of 0.9%, 1.3%, and 2.7% per year for BCG, poliomyelitis, and MMR, respectively. Significant decreases were also seen in all five major geographic regions with time trends in the reduction of vaccination coverage. The study evidenced an important reduction in vaccination coverage in recent years, with major heterogeneity between municipalities. Thus, focused attention and strategic planning in keeping with each local area's characteristics are necessary to address both the reduction of vaccination coverage and the resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases in Brazil.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide; in 2016, over 95% of TB deaths occurred in low- and middle-income countries. Although the incidence and deaths from TB have decreased in Brazil in recent years, the disease has increased in the vulnerable population, whose diagnosis is more delayed and the chances for abandonment and deaths are significantly higher. This study aimed to identify high-risk areas for TB mortality and evidence their social determinants through a sensitive tailored social index, in a context of high inequality in South Brazil. METHODS: A multistep statistical methodology was developed, based on spatial clustering, categorical principal components analysis, and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC). This study considered 138 spatial units in Curitiba, South Brazil. TB deaths (2008-2015) were obtained from the National Information Mortality System and social variables from the Brazilian Human Development Atlas (2013). RESULTS: There were 128 TB deaths recorded in the study: the mortality rate was 0.9/100,000 inhabitants, minimum-maximum: 0-25.51/100,000, with a mean (standard deviation) of 1.07 (2.71), and 78 space units had no deaths. One risk cluster of TB mortality was found in the south region (RR=2.64, p=0.01). Considering the social variables, several clusters were identified in the social risk indicator (SRI): income (899.82/1752.94; 0.024), GINI Index (0.41/0.45; 0.010), and overcrowding (25.07/15.39; 0.032). The SRI showed a high capacity to discriminate the TB mortality areas (area under ROC curve 0.865, 95% CI: 0.796-0.934). CONCLUSIONS: A powerful risk map (SRI) was developed, allowing tailored and personalised interventions. The south of Curitiba was identified as a high-risk area for TB mortality and the majority of social variables. This methodological approach can be generalised to other areas and/or other public health problems.

5.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 34(2): 171-178, mar.-abr. 2020. tab, mapas
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-5705

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Evaluar la magnitud de los determinantes sociales en áreas de riesgo para la mortalidad por tuberculosis en una ciudad de alta incidencia de esta enfermedad. MÉTODO: Estudio ecológico que recogió los casos de muerte por tuberculosis registrados entre 2006 y 2016 en la capital del Estado de Mato Grosso (Brasil). Los determinantes sociales se obtuvieron de las Unidades de Desarrollo Humano. Se utilizó la estadística de barrido para identificar las áreas de riesgo de muerte por tuberculosis. Se realizó un análisis de componentes principales para identificar dimensiones de determinantes sociales, y se aplicó regresión logística múltiple para verificar asociaciones entre las dimensiones de los determinantes sociales y el riesgo de muerte por tuberculosis. El error estándar se estableció en un 5% para todas las pruebas estadísticas. RESULTADOS: Se registraron 225 muertes por tuberculosis en el periodo, distribuidas heterogéneamente en el espacio. Se identificó un conglomerado de riesgo para la mortalidad por tuberculosis, con un riesgo relativo de 2,09 (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 1,48-2,94; p = 0,04). Los determinantes sociales «bajo nivel escolar» y «pobreza» se mostraron asociados al riesgo de muerte por tuberculosis (odds ratio [OR]: 2,92; IC95%: 1,17-7,28). La renta presentó asociación negativa con el riesgo de muerte por tuberculosis (OR: 0,05; IC95%: 0,00-0,70). El valor de la curva ROC del modelo fue del 92,1%. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados confirman que el riesgo de muerte por tuberculosis es un problema asociado a los determinantes sociales. Las políticas de salud y los programas de protección social pueden contribuir a enfrentarse a este problema


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the magnitude of social determinants in areas of risk of mortality due to tuberculosis in a high incidence city. METHOD: Ecological study, which recruited the cases of tuberculosis deaths registered between 2006 and 2016 in the capital of Mato Grosso-Brazil. The social determinants were obtained from the Human Development Units. Sweep statistics were used to identify areas of risk of mortality due to tuberculosis. Principal component analysis was carried out to identify dimensions of social determinants. Multiple logistic regression was applied to verify associations between the dimensions of social determinants and the risk of mortality from tuberculosis. A 5% error was fixed. The standard error was established at 5% for all statistical tests. RESULTS: A total of 225 deaths due to tuberculosis were registered in the period, distributed heterogeneously in the space. A cluster of risk for tuberculosis mortality was identified, with RR=2.09 (95%CI: 1.48-2.94; p = 0.04). Social determinants, low educational level and poverty were associated with the risk of mortality due to tuberculosis (OR: 2.92; 95%CI: 1.17-7.28). Income had a negative association with the risk of mortality due to tuberculosis (OR: 0.05; 95%CI: 0.00-0.70). The value of the ROC curve of the model was 92.1%. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirmed that the risk of mortality due to tuberculosis is a problem associated with social determinants. Health policies and social protection programmes can collaborate to address this problem

6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 119, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a public health problem and a challenge for endemic countries, especially in their border regions where there are intense migration flows. The study aimed to analyse the dynamics of leprosy, in order to identify areas of risk for the occurrence of the disease and disability and places where this health condition is worsening. METHOD: This ecological study considered the new cases of leprosy reported in the municipality of Foz do Iguaçu from 2003 to 2015. Spatial and spatial-temporal scan statistics were used to identify the risk areas for the occurrence of leprosy, as well as the Getis-Ord Gi and Getis-Ord Gi* methods. Areas of risk for disabilities were identified by the scan statistic and kernel density estimation. RESULTS: A total of 840 cases were reported, of which 179 (21.3%) presented Grade 1 or 2 disabilities at the time of diagnosis. Leprosy risk areas were concentrated in the Southern, Eastern and Northeastern Health Districts of the municipality. The cases of Grade 2 disability were observed with higher intensity in regions characterized by high population density and poverty. CONCLUSION: The results of the study have revealed changes in the pattern of areas at risk of leprosy according to the investigated periods. In addition, it was possible to verify disabilities as a condition present in the investigated cases, or that may be related to the late diagnosis of the disease. In the areas of risk identified, patients have reported worse physical disability after diagnostic confirmation, or indicate inadequate clinical examination, reinforcing the need for structuring leprosy control services in a qualified manner.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Progressão da Doença , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/patologia , Adulto , Argentina/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraguai/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Análise Espacial
7.
Gac Sanit ; 34(2): 171-178, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the magnitude of social determinants in areas of risk of mortality due to tuberculosis in a high incidence city. METHOD: Ecological study, which recruited the cases of tuberculosis deaths registered between 2006 and 2016 in the capital of Mato Grosso-Brazil. The social determinants were obtained from the Human Development Units. Sweep statistics were used to identify areas of risk of mortality due to tuberculosis. Principal component analysis was carried out to identify dimensions of social determinants. Multiple logistic regression was applied to verify associations between the dimensions of social determinants and the risk of mortality from tuberculosis. A 5% error was fixed. The standard error was established at 5% for all statistical tests. RESULTS: A total of 225 deaths due to tuberculosis were registered in the period, distributed heterogeneously in the space. A cluster of risk for tuberculosis mortality was identified, with RR=2.09 (95%CI: 1.48-2.94; p=0.04). Social determinants, low educational level and poverty were associated with the risk of mortality due to tuberculosis (OR: 2.92; 95%CI: 1.17-7.28). Income had a negative association with the risk of mortality due to tuberculosis (OR: 0.05; 95%CI: 0.00-0.70). The value of the ROC curve of the model was 92.1%. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirmed that the risk of mortality due to tuberculosis is a problem associated with social determinants. Health policies and social protection programmes can collaborate to address this problem.

8.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 29(2): e2018376, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1101117

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo: analisar a distribuição espacial e a tendência temporal de recursos humanos para o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e a Saúde Suplementar no Brasil. Métodos: estudo ecológico realizado nas 27 Unidades da Federação (UFs); utilizaram-se dados das categorias dos médicos, cirurgiões-dentistas, enfermeiros e técnicos de enfermagem, nos anos de 2005 a 2016, coletados do Departamento de Informática do SUS (Datasus); empregou-se regressão de Prais-Winsten para avaliar a tendência temporal. Resultados: evidenciou-se tendência crescente de recursos humanos para a Saúde Suplementar em todas as categorias profissionais, com incremento anual médio de 0,054 (IC95%: 0,031;0,076); para o SUS, observou-se crescimento dos cirurgiões-dentistas e técnicos de enfermagem, com incrementos anuais de 0,008 (IC95%: 0,003;0,011) e 0,066 (IC95%: 0,022;0,087), respectivamente, enquanto na maioria das UFs, enfermeiros apresentaram tendência estacionária, e médicos, tendência estacionária ou decrescente. Conclusão: evidenciaram-se desigualdades na distribuição de recursos humanos, um reflexo da crise do sistema de saúde.


Resumen Objetivo: analizar la distribución espacial y la tendencia temporal de recursos humanos para el SUS y la Salud Complementaria en Brasil. Métodos: estudio ecológico realizado en las 27 Unidades de la Federación (UF); se utilizaron los datos de las categorias; médicas, cirujanos dentales, enfermeros y técnicos de enfermería, en el periodo de 2005 a 2016, obtenidos del Departamento de Informática do SUS (Datasus); la regresión de Prais-Winsten se utilizó para evaluar la tendencia temporal. Resultados: se hizo visible tendencia creciente de recursos humanos para la Salud Complementaria, con tasas de incremento anual de 0,054 (IC95% 0,031; 0,076); para el SUS, hubo crecimiento de dentistas y técnicos de enfermería, con tasas de 0,008 (IC95%: 0,003;0,011) y 0.066 (IC95%: 0,022;0,087), respectivamente, mientras en la mayoría de las UF, los enfermeros/as presentaron una tendencia estacionaria y los médicos mostraron una tendencia estacionaria o decreciente. Conclusión: se encontró desigualdad en la distribución de recursos humanos lo cual refleja la crisis del sistema de salud.


Abstract Objective: to analyze the spatial distribution and temporal trend of human resources for the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) and the Supplemental Health sector. Methods: an ecological study was conducted in the country's 27 Federative Units (FUs); SUS Information Technology Department (DATASUS) data were used relating to the doctor, dental surgeon, nurse and nursing technician personnel categories for the period 2005-2016; Prais-Winsten regression was used to assess the time trend. Results: there was an rising trend of Supplemental Health Sector human resources in all personnel categories, with an mean annual increase of 0.054 (95%CI: 0.031;0.076); with regard to SUS, there was an increase in dental surgeons and nursing technicians, with annual increases of 0.008 (95%CI: 0.003;0.011), and 0.066 (95%CI 0.022; 0.087), respectively, while in most FU, nurses showed a stationary trend and doctors showed a stationary or falling trend. Conclusion: inequalities were found in human resource distribution, reflecting the health system crisis.

9.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(4): e00015619, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1089455

RESUMO

A imunização é reconhecida como uma das intervenções mais bem-sucedidas e custo-efetivas, resultando na erradicação e no controle de diversas doenças em todo o mundo. Todavia, uma preocupante redução na cobertura vacinal tem sido observada no Brasil, trazendo o recrudescimento de algumas doenças até então superadas. Dessa forma, no intuito de realizar um diagnóstico situacional que pondere as diferentes regiões do país e a tendência temporal de cobertura vacinal, o presente estudo teve o objetivo de evidenciar áreas com queda da cobertura vacinal de BCG, poliomielite e tríplice viral no Brasil por meio de um estudo ecológico que coletou informações acerca do número crianças de até um ano de idade imunizadas para essas três vacinas, no período entre 2006 e 2016, por município brasileiro. Os dados foram adquiridos por meio do Departamento de Informática do SUS. Foi realizada uma varredura espacial, analisando as variações espaciais nas tendências temporais de cobertura vacinal. Foi observada uma tendência de redução no número de imunizações no Brasil, com quedas de 0,9%, 1,3% e 2,7% ao ano para BCG, poliomielite e tríplice viral, respectivamente. Ademais, aglomerados significativos com tendências temporais de redução da cobertura vacinal foram verificados em todas as cinco regiões brasileiras. O estudo evidencia uma importante redução na cobertura vacinal nos últimos anos, constatando heterogeneidades consideráveis entre os municípios. Dessa forma, uma atenção singular e planejamento estratégico condizente com as características de cada localidade são necessários para o controle tanto da redução de cobertura vacinal como do reaparecimento de doenças no Brasil.


Immunization is known to be one of the most successful and cost-effective health interventions, resulting in the eradication and control of various diseases in the world. However, Brazil has experienced a worrisome drop in vaccination coverage, associated with the resurgence of various previously controlled or eradicated diseases. This study thus conducted a situational diagnosis weighing Brazil's different regions and time trends in vaccination coverage in order to identify areas with reduction in vaccination coverage for BCG, poliomyelitis, and MMR. This ecological study collected data on the number of children up to one year of age who had been vaccinated with these three vaccines from 2006 to 2016, according to municipality (county). Data were obtained from the Brazilian Health Informatics Department. A spatial scan was performed, analyzing spatial variations in the time trends for vaccination coverage. Downward trends were seen in the number of immunizations in Brazil, with reductions of 0.9%, 1.3%, and 2.7% per year for BCG, poliomyelitis, and MMR, respectively. Significant decreases were also seen in all five major geographic regions with time trends in the reduction of vaccination coverage. The study evidenced an important reduction in vaccination coverage in recent years, with major heterogeneity between municipalities. Thus, focused attention and strategic planning in keeping with each local area's characteristics are necessary to address both the reduction of vaccination coverage and the resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases in Brazil.


La inmunización está reconocida como una de las intervenciones más exitosas y costo-eficientes, consiguiendo la erradicación y control de diversas enfermedades en todo el mundo. Sin embargo, se ha observado una preocupante reducción en la cobertura de la vacunación en Brasil, conllevando el recrudecimiento de algunas enfermedades hasta entonces superadas. De esta forma, con el fin de realizar un diagnóstico situacional, que pondere las diferentes regiones del país y la tendencia temporal de cobertura vacunación, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evidenciar áreas con una caída de la cobertura vacunación respecto a BCG, poliomielitis y triple vírica en Brasil. Se trata de un estudio ecológico, que recabó información acerca del número de niños de hasta un año de edad inmunizados con estas tres vacunas, durante el período entre 2006 y 2016, por municipios brasileños. Los datos se consiguieron a través del Departamento de Informática del SUS. Se realizó un barrido espacial, analizando las variaciones espaciales en las tendencias temporales de cobertura de vacunación. Se observó una tendencia de reducción en el número de inmunizaciones en Brasil, con caídas de 0,9%, 1,3% y 2,7% al año, en el caso de BCG, poliomielitis y triple vírica, respectivamente. Además, se verificaron aglomerados significativos con tendencias temporales de reducción en la cobertura de vacunación dentro de las cinco regiones brasileñas. El estudio evidencia una importante reducción en la cobertura de vacunación durante los últimos años, constatando heterogeneidades considerables entre los municipios. De esta forma, una atención singular y planificación estratégica, acorde con las características de cada localidad, son necesarias para el control, tanto de la reducción de la cobertura de vacunación, como del resurgimiento de enfermedades en Brasil.

10.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 77, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the temporal trend, identify the factors related and elaborate a predictive model for unfavorable treatment outcomes for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study with all cases diagnosed with MDR-TB between the years 2006 and 2015 in the state of São Paulo. The data were collected from the state system of TB cases notifications (TB-WEB). The temporal trend analyzes of treatment outcomes was performed through the Prais-Winsten analysis. In order to verify the factors related to the unfavorable outcomes, abandonment, death with basic cause TB and treatment failure, the binary logistic regression was used. Pictorial representations of the factors related to treatment outcome and their prognostic capacity through the nomogram were elaborated. RESULTS: Both abandonment and death have a constant temporal tendency, whereas the failure showed it as decreasing. Regarding the risk factors for such outcomes, using illicit drugs doubled the odds for abandonment and death. Besides that, being diagnosed in emergency units or during hospitalizations was a risk factor for death. On the contrary, having previous multidrug-resistant treatments reduced the odds for the analyzed outcomes by 33%. The nomogram presented a predictive model with 65% accuracy for dropouts, 70% for deaths and 80% for failure. CONCLUSIONS: The modification of the current model of care is an essential factor for the prevention of unfavorable outcomes. Through predictive models, as presented in this study, it is possible to develop patient-centered actions, considering their risk factors and increasing the chances for cure.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/efeitos adversos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Nomogramas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 628, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the infectious disease that kills the most people worldwide. The use of geoepidemiological techniques to demonstrate the dynamics of the disease in vulnerable communities is essential for its control. Thus, this study aimed to identify risk clusters for TB deaths and their variation over time. METHODS: This ecological study considered cases of TB deaths in residents of Londrina, Brazil between 2008 and 2015. We used standard, isotonic scan statistics for the detection of spatial risk clusters. The Poisson discrete model was adopted with the high and low rates option used for 10, 30 and 50% of the population at risk, with circular format windows and 999 replications considered the maximum cluster size. Getis-Ord Gi* (Gi*) statistics were used to diagnose hotspot areas for TB mortality. Kernel density was used to identify whether the clusters changed over time. RESULTS: For the standard version, spatial risk clusters for 10, 30 and 50% of the exposed population were 4.9 (95% CI 2.6-9.4), 3.2 (95% CI: 2.1-5.7) and 3.2 (95% CI: 2.1-5.7), respectively. For the isotonic spatial statistics, the risk clusters for 10, 30 and 50% of the exposed population were 2.8 (95% CI: 1.5-5.1), 2.7 (95% CI: 1.6-4.4), 2.2 (95% CI: 1.4-3.9), respectively. All risk clusters were located in the eastern and northern regions of the municipality. Additionally, through Gi*, hotspot areas were identified in the eastern and western regions. CONCLUSIONS: There were important risk areas for tuberculosis mortality in the eastern and northern regions of the municipality. Risk clusters for tuberculosis deaths were observed in areas where TB mortality was supposedly a non-problem. The isotonic and Gi* statistics were more sensitive for the detection of clusters in areas with a low number of cases; however, their applicability in public health is still restricted.


Assuntos
Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Fatores de Risco
12.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 72(3): 654-662, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the spatial distribution of Tuberculosis cases with Mental Disorders, identifying factors that determine its occurrence. METHOD: Ecological study, conducted in the municipalities of São Paulo State. Secondary data were used, with the incidence of Tuberculosis and Mental Disorders as dependent variables in the years 2012 to 2015 and independent variables, socioeconomic, health and income transfer data. The Geographically Weighted Regression was applied in this study. RESULTS: It was observed a distinct distribution between cases of Tuberculosis and Mental Disorders in the municipalities of São Paulo State. Among the explanatory factors, the Primary Care Coverage, population of freedom and income inequality were spatially associated with Mental Illness (R2= 0.12); Alcoholism (R2= 0.12) Illicit Drugs (R2= 0.50) and Smoking (R2= 0.50). CONCLUSION / FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: The study advances in knowledge by evidencing the spatial distribution of cases of Tuberculosis and Mental Disorders, evidencing the determining factors for its occurrence in São Paulo State.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Geográfico , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Espacial , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
13.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(3): 654-662, May.-Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1013563

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the spatial distribution of Tuberculosis cases with Mental Disorders, identifying factors that determine its occurrence. Method: Ecological study, conducted in the municipalities of São Paulo State. Secondary data were used, with the incidence of Tuberculosis and Mental Disorders as dependent variables in the years 2012 to 2015 and independent variables, socioeconomic, health and income transfer data. The Geographically Weighted Regression was applied in this study. Results: It was observed a distinct distribution between cases of Tuberculosis and Mental Disorders in the municipalities of São Paulo State. Among the explanatory factors, the Primary Care Coverage, population of freedom and income inequality were spatially associated with Mental Illness (R2= 0.12); Alcoholism (R2= 0.12) Illicit Drugs (R2= 0.50) and Smoking (R2= 0.50). Conclusion / Final considerations: The study advances in knowledge by evidencing the spatial distribution of cases of Tuberculosis and Mental Disorders, evidencing the determining factors for its occurrence in São Paulo State.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar la distribución espacial entre casos de tuberculosis y trastornos mentales, identificando factores que determinan su ocurrencia. Método: Estudio ecológico, conducido en los municipios del estado de São Paulo. Se utilizaron datos secundarios, teniendo como variable dependiente la incidencia de la tuberculosis y trastornos mentales en los años de 2012 a 2015 y variables independientes, datos socioeconómicos, sanitarios y de transferencia de renta. Se aplicó a Geographically Weighted Regression. Resultados: Se observó una distribución distinta entre casos de tuberculosis y trastornos mentales en los municipios del estado de São Paulo. Entre los factores explicativos, la cobertura de Atención Básica, población privada de libertad y desigualdad de ingreso estuvieron asociadas espacialmente con Enfermedad Mental (R2= 0,12); Alcoholismo (R2= 0,12) Drogas Ilícitas (R2= 0,50) y Tabaquismo (R2= 0,50). Conclusión / Consideraciones finales: El estudio avanza en el conocimiento al evidenciar la distribución espacial de los casos de tuberculosis y trastornos mentales, evidenciando los factores determinantes para su ocurrencia en el estado de São Paulo.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar a distribuição espacial dos casos de Tuberculose com Transtornos Mentais, identificando fatores que determinam sua ocorrência. Método: Estudo ecológico, conduzido nos municípios do estado de São Paulo. Utilizaram-se dados secundários, tendo-se como variável dependente a incidência da Tuberculose e Transtornos Mentais nos anos de 2012 a 2015 e variáveis independentes, dados socioeconômicos, sanitários e de transferência de renda. Aplicou-se a Geographically Weighted Regression. Resultados: Observou-se uma distribuição distinta entre casos de Tuberculose e Transtornos Mentais nos municípios do estado de São Paulo. Entre os fatores explicativos, a cobertura de Atenção Básica, População Privada de Liberdade e desigualdade de renda estiveram associadas espacialmente com Doença Mental (R2= 0,12); Alcoolismo (R2= 0,12) Drogas Ilícitas (R2= 0,50) e Tabagismo (R2= 0,50). Conclusão/ Considerações finais: O estudo avança no conhecimento ao evidenciar a distribuição espacial dos casos de Tuberculose e Transtornos Mentais, evidenciando os fatores determinantes para sua ocorrência no estado de São Paulo.

14.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e025833, 2019 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study determined the prevalence and factors associated with sexual dysfunction in breastfeeding women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analytical study. SETTING: Population-based study of individuals living in the northeast region of São Paulo state, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: From May to August 2017, 372 women aged ≥18 years were selected who gave exclusive, predominant or complementary breast feeding up to 23 months postpartum, and who did not have contraindications for the resumption of intercourse. Pregnant women, those diagnosed with mental health problems, users of medications that affect sexual function (antihypertensives, antidepressants or antipsychotics) and women unable to read or understand the instructions for the study were excluded. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The breastfeeding women completed the Female Sexual Function Index, the EUROHIS-QOL 8-item index and a questionnaire to collect participants' sociodemographic, clinical and interpersonal data. A bivariate analysis was performed, and variables with p values<0.20 were analysed by multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Sexual dysfunction was present in 58.3% of the study population. Factors significantly associated with female sexual dysfunction (FSD) included placing a low importance on sexual intercourse (adjusted OR [AOR]=2.49, 95% CI=1.22 to 5.09), limited communication with the partner (AOR=2.64, 95% CI=1.43 to 4.86), decreased frequency of sexual intercourse (AOR=2.17, 95% CI=1.30 to 3.61) and low quality of life (AOR=2.23, 95% CI=1.33 to 3.74). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of FSD appears with a great magnitude in breastfeeding women. The risk factors for sexual dysfunction are biopsychosocial and these findings may lead to improved counselling for prenatal and postnatal care.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/epidemiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 77, jan. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1043339

RESUMO

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE to analyze the temporal trend, identify the factors related and elaborate a predictive model for unfavorable treatment outcomes for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). METHODS Retrospective cohort study with all cases diagnosed with MDR-TB between the years 2006 and 2015 in the state of São Paulo. The data were collected from the state system of TB cases notifications (TB-WEB). The temporal trend analyzes of treatment outcomes was performed through the Prais-Winsten analysis. In order to verify the factors related to the unfavorable outcomes, abandonment, death with basic cause TB and treatment failure, the binary logistic regression was used. Pictorial representations of the factors related to treatment outcome and their prognostic capacity through the nomogram were elaborated. RESULTS Both abandonment and death have a constant temporal tendency, whereas the failure showed it as decreasing. Regarding the risk factors for such outcomes, using illicit drugs doubled the odds for abandonment and death. Besides that, being diagnosed in emergency units or during hospitalizations was a risk factor for death. On the contrary, having previous multidrug-resistant treatments reduced the odds for the analyzed outcomes by 33%. The nomogram presented a predictive model with 65% accuracy for dropouts, 70% for deaths and 80% for failure. CONCLUSIONS The modification of the current model of care is an essential factor for the prevention of unfavorable outcomes. Through predictive models, as presented in this study, it is possible to develop patient-centered actions, considering their risk factors and increasing the chances for cure.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a tendência temporal, identificar os fatores relacionados e elaborar um modelo preditivo para os desfechos desfavoráveis do tratamento da tuberculose multidroga-resistente. MÉTODOS Estudo de coorte retrospectiva com todos os casos diagnosticados com tuberculose multidroga-resistente entre os anos de 2006 e 2015 no estado de São Paulo. Os dados secundários foram provenientes do sistema estadual de notificações de casos de tuberculose, o TBWeb. Foi realizada a análise de tendência temporal dos desfechos de tratamento por meio da regressão de Prais-Winsten. Para verificar os fatores relacionados com os desfechos desfavoráveis (óbito com tuberculose como causa básica, abandono e falência do tratamento), foi empregada a regressão logística binária. Representações pictóricas dos fatores relacionados ao desfecho do tratamento e sua capacidade prognóstica foram elaboradas por meio de nomogramas. RESULTADOS Tanto o abandono como o óbito tiveram tendência temporal estacionária, enquanto a falência apresentou tendência decrescente. Em relação aos fatores de risco para tais desfechos, utilizar drogas ilícitas dobrou as chances de abandono e óbito. Além disso, ser diagnosticado em unidades de urgência ou emergência ou durante internações hospitalares foi um fator de risco para o óbito. Ao contrário, ter feito tratamentos prévios da multidroga-resistência reduziu as chances dos desfechos analisados. O nomograma apresentou um modelo preditivo com precisão de 65% para os abandonos, 70% para os óbitos e 80% para a falência. CONCLUSÕES A prevenção de desfechos desfavoráveis no tratamento da tuberculose multidroga-resistente implica a modificação do modelo de atenção vigente. Utilizando modelos preditivos, como o apresentado neste estudo, torna-se possível elaborar ações centradas nos pacientes, considerando seus fatores de risco e aumentando as chances de cura.

16.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 28: e20180225, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1043460

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate factors associated with the use and quality of Primary Health Care, as well as the occurrence of pneumonia and diarrhea in children under one year. Method: cross-sectional study conducted with 317 caregivers of 56 Family Health teams from Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará, from August 2014 to October 2015, using the child version of the Primary Care Assessment Tool, child version. Results: in the logistic adjustment, children received assistance (OR: 0.54; 0.32-0.91) and accessibility to the Primary Health Care Unit (OR: 0.49; 0.31-0.76). identified as possible protective factors for episodes of diarrhea. The variables associated with pneumonia were unsatisfactory access (ORaj: 2.13; 95% CI 1.18-3.82), a likely risk factor, and coordination (ORaj: 0.33, 95% CI 0.12-0,94), as a probable protection factor. Conclusion: primary care attendance resulted in a higher chance of avoiding hospitalization for pneumonia, a condition considered sensitive to care in this care model. Complementing family income and children's accessibility to the health unit were protective factors for episodes of diarrhea. The search to ensure the presence and extension of the Primary Health Care attributes has the potential to positively modify the child's health and, therefore, both should be ensured as rights of this population.


RESUMEN Objetivo: investigar los factores asociados al uso y a la calidad de la Atención Primaria de la Salud, así como la aparición de neumonía y diarrea en niños menores de un año. Método: estudio transversal realizado con 317 cuidadores de 56 equipos de salud familiar de Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará, de agosto de 2014 a octubre de 2015, utilizando la herramienta Primary Care Assessment Tool, versión infantil. Resultados: en el ajuste logístico, los niños recibieron asistencia (OR: 0,54; 0,32-0,91) y accesibilidad a la Unidad de la Atención Primaria de la Salud (OR: 0,49; 0,31-0,76), identificados como posibles factores de protección para los episodios de diarrea. Las variables asociadas con la neumonía fueron el acceso insatisfactorio (ORaj: 2,13; IC 95% 1,18-3,82), un factor de riesgo probable y coordinación (ORaj: 0,33, IC95% 0,12-0,94), como factor probable de protección. Conclusión: la asistencia en la atención primaria resultó en mayor probabilidad de no hospitalización por neumonía, una condición que se considera sensible en los cuidados en este modelo de atención. El complemento de los ingresos familiares y la accesibilidad de los niños a la unidad de salud fueron factores protectores para los episodios de diarrea. La búsqueda para garantizar la presencia y extensión de los atributos de la Atención Primaria de la Salud tiene el potencial de modificar positivamente la salud del niño y, por lo tanto, ambos deben garantizarse como derechos de esta población.


RESUMO Objetivo: investigar fatores associados ao uso e à qualidade da Atenção Primária à Saúde, bem como à ocorrência de pneumonia e diarreia em crianças menores de um ano. Método: estudo transversal, realizado com 317 cuidadores de 56 equipes de Saúde da Família de Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará, no período de agosto de 2014 a outubro de 2015, utilizando o instrumento Primary Care Assessment Tool, versão criança. Resultados: no ajuste logístico, criança receber auxílio (OR: 0,54; 0,32-0,91) e acessibilidade à unidade de Atenção Primária à Saúde (OR: 0,49; 0,31-0,76), foram identificadas como possíveis fatores de proteção para episódios de diarreia. As variáveis associadas à pneumonia foram acesso não satisfatório (ORaj: 2,13; IC 95% 1,18-3,82), um provável fator de risco, e coordenação (ORaj: 0,33, IC95% 0,12-0,94), como provável fator de proteção. Conclusão: o atendimento na Atenção Primária resultou em maior chance de não hospitalização por pneumonia, condição considerada sensível aos cuidados nesse modelo de atenção. Complementação da renda familiar e acessibilidade da criança à unidade de saúde apresentaram-se como fatores de proteção para episódios de diarreia. A busca por garantir a presença e extensão dos atributos da Atenção Primária à Saúde possui potencial para modificar positivamente a saúde da criança e, portanto, ambas devem ser asseguradas como direitos dessa população.

17.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 28: e20180166, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1014645

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the quality and management of care to tuberculosis/HIV coinfection in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: a descriptive study involving municipalities having at least five cases of tuberculosis/HIV coinfection in the Brazilian state of São Paulo notified in the tuberculosis notification system. To analyze the quality and management of care to tuberculosis/HIV coinfection, indicators were designed, based on tuberculosis evaluability assessment studies, and validated in Brazil. The municipalities were grouped according to their care quality and then submitted to multiple correspondence analysis. Results: the study formed a group with 18 municipalities (42.86%) with satisfactory care and management quality, and another group with 24 municipalities (57.14%) with a quality characterized as unsatisfactory. In the municipalities that showed a satisfactory result, the investigation identified a low proportion of tuberculosis/HIV coinfection, a low AIDS incidence rate, intermediate population size, and high coverage of the Community Health Workers' Program and Family Health Strategy. The municipalities with unsatisfactory quality had a high proportion of tuberculosis/HIV coinfection and a high AIDS incidence rate. Conclusion: the study reveals the defining characteristics of quality and management of care to tuberculosis/HIV coinfection as chronic conditions, bringing relevant elements regarding the mobilization of resources and investments in the municipalities where these are necessary. Additionally, the investigation shows that health results are critical where care quality is unsatisfactory, pointing out the need for reorganizing care and the management of actions involving control of tuberculosis/HIV coinfection in these contexts.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar la calidad y gestión en la atención de la coinfección tuberculosis y VIH en el estado de São Paulo. Método: estudio descriptivo, realizado en municipios donde residen al menos cinco casos de coinfección de tuberculosis y VIH en el estado de São Paulo, informados al sistema de notificaciones de tuberculosis. Para analizar la calidad de atención y gestión de la coinfección tuberculosis/VIH fueron elaborados indicadores basados en estudios evaluativos en tuberculosis validados en Brasil. Los municipios fueron agrupados según su calidad de atención, sometiéndoselos luego a análisis de correspondencia múltiple. Resultados: el estudio conformó un grupo con 18 municipios (42,86%) de calidad de atención y gestión satisfactorias, y otro con 24 (57,14%) municipios caracterizados como no satisfactorios. En los municipios con resultados satisfactorios se identificó baja proporción de coinfección tuberculosis y VIH, baja tasa de incidencia de SIDA, cantidad poblacional mediana, elevada cobertura de Agentes Comunitarios de Salud y Estrategia Salud de la Familia. En los municipios no satisfactorios se observó alta proporción de coinfección tuberculosis e VIH y tasa de incidencia de SIDA. Conclusión: el estudio evidencia las características que definen la calidad de atención y gestión de la coinfección tuberculosis y VIH como condiciones crónicas, destacando elementos relevantes respecto de movilización de recursos e inversión en los municipios donde eso resulta necesario. Además, muestra que los resultados sanitarios son críticos donde no hay calidad de atención satisfactoria, expresando necesidad de reorganización de la atención y gestión de las acciones que involucran al control de la coinfección tuberculosis y VIH en tales contextos.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a qualidade e gestão da atenção à coinfecção tuberculose e HIV no estado de São Paulo. Método: estudo descritivo, realizado com municípios de residência de pelo menos cinco casos de coinfecção tuberculose e HIV no estado de São Paulo, notificados no sistema de notificações de tuberculose. Para análise da qualidade da atenção e gerenciamento da coinfecção tuberculose e HIV foram construídos indicadores, com base em estudos de avaliabilidade em tuberculose, validados no Brasil. Os municípios foram agrupados conforme sua qualidade da atenção e depois foram submetidos à análise de correspondência múltipla. Resultados: no estudo, formou-se um grupo com 18 municípios (42,86%) com satisfatória qualidade da atenção e gerenciamento, e outro grupo com 24 (57,14%) municípios caracterizados como não satisfatório. Nos municípios com resultado satisfatório, identificou-se baixa proporção de coinfecção tuberculose e HIV, baixa taxa de incidência de aids, porte populacional médio, elevada cobertura de Programas de Agentes Comunitários de Saúde e Estratégia Saúde da Família. Para os demais municípios com qualidade não satisfatória, observou-se alta proporção de coinfecção tuberculose /HIV e taxa de incidência de aids. Conclusão: o estudo evidencia as características definidoras da qualidade da atenção e gerenciamento da coinfecção tuberculose e HIV enquanto condições crônicas, trazendo elementos relevantes no que tange à mobilização de recursos e investimentos nos municípios onde isso se faz necessário. Além disso, mostra que os resultados sanitários são críticos onde não há satisfatória qualidade da atenção, mostrando a necessidade de reorganização da assistência e do gerenciamento das ações que envolvem o controle da coinfecção tuberculose e HIV nesses contextos.

18.
Cogitare enferm ; 24: e66775, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1055971

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a cobertura do tratamento diretamente observado segundo o risco de coinfecção tuberculose/vírus da imunodeficiência humana e desfechos desfavoráveis. Método: estudo ecológico com dados secundários relacionados aos 10.389 casos novos de coinfecção notificados no estado de São Paulo de 2010 a 2015. Dados analisados pelo Índice Local de Moran, estatística de varredura espacial e Modelos Bayesianos Hierárquicos. Resultados: região metropolitana de São Paulo e Baixada Santista concentraram maior incidência de coinfecção e abandono ao tratamento. Baixa cobertura de tratamento diretamente observado esteve associada aos territórios em risco para a coinfecção e maior risco de abandono. Município de São Paulo, região litorânea e região de Ribeirão Preto apresentaram maior incidência de óbito, o qual não apresentou relação com a cobertura do tratamento diretamente observado. Conclusão: baixa cobertura de tratamento diretamente observado apresentou associação com maior risco de coinfecção e abandono do tratamento.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar la cobertura del tratamiento directamente observado según el riesgo de coinfección tuberculosis/virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana y desenlaces desfavorables. Método: Estudio ecológico con datos secundarios relacionados con los 10.389 nuevos casos de coinfección informados en el estado de São Paulo de 2010 a 2015. Datos analizados mediante Índice Local de Moran, estadística de muestreo espacial y Modelos Bayesianos Jerárquicos. Resultados: La región metropolitana de São Paulo y Baixada Santista concentraron mayor incidencia de coinfección y abandono del tratamiento. La baja cobertura de tratamiento directamente observado estuvo asociada a las áreas con riesgo de coinfección y mayor grado de abandono. El Municipio de São Paulo, la región litoral y el área de Ribeirão Preto expresaron mayor incidencia de decesos, no relacionándose ello con la cobertura del tratamiento directamente observado. Conclusión: La baja cobertura de tratamiento directamente observado mostró asociación com mayor riesgo de coinfección y abandono del tratamiento.


ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the coverage of directly observed treatment according to the risk of tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection and unfavorable outcomes. Methods: Ecological study with secondary data related to 10,389 new cases of coinfection notified in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, from 2010 to 2015. They were analyzed by applying local Moran's index, spatial scan statistics, and hierarchical Bayesian models. Results: The São Paulo metropolitan area and Baixada Santista concentrate the highest incidence of coinfection and treatment default. Low coverage of directly observed treatment was associated with areas at risk for the coinfection and higher withdrawal risk. The city of São Paulo, the coastal region, and the Ribeirão Preto area showed a higher incidence of deaths, which did not show an association with the coverage of directly observed treatment. Conclusion: Low coverage of directly observed treatment was associated with a higher risk of coinfection and treatment default.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tuberculose , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Coinfecção , Pesquisa Operacional , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde
20.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 18(1): 109, 2018 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual desire is one of the domains of sexual function with multiple dimensions, which commonly affects men and women around the world. Classically, its assessment has been applied through self-report tools; however, an issue is related to the evidence level of these questionnaires and their validity. Therefore, a systematic review addressing the available questionnaires is really relevant, since it will be able to show their psychometric properties and evidence levels. METHOD: A systematic review was carried out in the PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Science Direct, and Web of Science databases. The search strategy was developed according to the following research question and combination of descriptors and keywords, including original studies with no limit of publication date and in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. Two reviewers carried out the selection of articles by abstracts and full texts as well as the analysis of the studies independently. The methodological quality of the instruments was evaluated by the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. RESULTS: The search resulted in 1203 articles, of which 15 were included in the review. It identified 10 instruments originally developed in the English language. Unsatisfactory results on methodological quality were evidenced in cultural adaptation studies with no description of the steps of the processes and inadequacy of techniques and parameters of adequacy for models. The Principal Component Analysis with Varimax rotation predominated in the studies. CONCLUSIONS: The limitation of the techniques applied in the validation process of the reviewed instruments was evident. A limitation was observed in the number of adaptations conducted and contexts to which the instruments were applied, making it impossible to reach a better understanding of the functioning of instruments. In future studies, the use of robust techniques can ensure the quality of the psychometric properties and the accuracy and stability of instruments. A detailed description of procedures and results in validation studies may facilitate the selection and use of instruments in the academic and/or clinical settings. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018085706.


Assuntos
Psicometria/métodos , Autorrelato , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas/normas , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , PubMed/normas , PubMed/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia
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